Gene Symbol: Thra
Description: thyroid hormone receptor alpha
Alias: 6430529J03Rik, AW259572, Erba, Nr1a1, Rvr, T3R[a], T3Ralpha, Thra1, Thra2, c-erbA-1, c-erbA-alpha, c-erbAalpha, thyroid hormone receptor alpha, TR alpha 1, TR alpha 2, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group A member 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Thra

Top Publications

  1. Morte B, Manzano J, Scanlan T, Vennstrom B, Bernal J. Deletion of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 prevents the structural alterations of the cerebellum induced by hypothyroidism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3985-9 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that thyroid hormone has a permissive effect on cerebellar granule cell migration through derepression by the TRalpha1 isoform. ..
  2. Furuya F, Shimura H, Yamashita S, Endo T, Kobayashi T. Liganded thyroid hormone receptor-alpha enhances proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24477-86 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the role of thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TR(alpha)) in the processes of beta-cell growth and cell cycle regulation, we constructed a ..
  3. Wallis K, Dudazy S, van Hogerlinden M, Nordstrom K, Mittag J, Vennstrom B. The thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 protein is expressed in embryonic postmitotic neurons and persists in most adult neurons. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1904-16 pubmed publisher
    ..therefore created a mouse strain that expresses TR?1 and green fluorescent protein as a chimeric protein from the Thra locus, allowing examination of TR?1 expression during fetal and postnatal development and in the adult...
  4. Fauquier T, Romero E, Picou F, Chatonnet F, Nguyen X, Quignodon L, et al. Severe impairment of cerebellum development in mice expressing a dominant-negative mutation inactivating thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 isoform. Dev Biol. 2011;356:350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the observed effects might result from the cell autonomous action of the mutation, while others are more likely to result from a reduction in neurotrophic factor production. ..
  5. Quignodon L, Grijota Martinez C, Compe E, Guyot R, Allioli N, Laperriere D, et al. A combined approach identifies a limited number of new thyroid hormone target genes in post-natal mouse cerebellum. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;39:17-28 pubmed
    ..This identifies surprisingly a small set of target genes, which, for some of them, might be key regulators of cerebellum development and neuronal differentiation. ..
  6. Barnard J, Williams A, Rabier B, Chassande O, Samarut J, Cheng S, et al. Thyroid hormones regulate fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling during chondrogenesis. Endocrinology. 2005;146:5568-80 pubmed
    ..These studies identify novel interactions between T(3) and FGFs that regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during chondrogenesis. ..
  7. Casas F, Pessemesse L, Grandemange S, Seyer P, Baris O, Gueguen N, et al. Overexpression of the mitochondrial T3 receptor induces skeletal muscle atrophy during aging. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5631 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these data underline the importance of a tight control of p43 expression and suggest that a deregulation of the direct T3 mitochondrial pathway could be one of the parameters involved in the occurrence of sarcopenia. ..
  8. García Serrano L, Gomez Ferreria M, Contreras Jurado C, Segrelles C, Paramio J, Aranda A. The thyroid hormone receptors modulate the skin response to retinoids. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23825 pubmed publisher
  9. Quignodon L, Vincent S, Winter H, Samarut J, Flamant F. A point mutation in the activation function 2 domain of thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 expressed after CRE-mediated recombination partially recapitulates hypothyroidism. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2350-60 pubmed
    ..Both respective abundance and intrinsic properties of TRalpha1 and TRbeta1/2 seem to govern specificity of action. ..

More Information


  1. Liu Y, Schultz J, Brent G. A thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene mutation (P398H) is associated with visceral adiposity and impaired catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in mice. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38913-20 pubmed
    ..We generated mice with a point mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRalpha) gene producing a dominant-negative TRalpha mutant receptor with a proline to histidine ..
  2. Gullberg H, Rudling M, Forrest D, Angelin B, Vennstrom B. Thyroid hormone receptor beta-deficient mice show complete loss of the normal cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A) response to thyroid hormone but display enhanced resistance to dietary cholesterol. Mol Endocrinol. 2000;14:1739-49 pubmed
    ..The latter results lend strong support to the concept that TRs may exert regulatory effects in vivo independent of T3. ..
