Gene Symbol: Thrb
Description: thyroid hormone receptor beta
Alias: Nr1a2, T3R[b], T3Rbeta, Thrb1, Thrb2, c-erbAbeta, thyroid hormone receptor beta, TR beta, c-erbA-2, c-erbA-beta, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group A member 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Thrb

Top Publications

  1. Yen P, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker R, Weiss R, et al. Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:581-7 pubmed
    ..We used 48 complementary DNA microarrays to examine hepatic gene expression profiles of wild-type and Thra and Thrb knockout mice under different Th conditions: no treatment, treatment with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)), Th-..
  2. Kim C, Furuya F, Ying H, Kato Y, Hanover J, Cheng S. Gelsolin: a novel thyroid hormone receptor-beta interacting protein that modulates tumor progression in a mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1306-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present study uncovered a novel PV-mediated oncogenic pathway that could contribute to the local tumor progression and metastatic potential of thyroid carcinogenesis. ..
  3. Forrest D, Hanebuth E, Smeyne R, Everds N, Stewart C, Wehner J, et al. Recessive resistance to thyroid hormone in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor beta: evidence for tissue-specific modulation of receptor function. EMBO J. 1996;15:3006-15 pubmed normally suppressed by increased levels of thyroid hormone, was present at elevated levels in homozygous mutant (Thrb-/-) mice...
  4. Qi J, Desai Yajnik V, Yuan Y, Samuels H. Constitutive activation of gene expression by thyroid hormone receptor results from reversal of p53-mediated repression. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:7195-207 pubmed
  5. Suzuki H, Willingham M, Cheng S. Mice with a mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene spontaneously develop thyroid carcinoma: a mouse model of thyroid carcinogenesis. Thyroid. 2002;12:963-9 pubmed
  6. Flores Morales A, Gullberg H, Fernandez L, Ståhlberg N, Lee N, Vennstrom B, et al. Patterns of liver gene expression governed by TRbeta. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1257-68 pubmed
  7. Hörlein A, Näär A, Heinzel T, Torchia J, Gloss B, Kurokawa R, et al. Ligand-independent repression by the thyroid hormone receptor mediated by a nuclear receptor co-repressor. Nature. 1995;377:397-404 pubmed
  8. Ying H, Furuya F, Zhao L, Araki O, West B, Hanover J, et al. Aberrant accumulation of PTTG1 induced by a mutated thyroid hormone beta receptor inhibits mitotic progression. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2972-84 pubmed
    ..The loss of this regulatory function in PV led to an aberrant accumulation of PTTG1 disrupting mitotic progression that could contribute to thyroid carcinogenesis. ..
  9. Forrest D, Vennstrom B. Functions of thyroid hormone receptors in mice. Thyroid. 2000;10:41-52 pubmed
    ..The TR-deficient mouse models have allowed investigation of the TR pathways underlying many functions of thyroid hormone and provide a unique perspective on receptor-mediated mechanisms of biological control. ..

More Information


  1. Fozzatti L, Lu C, Kim D, Park J, Astapova I, Gavrilova O, et al. Resistance to thyroid hormone is modulated in vivo by the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17462-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis in vivo, we crossed Thrb(PV) mice (a model of RTH) expressing a human TR? mutant (PV) with mice expressing a mutant Ncor1 allele (Ncor1(?ID) ..
  2. Guigon C, Fozzatti L, Lu C, Willingham M, Cheng S. Inhibition of mTORC1 signaling reduces tumor growth but does not prevent cancer progression in a mouse model of thyroid cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our work underscores that in the treatment of FTC patients, RAD001 can only be used in combination with drugs and therapies inducing tumor shrinkage and blocking metastasis. ..
  3. Contreras Jurado C, García Serrano L, Gomez Ferreria M, Costa C, Paramio J, Aranda A. The thyroid hormone receptors as modulators of skin proliferation and inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24079-88 pubmed publisher
  4. Applebury M, Farhangfar F, Glösmann M, Hashimoto K, Kage K, Robbins J, et al. Transient expression of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor TRbeta2 sets S opsin patterning during cone photoreceptor genesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1203-12 pubmed
    ..TR beta 2, the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor beta isoform 2, regulates dorsal repression...
