Gene Symbol: Thbs2
Description: thrombospondin 2
Alias: TSP2, Thbs-2, thrombospondin-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Thbs2

Top Publications

  1. Simantov R, Febbraio M, Silverstein R. The antiangiogenic effect of thrombospondin-2 is mediated by CD36 and modulated by histidine-rich glycoprotein. Matrix Biol. 2005;24:27-34 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that modulation of the TSR/CD36 system may play an important role in the regulation of the angiogenic "switch," and may provide a target for therapeutic interventions. ..
  2. Kyriakides T, Zhu Y, Yang Z, Bornstein P. The distribution of the matricellular protein thrombospondin 2 in tissues of embryonic and adult mice. J Histochem Cytochem. 1998;46:1007-15 pubmed
    Mice that lack the matricellular protein thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) develop a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by morphological changes in connective tissues, an increase in vascular density, and a propensity for bleeding...
  3. Oganesian A, Armstrong L, Migliorini M, Strickland D, Bornstein P. Thrombospondins use the VLDL receptor and a nonapoptotic pathway to inhibit cell division in microvascular endothelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:563-71 pubmed
    ..We propose that TSP1 and TSP2, together with the VLDLR, initiate a nonapoptotic pathway for maintenance of the normal adult vascular endothelium ..
  4. Krady M, Zeng J, Yu J, MacLauchlan S, Skokos E, Tian W, et al. Thrombospondin-2 modulates extracellular matrix remodeling during physiological angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:879-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro by limiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs)...
  5. Agah A, Kyriakides T, Lawler J, Bornstein P. The lack of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) dictates the course of wound healing in double-TSP1/TSP2-null mice. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:831-9 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to elucidate their biological roles more clearly, we generated double-TSP1/TSP2-null animals and compared their phenotype to those of TSP1- and TSP2-null mice...
  6. Kyriakides T, Tam J, Bornstein P. Accelerated wound healing in mice with a disruption of the thrombospondin 2 gene. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:782-7 pubmed
    Mice that lack the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin 2 have, among several abnormalities, an increase in vascular density, abnormal collagen fibrils, and dermal fibroblasts that are defective in adhesion...
  7. Bornstein P, Devarayalu S, Li P, Disteche C, Framson P. A second thrombospondin gene in the mouse is similar in organization to thrombospondin 1 but does not respond to serum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:8636-40 pubmed
    A second, expressed thrombospondin (TSP) gene, Thbs2, has been identified in the mouse...
  8. Hankenson K, Ausk B, Bain S, Bornstein P, Gross T, Srinivasan S. Mice lacking thrombospondin 2 show an atypical pattern of endocortical and periosteal bone formation in response to mechanical loading. Bone. 2006;38:310-6 pubmed
    b>Thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein localized to bone...
  9. Hankenson K, Bain S, Kyriakides T, Smith E, Goldstein S, Bornstein P. Increased marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells and endosteal bone formation in mice lacking thrombospondin 2. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:851-62 pubmed
    The phenotype of thrombospondin 2 (TSP2)-null mice includes abnormalities in collagen fibrils and increases in ligamentous laxity, vascular density, and bleeding time...