  3. Casas F, Pessemesse L, Grandemange S, Seyer P, Gueguen N, Baris O, et al. Overexpression of the mitochondrial T3 receptor p43 induces a shift in skeletal muscle fiber types. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2501 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the direct mitochondrial T3 pathway is deeply involved in the acquisition of contractile and metabolic features of muscle fibers in particular by regulating PGC-1alpha and PPARdelta. ..
  4. Contreras Jurado C, García Serrano L, Gomez Ferreria M, Costa C, Paramio J, Aranda A. The thyroid hormone receptors as modulators of skin proliferation and inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24079-88 pubmed publisher
  5. Wikstrom L, Johansson C, Salto C, Barlow C, Campos Barros A, Baas F, et al. Abnormal heart rate and body temperature in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1. EMBO J. 1998;17:455-61 pubmed
    ..these effects is largely unknown, and to determine this we developed mice lacking the thyroid hormone receptor TR alpha 1. The mice have an average heart rate 20% lower than that of control animals, both under normal conditions and ..
  6. Jornayvaz F, Lee H, Jurczak M, Alves T, Guebre Egziabher F, Guigni B, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor-? gene knockout mice are protected from diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Endocrinology. 2012;153:583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether the thyroid hormone receptor-? (Thra) would be a potential therapeutic target to prevent diet-induced NAFLD and insulin resistance...
  7. Yen P, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker R, Weiss R, et al. Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:581-7 pubmed
    ..We used 48 complementary DNA microarrays to examine hepatic gene expression profiles of wild-type and Thra and Thrb knockout mice under different Th conditions: no treatment, treatment with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)), ..
  8. Plateroti M, Kress E, Mori J, Samarut J. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 directly controls transcription of the beta-catenin gene in intestinal epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3204-14 pubmed
    ..As Wnt/beta-catenin plays a crucial role in intestinal tumorigenesis, our observations open a new perspective on the study of TRs as potential tumor inducers. ..
  9. Bassett J, Nordstrom K, Boyde A, Howell P, Kelly S, Vennstrom B, et al. Thyroid status during skeletal development determines adult bone structure and mineralization. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:1893-904 pubmed
    ..Thus, TRalpha1 regulates both skeletal development and adult bone maintenance, with euthyroid status during development being essential to establish normal adult bone structure and mineralization. ..
  10. Poguet A, Legrand C, Feng X, Yen P, Meltzer P, Samarut J, et al. Microarray analysis of knockout mice identifies cyclin D2 as a possible mediator for the action of thyroid hormone during the postnatal development of the cerebellum. Dev Biol. 2003;254:188-99 pubmed
  11. Blanchet E, Bertrand C, Annicotte J, Schlernitzauer A, Pessemesse L, Levin J, et al. Mitochondrial T3 receptor p43 regulates insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. FASEB J. 2012;26:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish that p43 is an important regulator of glucose homeostasis and pancreatic ?-cell function and provide evidence for the first time of a physiological role for a mitochondrial endocrine receptor. ..
  12. Venero C, Guadaño Ferraz A, Herrero A, Nordstrom K, Manzano J, de Escobar G, et al. Anxiety, memory impairment, and locomotor dysfunction caused by a mutant thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 can be ameliorated by T3 treatment. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2152-63 pubmed
    ..Here, the hormone treatment normalized the otherwise delayed cerebellar development. The data thus identify two novel and distinct functions of an unliganded TRalpha1 during development and adulthood, respectively. ..
  13. Wallis K, Sjogren M, van Hogerlinden M, Silberberg G, Fisahn A, Nordstrom K, et al. Locomotor deficiencies and aberrant development of subtype-specific GABAergic interneurons caused by an unliganded thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1904-15 pubmed publisher
  14. Sjogren M, Alkemade A, Mittag J, Nordstrom K, Katz A, Rozell B, et al. Hypermetabolism in mice caused by the central action of an unliganded thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. EMBO J. 2007;26:4535-45 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the data demonstrate that a nuclear hormone receptor affecting sympathetic signaling can override its autonomous effects in peripheral tissues. ..