  5. Ying H, Suzuki H, Zhao L, Willingham M, Meltzer P, Cheng S. Mutant thyroid hormone receptor beta represses the expression and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma during thyroid carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2003;63:5274-80 pubmed
  6. Forrest D, Erway L, Ng L, Altschuler R, Curran T. Thyroid hormone receptor beta is essential for development of auditory function. Nat Genet. 1996;13:354-7 pubmed
    ..Two T3 receptor genes, Tr alpha and Tr beta are differentially expressed, although in overlapping patterns, during development...
  7. Siesser W, Zhao J, Miller L, Cheng S, McDonald M. Transgenic mice expressing a human mutant beta1 thyroid receptor are hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5:282-97 pubmed
    ..This suggests that even transient perturbations in developmental thyroid homeostasis can have long-lasting behavioral and cognitive consequences, including producing the full spectrum of symptoms of ADHD. ..
  8. Weiss R, Murata Y, Cua K, Hayashi Y, Seo H, Refetoff S. Thyroid hormone action on liver, heart, and energy expenditure in thyroid hormone receptor beta-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 1998;139:4945-52 pubmed
    ..However, their relative roles in the regulation of specific gene expression remain unknown. The TR beta knockout mouse, which lacks both TR beta1 and TR beta2 isoforms, provides a model to examine the role of these ..
  9. Guigon C, Zhao L, Lu C, Willingham M, Cheng S. Regulation of beta-catenin by a novel nongenomic action of thyroid hormone beta receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4598-608 pubmed publisher
    We previously created a knock-in mutant mouse harboring a dominantly negative mutant thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta(PV/PV) mouse) that spontaneously develops a follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer...
  10. Furuya F, Hanover J, Cheng S. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling by a mutant thyroid hormone beta receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1780-5 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the present study unveils a mechanism by which a mutant TR acts to activate PI3K activity via protein-protein interactions. ..
  11. Roberts M, Hendrickson A, McGuire C, Reh T. Retinoid X receptor (gamma) is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2897-904 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for RXRs in regulating cell differentiation in the CNS and highlight a remarkable conservation of opsin regulation from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  12. Kaneshige M, Kaneshige K, Zhu X, Dace A, Garrett L, Carter T, et al. Mice with a targeted mutation in the thyroid hormone beta receptor gene exhibit impaired growth and resistance to thyroid hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13209-14 pubmed
    Patients with mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) gene manifest resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), resulting in a constellation of variable phenotypic abnormalities...
  13. Onishi A, Peng G, Chen S, Blackshaw S. Pias3-dependent SUMOylation controls mammalian cone photoreceptor differentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1059-65 pubmed publisher
  14. Roberts M, Srinivas M, Forrest D, Morreale de Escobar G, Reh T. Making the gradient: thyroid hormone regulates cone opsin expression in the developing mouse retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6218-23 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that the ratio and patterning of cone types may be determined by TH availability during retinal development. ..
  15. Lu C, Zhao L, Ying H, Willingham M, Cheng S. Growth activation alone is not sufficient to cause metastatic thyroid cancer in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1929-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These in vivo findings provide new insights in understanding carcinogenesis of the human thyroid...
  16. Furuya F, Guigon C, Zhao L, Lu C, Hanover J, Cheng S. Nuclear receptor corepressor is a novel regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6116-26 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that NCoR, via protein-protein interaction, is a novel regulator of PI3K signaling and could serve to modulate thyroid tumor progression. ..
  17. Ying H, Suzuki H, Furumoto H, Walker R, Meltzer P, Willingham M, et al. Alterations in genomic profiles during tumor progression in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1467-79 pubmed
    ..We have recently created a mutant mouse by targeting a mutation (PV) into the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (TRbetaPV mouse)...