  15. Rabier B, Williams A, Mallein Gerin F, Williams G, Chassande O. Thyroid hormone-stimulated differentiation of primary rib chondrocytes in vitro requires thyroid hormone receptor beta. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:221-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that T(3)-stimulated differentiation of primary rib chondrocytes in vitro requires TRbeta and suggest that the TRbeta1 isoform mediates important T(3) actions in mouse rib chondrocytes. ..
  16. Gothe S, Wang Z, Ng L, Kindblom J, Barros A, Ohlsson C, et al. Mice devoid of all known thyroid hormone receptors are viable but exhibit disorders of the pituitary-thyroid axis, growth, and bone maturation. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1329-41 pubmed
    ..These distinctions suggest that T3-independent actions of T3 receptors, demonstrated previously in vitro, may be a significant function in vivo. ..
  17. Pessemesse L, Schlernitzauer A, Sar C, Levin J, Grandemange S, Seyer P, et al. Depletion of the p43 mitochondrial T3 receptor in mice affects skeletal muscle development and activity. FASEB J. 2012;26:748-56 pubmed publisher
  18. Tinnikov A, Nordstrom K, Thoren P, Kindblom J, Malin S, Rozell B, et al. Retardation of post-natal development caused by a negatively acting thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. EMBO J. 2002;21:5079-87 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate a novel array of effects mediated by a dominant negative TRalpha1, and may provide important clues for identification of a potentially unrecognized human disorder and its treatment. ..
  19. Holsberger D, Kiesewetter S, Cooke P. Regulation of neonatal Sertoli cell development by thyroid hormone receptor alpha1. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:396-403 pubmed
    ..TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 in the thyroid hormone effect on testicular development and Sertoli cell proliferation using Thra knockout (TRalphaKO), Thrb knockout (TRbetaKO), and wild-type (WT) mice...
  20. Itoh Y, Esaki T, Kaneshige M, Suzuki H, Cook M, Sokoloff L, et al. Brain glucose utilization in mice with a targeted mutation in the thyroid hormone alpha or beta receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9913-8 pubmed
    ..These results show that the same receptor, TRalpha1, is involved in the regulation by TH of both glucose utilization and Srg1 expression. ..
  21. Weinberger C, Thompson C, Ong E, Lebo R, Gruol D, Evans R. The c-erb-A gene encodes a thyroid hormone receptor. Nature. 1986;324:641-6 pubmed
    ..Binding studies with the protein show it to be a receptor for thyroid hormones. ..
  22. Kaneshige M, Suzuki H, Kaneshige K, Cheng J, Wimbrow H, Barlow C, et al. A targeted dominant negative mutation of the thyroid hormone alpha 1 receptor causes increased mortality, infertility, and dwarfism in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:15095-100 pubmed
    ..The TRalpha1(PV/+) mice may be used as a tool to uncover human diseases associated with mutations in the TRalpha gene and, furthermore, to understand the molecular mechanisms by which TR isoforms exert their biological activities. ..
  23. Barca Mayo O, Liao X, Alonso M, Di Cosmo C, Hernandez A, Refetoff S, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor ? and regulation of type 3 deiodinase. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the absence of TR? results in decreased clearance of TH by D3 and contributes to the TH hypersensitivity. ..
  24. Gauthier K, Plateroti M, Harvey C, Williams G, Weiss R, Refetoff S, et al. Genetic analysis reveals different functions for the products of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4748-60 pubmed
    Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by the TRalpha (NR1A1) and TRbeta (NR1A2) loci. These genes are transcribed into multiple variants whose functions are unclear...
  25. Kress E, Skah S, Sirakov M, Nadjar J, Gadot N, Scoazec J, et al. Cooperation between the thyroid hormone receptor TRalpha1 and the WNT pathway in the induction of intestinal tumorigenesis. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1863-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the WNT pathway is a major player in controlling intestinal homeostasis, we addressed whether the TRalpha1 receptor has tumor-inducing potential...
  26. DeLong L, Bonamy G, Fink E, Allison L. Nuclear export of the oncoprotein v-ErbA is mediated by acquisition of a viral nuclear export sequence. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15356-67 pubmed
    v-ErbA, an oncogenic derivative of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRalpha) carried by the avian erythroblastosis virus, contains several alterations including fusion of a portion of avian erythroblastosis virus Gag to its N terminus, ..
  27. Mittag J, Davis B, Vujovic M, Arner A, Vennstrom B. Adaptations of the autonomous nervous system controlling heart rate are impaired by a mutant thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2388-95 pubmed publisher
  28. Amma L, Campos Barros A, Wang Z, Vennstrom B, Forrest D. Distinct tissue-specific roles for thyroid hormone receptors beta and alpha1 in regulation of type 1 deiodinase expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:467-75 pubmed
    ..Physiologically, these findings suggest a critical role for TRbeta in regulating the thyroid hormone status through D1-mediated metabolism. ..
  29. Flamant F, Samarut J. Thyroid hormone receptors: lessons from knockout and knock-in mutant mice. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003;14:85-90 pubmed
    The genes encoding thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta (TRalpha and TRbeta) encode four thyroid hormone receptors and four variant isoforms with antagonistic properties...
  30. O Shea P, Bassett J, Sriskantharajah S, Ying H, Cheng S, Williams G. Contrasting skeletal phenotypes in mice with an identical mutation targeted to thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 or beta. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:3045-59 pubmed
    ..These studies provide a new understanding of the complex relationship between central and peripheral thyroid status. ..
  31. Kress E, Rezza A, Nadjar J, Samarut J, Plateroti M. The frizzled-related sFRP2 gene is a target of thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 and activates beta-catenin signaling in mouse intestine. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we describe in this study a novel mechanism of action of sFRP2, responsible for the activation of beta-catenin signaling. ..
  32. Bassett J, O Shea P, Sriskantharajah S, Rabier B, Boyde A, Howell P, et al. Thyroid hormone excess rather than thyrotropin deficiency induces osteoporosis in hyperthyroidism. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:1095-107 pubmed
    ..mechanism of osteoporosis in thyroid disease, we characterized the skeleton in mice lacking either thyroid hormone receptor alpha or beta (TRalpha(0/0), TRbeta-/-)...
  33. Forrest D, Vennstrom B. Functions of thyroid hormone receptors in mice. Thyroid. 2000;10:41-52 pubmed
    ..The TR-deficient mouse models have allowed investigation of the TR pathways underlying many functions of thyroid hormone and provide a unique perspective on receptor-mediated mechanisms of biological control. ..
  34. Wang Y, Fisahn A, Sinha I, Nguyen D, Sterzenbach U, Lallemend F, et al. Hippocampal Transcriptome Profile of Persistent Memory Rescue in a Mouse Model of THRA1 Mutation-Mediated Resistance to Thyroid Hormone. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18617 pubmed publisher
    Hypothyroidism due to THRA1 (gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor α1) mutation-mediated Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH) has been recently reported in human and is associated with memory deficits similar to those found in a ..
  35. Chiamolera M, Sidhaye A, Matsumoto S, He Q, Hashimoto K, Ortiga Carvalho T, et al. Fundamentally distinct roles of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in a thyrotroph cell line are due to differential DNA binding. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:926-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous in vivo studies suggest separate roles for the two thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, THRA and THRB, in this axis. We performed studies using a unique pituitary thyrotroph cell line (T?T1...
  36. Park E, Kim Y, Lee H, Lee K. Differential regulation of steroidogenic enzyme genes by TR? signaling in testicular Leydig cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:822-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest a role of TR?/T3 in testicular steroidogenesis and may provide molecular mechanisms for the differential regulation of steroidogenic enzyme genes by thyroid hormone. ..