  18. Kim C, Vasko V, Kato Y, Kruhlak M, Saji M, Cheng S, et al. AKT activation promotes metastasis in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4456-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, TRbeta(PV/PV) mice could be used to further dissect the detailed pathways underlying the progression and metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. ..
  19. Astapova I, Lee L, Morales C, Tauber S, Bilban M, Hollenberg A. The nuclear corepressor, NCoR, regulates thyroid hormone action in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19544-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, NCoR recruitment to LXR is also impaired in this model, leading to activation of LXR-target genes, further demonstrating that NCoR recruitment regulates multiple nuclear receptor signaling pathways. ..
  20. Furuya F, Lu C, Willingham M, Cheng S. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delays tumor progression and blocks metastatic spread in a mouse model of thyroid cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:2451-8 pubmed
    ..This TRbeta(PV/PV) mouse harbors a knockin mutant thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (TRbetaPV mutant) that spontaneously develops thyroid cancer and distant metastasis similar to ..
  21. Pessôa C, Santiago L, Santiago D, Machado D, Rocha F, Ventura D, et al. Thyroid hormone action is required for normal cone opsin expression during mouse retinal development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2039-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show, for the first time, that the expression of S- and M-opsin is dependent on normal thyroid hormone levels during development. ..
  22. García Serrano L, Gomez Ferreria M, Contreras Jurado C, Segrelles C, Paramio J, Aranda A. The thyroid hormone receptors modulate the skin response to retinoids. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23825 pubmed publisher
  23. Gothe S, Wang Z, Ng L, Kindblom J, Barros A, Ohlsson C, et al. Mice devoid of all known thyroid hormone receptors are viable but exhibit disorders of the pituitary-thyroid axis, growth, and bone maturation. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1329-41 pubmed
    ..These distinctions suggest that T3-independent actions of T3 receptors, demonstrated previously in vitro, may be a significant function in vivo. ..
  24. Ng L, Hurley J, Dierks B, Srinivas M, Salto C, Vennstrom B, et al. A thyroid hormone receptor that is required for the development of green cone photoreceptors. Nat Genet. 2001;27:94-8 pubmed
    ..b>Thyroid hormone receptor beta 2 (TR beta 2) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is expressed in the outer nuclear layer ..
  25. Kim C, Ying H, Willingham M, Cheng S. The pituitary tumor-transforming gene promotes angiogenesis in a mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:932-9 pubmed
    ..The separation of the pathways regulating cell proliferation, tumor initiation and tumor progression should direct future therapeutic options. ..
  26. Fujieda H, Bremner R, Mears A, Sasaki H. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha regulates a subset of cone genes during mouse retinal development. J Neurochem. 2009;108:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that RORalpha plays a crucial role in cone development by directly regulating multiple cone genes. ..
  27. Gullberg H, Rudling M, Forrest D, Angelin B, Vennstrom B. Thyroid hormone receptor beta-deficient mice show complete loss of the normal cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A) response to thyroid hormone but display enhanced resistance to dietary cholesterol. Mol Endocrinol. 2000;14:1739-49 pubmed
    ..The latter results lend strong support to the concept that TRs may exert regulatory effects in vivo independent of T3. ..
  28. Huber B, Desclozeaux M, West B, Cunha Lima S, Nguyen H, Baxter J, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor-beta mutations conferring hormone resistance and reduced corepressor release exhibit decreased stability in the N-terminal ligand-binding domain. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:107-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, these structural analyses provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of RTH disease in human TRbeta mutants that exhibit hormone binding with decreased ligand-dependent corepressor release...
  29. Kirschner L, Qamri Z, Kari S, Ashtekar A. Mouse models of thyroid cancer: A 2015 update. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;421:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss the state of the art of mouse modeling of thyroid cancer, with the eventual goal of providing insight into tumor biology and treatment. ..