  37. Furumoto H, Ying H, Chandramouli G, Zhao L, Walker R, Meltzer P, et al. An unliganded thyroid hormone beta receptor activates the cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase/retinoblastoma/E2F pathway and induces pituitary tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:124-35 pubmed
  38. Zambrano A, García Carpizo V, Gallardo M, Villamuera R, Gomez Ferreria M, Pascual A, et al. The thyroid hormone receptor ? induces DNA damage and premature senescence. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:129-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a mechanism for integrating metabolic effects of THs with the tumor suppressor activity of THRB, the effect of thyroidal status on longevity, and the occurrence of tissue damage in hyperthyroidism. ..
  39. Suzuki H, Cheng S. Compensatory role of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha 1 in resistance to thyroid hormone: study in mice with a targeted mutation in the TR beta gene and deficient in TR alpha 1. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1647-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, TR alpha1 could play a compensatory role in mediating the functions of T3 in heterozygous patients with RTH. This compensatory role may be especially crucial for postnatal growth...
  40. Kim D, Park J, Willingham M, Cheng S. A histone deacetylase inhibitor improves hypothyroidism caused by a TR?1 mutant. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:2651-64 pubmed publisher
    ..negative TR?1PV mutant and its derived mouse model harboring a mutated nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR1?ID) (Thra1(PV/+)Ncor1(?ID/?ID) mice), we recently showed that aberrant release of TR?1 mutants from the NCOR1 repressor ..
  41. Sirakov M, Skah S, Lone I, Nadjar J, Angelov D, Plateroti M. Multi-level interactions between the nuclear receptor TR?1 and the WNT effectors ?-catenin/Tcf4 in the intestinal epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34162 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest a novel mechanism for the tumor-promoting activity of the TR?1 nuclear receptor. ..
  42. Preitner N, Damiola F, Lopez Molina L, Zakany J, Duboule D, Albrecht U, et al. The orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator. Cell. 2002;110:251-60 pubmed
    ..While REV-ERBalpha influences the period length and affects the phase-shifting properties of the clock, it is not required for circadian rhythm generation. ..
  43. Decherf S, Seugnet I, Kouidhi S, Lopez Juarez A, Clerget Froidevaux M, Demeneix B. Thyroid hormone exerts negative feedback on hypothalamic type 4 melanocortin receptor expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus parallel repression by T(3) on hypothalamic Mc4r and Trh contributes to energy homeostasis. ..
  44. Hadjab Lallemend S, Wallis K, van Hogerlinden M, Dudazy S, Nordstrom K, Vennstrom B, et al. A mutant thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 alters hippocampal circuitry and reduces seizure susceptibility in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:1130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we investigate the effects of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor TR alpha 1 and the resulting receptor-mediated hypothyroidism on the development of GABAergic neurotransmission and seizure ..
  45. Johansson C, Lannergren J, Lunde P, Vennstrom B, Thoren P, Westerblad H. Isometric force and endurance in soleus muscle of thyroid hormone receptor-alpha(1)- or -beta-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;278:R598-603 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in skeletal muscle, both TR-alpha(1) and TR-beta are required to get a normal thyroid hormone response...
  46. Szpirer C, Szpirer J, Islam M, Levan G. The rat gene map. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1988;137:33-8 pubmed
  47. Johansson C, Lunde P, Gothe S, Lannergren J, Westerblad H. Isometric force and endurance in skeletal muscle of mice devoid of all known thyroid hormone receptors. J Physiol. 2003;547:789-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, in skeletal muscle there seems to be functional overlap between TRalpha1 and TRbeta, so that the lack of one of the receptors to some extent can be compensated for by the presence of the other. ..
  48. Grespin M, Bonamy G, Roggero V, Cameron N, Adam L, Atchison A, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 follows a cooperative CRM1/calreticulin-mediated nuclear export pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25576-88 pubmed publisher
  49. Wood W, Ocran K, Gordon D, Ridgway E. Isolation and characterization of mouse complementary DNAs encoding alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors from thyrotrope cells: the mouse pituitary-specific beta 2 isoform differs at the amino terminus from the corresponding species from rat pitu. Mol Endocrinol. 1991;5:1049-61 pubmed
    ..We screened a thyrotrope cDNA library with rat TR alpha 1 and TR beta 1 cDNA probes and isolated cDNAs encoding the mouse TR alpha 1 and TR beta 1 isoforms as well as a ..
  50. Compe E, Malerba M, Soler L, Marescaux J, Borrelli E, Egly J. Neurological defects in trichothiodystrophy reveal a coactivator function of TFIIH. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1414-22 pubmed
    ..The discovery of an unexpected stabilizing function for TFIIH deepens our understanding of the pathogenesis and neurological manifestations observed in TTD individuals. ..
  51. Liu Z, Liu J, Zhang J, Tian Y, Fang D, Huang H, et al. [Effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ethers on the TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 expression in liver in C57BL/6 mice]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2010;39:399-403 pubmed
    ..05). The protein level of TRalpha1 significantly up-regulated while TRbeta1 was significantly down-regulated. BDE-47 could change the expression of TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 in the mRNA and protein levels in liver. ..
  52. Gil Ibáñez P, Morte B, Bernal J. Role of thyroid hormone receptor subtypes ? and ? on gene expression in the cerebral cortex and striatum of postnatal mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1940-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, hypothyroidism has a mild effect on these genes in the absence of TR?1, in agreement with a role of unliganded TR?1 in the effects of hypothyroidism. ..
  53. Kapoor R, van Hogerlinden M, Wallis K, Ghosh H, Nordstrom K, Vennstrom B, et al. Unliganded thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis. FASEB J. 2010;24:4793-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the first evidence of a role for unliganded TRα1 in modulating the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. ..
  54. Pilhatsch M, Winter C, Nordstrom K, Vennstrom B, Bauer M, Juckel G. Increased depressive behaviour in mice harboring the mutant thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1. Behav Brain Res. 2010;214:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study tested if the mutant thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRalpha1) that causes a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism in the brain affects depressive and ..
  55. Ramadan W, Marsili A, Larsen P, Zavacki A, Silva J. Type-2 iodothyronine 5'deiodinase (D2) in skeletal muscle of C57Bl/6 mice. II. Evidence for a role of D2 in the hypermetabolism of thyroid hormone receptor alpha-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3093-102 pubmed publisher
    Mice with ablation of the Thra gene have cold intolerance due to an as yet undefined defect in the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) uncoupling protein (UCP)...
  56. Tan X, Fan X, Kim H, Butler R, Webb P, Warner M, et al. Liver X receptor beta and thyroid hormone receptor alpha in brain cortical layering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12305-10 pubmed publisher
    In the past year, two members of the nuclear receptor family, liver X receptor beta (LXRbeta) and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRalpha), have been found to be essential for correct migration of neurons in the developing cortex in mouse ..
  57. Gauthier K, Chassande O, Plateroti M, Roux J, Legrand C, Pain B, et al. Different functions for the thyroid hormone receptors TRalpha and TRbeta in the control of thyroid hormone production and post-natal development. EMBO J. 1999;18:623-31 pubmed
    ..We conclude that each of the two families of proteins mediate specific functions of triiodothyronin (T3), and that redundancy is only partial and concerns a limited number of functions. ..
  58. Martinez M, Karaczyn A, Stohn J, Donnelly W, Croteau W, Peeters R, et al. The Type 3 Deiodinase Is a Critical Determinant of Appropriate Thyroid Hormone Action in the Developing Testis. Endocrinology. 2016;157:1276-88 pubmed publisher
  59. Potter G, Beaudoin G, DeRenzo C, Zarach J, Chen S, Thompson C. The hairless gene mutated in congenital hair loss disorders encodes a novel nuclear receptor corepressor. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2687-701 pubmed
    ..The discovery that Hr is a corepressor provides a molecular basis for specific hair loss syndromes in both humans and mice. ..