  30. Hahm J, Privalsky M. Research resource: identification of novel coregulators specific for thyroid hormone receptor-?2. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:840-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a combination of isoform-specific recruitment and tissue-specific expression of these newly identified coregulator candidates serves to customize TR function for different biological purposes in different cell types. ..
  31. Abel E, Boers M, Pazos Moura C, Moura E, Kaulbach H, Zakaria M, et al. Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor beta isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:291-300 pubmed
    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) modulate various physiological functions in many organ systems. The TR alpha and TR beta isoforms are products of 2 distinct genes, and the beta 1 and beta 2 isoforms are splice variants of the same gene...
  32. Guigon C, Cheng S. Novel non-genomic signaling of thyroid hormone receptors in thyroid carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;308:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Four T3-binding isoforms, TRalpha1, TRbeta1, TRbeta2, and TRbeta3, are encoded by two genes, THRA and THRB. Mutations and altered expression of TRs have been reported in human cancers...
  33. Itoh Y, Esaki T, Kaneshige M, Suzuki H, Cook M, Sokoloff L, et al. Brain glucose utilization in mice with a targeted mutation in the thyroid hormone alpha or beta receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9913-8 pubmed
    ..These results show that the same receptor, TRalpha1, is involved in the regulation by TH of both glucose utilization and Srg1 expression. ..
  34. Kindblom J, Gothe S, Forrest D, Tornell J, Vennstrom B, Ohlsson C. GH substitution reverses the growth phenotype but not the defective ossification in thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1-/-beta-/- mice. J Endocrinol. 2001;171:15-22 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that TRs are of importance both for the regulation of the GH/IGF-I axis and for direct effects on cartilage. ..
  35. Griffith A, Szymko Y, Kaneshige M, Quiñónez R, Kaneshige K, Heintz K, et al. Knock-in mouse model for resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH): an RTH mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene disrupts cochlear morphogenesis. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2002;3:279-88 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed auditory system function and structure in a mouse strain with a targeted Thrb mutation, Thrb(PV), which leads to the loss of binding of thyroid hormone (T3) to the Trb protein...
  36. Hayashi Y, Mangoura D, Refetoff S. A mouse model of resistance to thyroid hormone produced by somatic gene transfer of a mutant thyroid hormone receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 1996;10:100-6 pubmed
    ..characterized by hyposensitivity to thyroid hormone caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TR beta) gene...
  37. Sadow P, Chassande O, Koo E, Gauthier K, Samarut J, Xu J, et al. Regulation of expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and coactivators in liver and heart by thyroid hormone. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;203:65-75 pubmed
    ..regulation of TR beta1 and TR alpha2 subtype expression is inversely related to TH levels and the regulation of TR beta expression is, in part, controlled by TR alpha...
  38. Kindblom J, Gevers E, Skrtic S, Lindberg M, Gothe S, Tornell J, et al. Increased adipogenesis in bone marrow but decreased bone mineral density in mice devoid of thyroid hormone receptors. Bone. 2005;36:607-16 pubmed
  39. Sharlin D, Visser T, Forrest D. Developmental and cell-specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the mouse cochlea. Endocrinology. 2011;152:5053-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Cochlear response tissues, which express thyroid hormone receptor ? (encoded by Thrb), include the greater epithelial ridge and sensory epithelium residing inside the bony labyrinth...
  40. Eckey M, Tenbaum S, Munoz A, Baniahmad A. Mixed lineage kinase 2 enhances trans-repression of Alien and nuclear receptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;213:71-8 pubmed
    ..This novel cross-talk may represent a link between MLK2-mediated signaling and transcriptional repression of target genes during neuronal differentiation processes. ..
  41. Xing W, Aghajanian P, Goodluck H, Kesavan C, Cheng S, Pourteymoor S, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor-β1 signaling is critically involved in regulating secondary ossification via promoting transcription of the Ihh gene in the epiphysis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;310:E846-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a novel role for THRβ1 in secondary ossification at the epiphysis that involves transcriptional upregulation of Ihh gene. ..
  42. Ward Y, Lake R, Martin P, Killian K, Salerno P, Wang T, et al. CD97 amplifies LPA receptor signaling and promotes thyroid cancer progression in a mouse model. Oncogene. 2013;32:2726-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic CD97 in combination with Thrb(PV), an established mouse model of thyroid follicular cell carcinogenesis, significantly increased the occurrence ..
  43. Stanulovic V, Kyrmizi I, Kruithof de Julio M, Hoogenkamp M, Vermeulen J, Ruijter J, et al. Hepatic HNF4alpha deficiency induces periportal expression of glutamine synthetase and other pericentral enzymes. Hepatology. 2007;45:433-44 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that HNF4alpha deficiency induces foci of regenerating hepatocytes. ..
  44. Araki O, Ying H, Zhu X, Willingham M, Cheng S. Distinct dysregulation of lipid metabolism by unliganded thyroid hormone receptor isoforms. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:308-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that apo-TRbeta and apo-TRalpha1 had different effects on lipid metabolism and that both TR isoforms contribute to the pathogenesis of lipid metabolism in hypothyroidism. ..
  45. Boelen A, Kwakkel J, Chassande O, Fliers E. Thyroid hormone receptor ? mediates acute illness-induced alterations in central thyroid hormone metabolism. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that TR? is involved in suppression of the central component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in acute illness. ..
  46. Abel E, Ahima R, Boers M, Elmquist J, Wondisford F. Critical role for thyroid hormone receptor beta2 in the regulation of paraventricular thyrotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:1017-23 pubmed
    ..Thus TR-beta2 is the key TR isoform responsible for T(3)-mediated negative-feedback regulation by hypophysiotropic TRH neurons. ..
  47. Brzezinski J, Lamba D, Reh T. Blimp1 controls photoreceptor versus bipolar cell fate choice during retinal development. Development. 2010;137:619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Blimp1 regulates the decision between photoreceptor and bipolar cell fates in the Otx2(+) cell population during retinal development. ..
  48. Nishi H, Ono K, Horie T, Nagao K, Kinoshita M, Kuwabara Y, et al. MicroRNA-27a regulates beta cardiac myosin heavy chain gene expression by targeting thyroid hormone receptor beta1 in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:744-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that miR-27a regulates ?-MHC gene expression by targeting TR?1 in cardiomyocytes. ..
  49. Kato Y, Ying H, Zhao L, Furuya F, Araki O, Willingham M, et al. PPARgamma insufficiency promotes follicular thyroid carcinogenesis via activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway. Oncogene. 2006;25:2736-47 pubmed
    ..Mice harboring a knock-in dominantly negative mutant thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbetaPV/PV mouse) spontaneously develop follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer...
  50. Liu Y, Kogai T, Schultz J, Mody K, Brent G. Thyroid hormone receptor isoform-specific modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modulates thyroid hormone-dependent gene regulation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that conjugation of SUMO to TR has a TR-isoform preference and is important for T3-dependent gene induction and repression. ..
  51. Johnson K, Zheng Q, Noben Trauth K. Strain background effects and genetic modifiers of hearing in mice. Brain Res. 2006;1091:79-88 pubmed
    ..Because modifier genes and digenic inheritance are not always distinguishable, we also include in this review several examples of digenic inheritance of hearing loss that have been reported in both mice and humans. ..
  52. Sjogren M, Alkemade A, Mittag J, Nordstrom K, Katz A, Rozell B, et al. Hypermetabolism in mice caused by the central action of an unliganded thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. EMBO J. 2007;26:4535-45 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the data demonstrate that a nuclear hormone receptor affecting sympathetic signaling can override its autonomous effects in peripheral tissues. ..
  53. Mayerhofer A, Lahr G, Seidl K, Eusterschulte B, Christoph A, Gratzl M. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) provides clues to the development of testicular Leydig cells. J Androl. 1996;17:223-30 pubmed
    ..Because Leydig cells in vitro and during fetal development express NCAMs, these molecules may prove to be a suitable specific marker for the study of Leydig cell development and differentiation. ..