  60. Guadaño Ferraz A, Benavides Piccione R, Venero C, Lancha C, Vennstrom B, Sandi C, et al. Lack of thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 is associated with selective alterations in behavior and hippocampal circuits. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:30-8 pubmed
  61. Karolyi I, Guenet J, Rey Campos J, Camper S. The gene coding for variant hepatic nuclear factor 1 (Tcf-2), maps between the Edp-1 and Erba genes on mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:184-5 pubmed
  62. Xu B, Koenig R. An RNA-binding domain in the thyroid hormone receptor enhances transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33051-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that thyroid hormone receptors bind RNA through a novel domain and that the interaction of this domain with SRA, and perhaps other RNAs, enhances thyroid hormone receptor function. ..
  63. Avci H, Lebrun C, Wehrle R, Doulazmi M, Chatonnet F, Morel M, et al. Thyroid hormone triggers the developmental loss of axonal regenerative capacity via thyroid hormone receptor ?1 and krüppel-like factor 9 in Purkinje cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This loss of regenerative capacity might be part of the general program triggered by T(3) throughout the body, which adapts the animal to its postnatal environment. ..
  64. Cheng Sy S. New Insights into the Structure and Function of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor. J Biomed Sci. 1995;2:77-89 pubmed
  65. Milanesi A, Lee J, Kim N, Liu Y, Yang A, Sedrakyan S, et al. Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Plays an Essential Role in Male Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Proliferation, Differentiation, and Response to Injury. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, TRα plays an essential role in myoblast homeostasis and provides a potential therapeutic target to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration. ..
  66. Kingsmore S, Peppel K, Suh D, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, Seldin M. Genetic mapping of the beta-arrestin 1 and 2 genes on mouse chromosomes 7 and 11 respectively. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:306-7 pubmed
  67. Flamant F, Poguet A, Plateroti M, Chassande O, Gauthier K, Streichenberger N, et al. Congenital hypothyroid Pax8(-/-) mutant mice can be rescued by inactivating the TRalpha gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:24-32 pubmed
    ..Pax8/TRalpha compound mutants can survive to adulthood, and the expression of target genes is partially restored. This demonstrates the importance of TRalpha aporeceptor activity in several aspects of postnatal development. ..
  68. Johansson C, Koopmann R, Vennstrom B, Benndorf K. Accelerated inactivation of voltage-dependent K+ outward current in cardiomyocytes from thyroid hormone receptor alpha1-deficient mice. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002;13:44-50 pubmed
    ..6 msec. The resulting acceleration of the total inactivation time course is proposed to contribute to action potential prolongation and thus to the increased QTend-time observed previously on ECG of TR alpha1-deficient mice. ..
  69. Zhang X, Kaneshige M, Kamiya Y, Kaneshige K, McPhie P, Cheng S. Differential expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms dictates the dominant negative activity of mutant Beta receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2077-92 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that in vivo, differential expression of TR isoforms in tissues dictates the dominant negative activity of mutant beta receptor, thereby resulting in variable phenotypic expression in RTH. ..
  70. Ng L, Pedraza P, Faris J, Vennstrom B, Curran T, Morreale de Escobar G, et al. Audiogenic seizure susceptibility in thyroid hormone receptor beta-deficient mice. Neuroreport. 2001;12:2359-62 pubmed
    As early-onset hypothyroidism produces audiogenic seizure susceptibility (AGS) in rodents, the role of TR alpha 1 and TR beta thyroid hormone receptors in AGS was investigated...
  71. Sirakov M, Boussouar A, Kress E, Frau C, Lone I, Nadjar J, et al. The thyroid hormone nuclear receptor TRα1 controls the Notch signaling pathway and cell fate in murine intestine. Development. 2015;142:2764-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that the TRα1 nuclear receptor plays a key role in intestinal crypt progenitor/stem cell biology by controlling the Notch pathway and hence the balance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation. ..
  72. Esaki T, Suzuki H, Cook M, Shimoji K, Cheng S, Sokoloff L, et al. Cardiac glucose utilization in mice with mutated alpha- and beta-thyroid hormone receptors. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E1149-53 pubmed