  54. Dellovade T, Chan J, Vennstrom B, Forrest D, Pfaff D. The two thyroid hormone receptor genes have opposite effects on estrogen-stimulated sex behaviors. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:472-5 pubmed
    ..Instead, they indicate a previously unknown molecular mechanism upon which the two TR genes exert opposite influences. ..
  55. O Shea P, Harvey C, Suzuki H, Kaneshige M, Kaneshige K, Cheng S, et al. A thyrotoxic skeletal phenotype of advanced bone formation in mice with resistance to thyroid hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1410-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, the skeleton in TRbetaPV/PV mice is thyrotoxic and displays phenotypic features typical of juvenile hyperthyroidism. ..
  56. Mishra A, Zhu X, Ge K, Cheng S. Adipogenesis is differentially impaired by thyroid hormone receptor mutant isoforms. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;44:247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that induction of adipogenesis is differentially regulated by TR isoforms suggests that TR isoform-specific ligands could be designed for therapeutic intervention for lipid abnormalities. ..
  57. Wallis K, Sjogren M, van Hogerlinden M, Silberberg G, Fisahn A, Nordstrom K, et al. Locomotor deficiencies and aberrant development of subtype-specific GABAergic interneurons caused by an unliganded thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1904-15 pubmed publisher
  58. Sandhofer C, Schwartz H, Mariash C, Forrest D, Oppenheimer J. Beta receptor isoforms are not essential for thyroid hormone-dependent acceleration of PCP-2 and myelin basic protein gene expression in the developing brains of neonatal mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1998;137:109-15 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TRbeta is not essential for the normal developmental expression of these T3 dependent brain genes. ..
  59. Zhu X, Kaneshige M, Parlow A, Chen E, Hunziker R, McDonald M, et al. Expression of the mutant thyroid hormone receptor PV in the pituitary of transgenic mice leads to weight reduction. Thyroid. 1999;9:1137-45 pubmed
    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a genetic disease caused by mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (TRbeta). One of the symptoms in some affected individuals is growth retardation...
  60. O Shea P, Kim D, Logan J, Davis S, Walker R, Meltzer P, et al. Advanced bone formation in mice with a dominant-negative mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor ? gene due to activation of Wnt/?-catenin protein signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17812-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thrb(PV/PV) mice have a severely impaired pituitary-thyroid axis and elevated thyroid hormone levels due to a dominant-..
  61. Li Z, Meng Z, Chandrasekaran R, Kuo W, Collins C, Gray J, et al. Biallelic inactivation of the thyroid hormone receptor beta1 gene in early stage breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2002;62:1939-43 pubmed
    ..The observation of early, frequent, and multiple mechanisms of TRbeta1 inactivation suggests a potential role for this gene in the suppression of breast tumorigenesis. ..
  62. Froidevaux M, Berg P, Seugnet I, Decherf S, Becker N, Sachs L, et al. The co-chaperone XAP2 is required for activation of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcription in vivo. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:1035-9 pubmed
    ..In vivo, siXAP2 abrogated specifically TRbeta1-mediated (but not TRbeta2) activation of hypothalamic TRH transcription. This study provides the first in vivo demonstration of a regulatory, physiological role for XAP2. ..
  63. Buroker N, Young M, Wei C, Serikawa K, Ge M, Ning X, et al. The dominant negative thyroid hormone receptor beta-mutant {Delta}337T alters PPAR{alpha} signaling in heart. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E453-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that therapeutic response to PPARalpha ligands may be determined by thyroid hormone state and TR function. ..
  64. Qiu C, Miyazaki W, Iwasaki T, Londoño M, Ibhazehiebo K, Shimokawa N, et al. Retinoic Acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha-enhanced thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription requires its ligand binding domain which is not, by itself, sufficient: possible direct interaction of two receptors. Thyroid. 2009;19:893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The full-length forms of both RORalpha and TR are essential for the augmentation of TR-mediated transcription by RORalpha. ..
  65. Hong W, Li J, Wang B, Chen L, Niu W, Yao Z, et al. Epigenetic involvement of Alien/ESET complex in thyroid hormone-mediated repression of E2F1 gene expression and cell proliferation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that ESET is involved in TR?1-mediated transcription repression and provide a molecular basis of thyroid hormone-induced repression of proliferation. ..
  66. Ying H, Willingham M, Cheng S. The steroid receptor coactivator-3 is a tumor promoter in a mouse model of thyroid cancer. Oncogene. 2008;27:823-30 pubmed
    ..Taken together, SRC-3 could play important roles through regulating multiple target genes and signaling pathways during thyroid carcinogenesis, understanding of which should direct future therapeutic options for thyroid cancer. ..
  67. Esaki T, Suzuki H, Cook M, Shimoji K, Cheng S, Sokoloff L, et al. Functional activation of cerebral metabolism in mice with mutated thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4117-22 pubmed
    ..throughout the brain in mice with targeted mutations in thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TR alpha 1), but not TR beta. Previous studies had shown that CMR(glc) increases linearly with spike frequency in the afferent pathways to ..
  68. Holsberger D, Kiesewetter S, Cooke P. Regulation of neonatal Sertoli cell development by thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:396-403 pubmed
    ..thyroid hormone effect on testicular development and Sertoli cell proliferation using Thra knockout (TRalphaKO), Thrb knockout (TRbetaKO), and wild-type (WT) mice...
  69. Suzuki H, Cheng S. Compensatory role of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha 1 in resistance to thyroid hormone: study in mice with a targeted mutation in the TR beta gene and deficient in TR alpha 1. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1647-55 pubmed
    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is caused by mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR beta) gene. Almost all RTH patients are heterozygous with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance...
  70. Tinnikov A, Nordstrom K, Thoren P, Kindblom J, Malin S, Rozell B, et al. Retardation of post-natal development caused by a negatively acting thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. EMBO J. 2002;21:5079-87 pubmed
    Most patients with the syndrome resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) express a mutant thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) with transdominant negative transcriptional effects...
  71. Amma L, Goodyear R, Faris J, Jones I, Ng L, Richardson G, et al. An emilin family extracellular matrix protein identified in the cochlear basilar membrane. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;23:460-72 pubmed
    ..A differential screen of cochlear RNA from deaf mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor beta was used to identify a sequence encoding a secreted protein, which is abundant in the BM and is ..
  72. Castillo G, Brun R, Rosenfield J, Hauser S, Park C, Troy A, et al. An adipogenic cofactor bound by the differentiation domain of PPARgamma. EMBO J. 1999;18:3676-87 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that interactions between PGC-2, a receptor isoform-selective cofactor and PPARgamma contribute to the adipogenic action of this receptor. ..
  73. Saji M, Narahara K, McCarty S, Vasko V, La Perle K, Porter K, et al. Akt1 deficiency delays tumor progression, vascular invasion, and distant metastasis in a murine model of thyroid cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30:4307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, thyroid cancer development and progression in TR ?(PV/PV) mice are Akt1-dependent, consistent with a tumor progression-promoting role in this murine thyroid cancer model. ..
  74. Wagner R, Huber B, Shiau A, Kelly A, Cunha Lima S, Scanlan T, et al. Hormone selectivity in thyroid hormone receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:398-410 pubmed
    Separate genes encode thyroid hormone receptor subtypes TRalpha (NR1A1) and TRbeta (NR1A2). Products from each of these contribute to hormone action, but the subtypes differ in tissue distribution and physiological response...
  75. Alonso Merino E, Martín Orozco R, Ruiz Llorente L, Martínez Iglesias O, Velasco Martín J, Montero Pedrazuela A, et al. Thyroid hormones inhibit TGF-? signaling and attenuate fibrotic responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E3451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define an important function of the thyroid hormone receptors and suggest TR ligands could have beneficial effects to block the progression of fibrotic diseases. ..