More Information


  1. Kyriakides T, Zhu Y, Smith L, Bain S, Yang Z, Lin M, et al. Mice that lack thrombospondin 2 display connective tissue abnormalities that are associated with disordered collagen fibrillogenesis, an increased vascular density, and a bleeding diathesis. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:419-30 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to determine the function of TSP2, we disrupted the Thbs2 gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, and generated TSP2-null mice by blastocyst injection and ..
  2. Laherty C, O Rourke K, Wolf F, Katz R, Seldin M, Dixit V. Characterization of mouse thrombospondin 2 sequence and expression during cell growth and development. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:3274-81 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the TSP genes (Thbs1 and Thbs2) were mapped to single loci on mouse chromosomes 2 and 17, respectively.
  3. Agah A, Kyriakides T, Bornstein P. Proteolysis of cell-surface tissue transglutaminase by matrix metalloproteinase-2 contributes to the adhesive defect and matrix abnormalities in thrombospondin-2-null fibroblasts and mice. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:81-8 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a mechanism for the reduced adhesion of TSP-2-null fibroblasts and an explanation for the increased collagen solubility and fragility of TSP-2-null skin. ..
  4. Iruela Arispe M, Liska D, Sage E, Bornstein P. Differential expression of thrombospondin 1, 2, and 3 during murine development. Dev Dyn. 1993;197:40-56 pubmed
    ..Recently, two additional thrombospondin genes (thrombospondin 2 and 3) have been identified...
  5. Hankenson K, Bornstein P. The secreted protein thrombospondin 2 is an autocrine inhibitor of marrow stromal cell proliferation. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:415-25 pubmed
    Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are obtained in increased number from mice in which the thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) gene is disrupted, and these cells show increased DNA synthesis in vitro...
  6. Bornstein P, O Rourke K, Wikstrom K, Wolf F, Katz R, Li P, et al. A second, expressed thrombospondin gene (Thbs2) exists in the mouse genome. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:12821-4 pubmed
    ..Framson, P., and Li, P. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16691-16698). This second TSP, which we term thrombospondin 2, is the product of a separate gene (Thbs2) and is expressed in a variety of mouse tissues in a pattern that ..
  7. Kyriakides T, Rojnuckarin P, Reidy M, Hankenson K, Papayannopoulou T, Kaushansky K, et al. Megakaryocytes require thrombospondin-2 for normal platelet formation and function. Blood. 2003;101:3915-23 pubmed
    Mice that lack the matricellular angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-2 (TSP2), display a bleeding diathesis, despite normal blood coagulation and the lack of thrombocytopenia...
  8. Gruber H, Bornstein P, Sage E, Ingram J, Zinchenko N, Norton H, et al. Disruption of the thrombospondin-2 gene alters the lamellar morphology but does not permit vascularization of the adult mouse lumbar disc. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:R96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to the need for future research to understand the transition from the well-vascularized status of the fetal and young discs to the avascular state of the adult human disc or the small mammalian disc. ..
  9. Schroen B, Heymans S, Sharma U, Blankesteijn W, Pokharel S, Cleutjens J, et al. Thrombospondin-2 is essential for myocardial matrix integrity: increased expression identifies failure-prone cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2004;95:515-22 pubmed
    ..Among 48 genes overexpressed in failing hearts, we focused on thrombospondin-2 (TSP2). TSP2 was selectively overexpressed only in biopsy specimens from rats that later progressed to HF...
  10. Fears C, Grammer J, Stewart J, Annis D, Mosher D, Bornstein P, et al. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein contributes to the antiangiogenic activity of thrombospondin-2 in a murine glioma model. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9338-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, the antiangiogenic activity of TSP-2 is capable of inhibiting the growth of gliomas in part by reducing the levels of MMP-2 in the tumor microvasculature. This mechanism is mediated by LRP1. ..
  11. Villavicencio Lorini P, Kuss P, Friedrich J, Haupt J, Farooq M, Turkmen S, et al. Homeobox genes d11-d13 and a13 control mouse autopod cortical bone and joint formation. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1994-2004 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Hox genes not only regulate patterning but also directly influence bone formation and the ossification pattern of bones, in part via Runx2. ..
  12. Eroglu C, Allen N, Susman M, O Rourke N, Park C, Ozkan E, et al. Gabapentin receptor alpha2delta-1 is a neuronal thrombospondin receptor responsible for excitatory CNS synaptogenesis. Cell. 2009;139:380-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify alpha2delta-1 as a receptor involved in excitatory synapse formation and suggest that gabapentin may function therapeutically by blocking new synapse formation. ..
  13. Kaftanovskaya E, Lopez C, Ferguson L, Myhr C, Agoulnik A. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis. FASEB J. 2015;29:2327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation. ..
  14. Alford A, Terkhorn S, Reddy A, Hankenson K. Thrombospondin-2 regulates matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Bone. 2010;46:464-71 pubmed publisher
    The matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) has context-dependent effects on osteoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation...
  15. Shitaye H, Terkhorn S, Combs J, Hankenson K. Thrombospondin-2 is an endogenous adipocyte inhibitor. Matrix Biol. 2010;29:549-56 pubmed publisher
    The matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) inhibits proliferation and enhances osteoblastogenesis of multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC)...
  16. MacLauchlan S, Yu J, Parrish M, Asoulin T, Schleicher M, Krady M, et al. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase controls the expression of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that NO induces angiogenesis by modulating the level of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin 2 (TSP2). TSP2 levels were higher than WT in eNOS KO tissues in hind-limb ischemia and cutaneous wounds...
  17. Kokenyesi R, Armstrong L, Agah A, Artal R, Bornstein P. Thrombospondin 2 deficiency in pregnant mice results in premature softening of the uterine cervix. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:385-90 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to determine the role of TSP2 in cervical softening by studying a TSP2-null mouse line...
  18. Bedore J, Leask A, Séguin C. Targeting the extracellular matrix: matricellular proteins regulate cell-extracellular matrix communication within distinct niches of the intervertebral disc. Matrix Biol. 2014;37:124-30 pubmed publisher
  19. Liauw J, Hoang S, Choi M, Eroglu C, Choi M, Sun G, et al. Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are necessary for synaptic plasticity and functional recovery after stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1722-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of TSP-1/2 leads to impaired recovery after stroke mainly due to the role of these proteins in synapse formation and axonal outgrowth. ..
  20. Burke D, Dishowitz M, Sweetwyne M, Miedel E, Hankenson K, Kelly D. The role of oxygen as a regulator of stem cell fate during fracture repair in TSP2-null mice. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Fracture repair in thrombospondin-2 (TSP2)-null mice is characterized by reduced endochondral ossification and enhanced intramembranous bone formation...
  21. Papageorgiou A, Swinnen M, Vanhoutte D, VandenDriessche T, Chuah M, Lindner D, et al. Thrombospondin-2 prevents cardiac injury and dysfunction in viral myocarditis through the activation of regulatory T-cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..TSP-2 has a protective role against cardiac inflammation, injury, and dysfunction in acute viral myocarditis. ..
  22. Tian W, Kyriakides T. Thrombospondin 2-null mice display an altered brain foreign body response to polyvinyl alcohol sponge implants. Biomed Mater. 2009;4:015010 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, TSP2 has been shown to influence synaptogenesis and recovery of the brain following stroke...
  23. Himmelbauer H, Silver L. High-resolution comparative mapping of mouse chromosome 17. Genomics. 1993;17:110-20 pubmed
    ..We present the localization of four new DNA markers and determined map positions for 10 other loci, which previously had been assigned to intervals of the t complex only through the study of partial t haplotype chromosomes. ..
  24. O Rourke K, Laherty C, Dixit V. Thrombospondin 1 and thrombospondin 2 are expressed as both homo- and heterotrimers. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24921-4 pubmed
    There exist two distinct thrombospondin molecules (designated TSP1 and TSP2) which are encoded by separate genes. TSP1 is a trimeric cell surface and extracellular matrix molecule...
  25. Havis E, Bonnin M, Olivera Martinez I, Nazaret N, Ruggiu M, Weibel J, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse limb tendon cells during development. Development. 2014;141:3683-96 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF does not have a tenogenic effect and the inhibition of the ERK MAPK signalling pathway was sufficient to activate Scx in mouse limb mesodermal progenitors and mesenchymal stem cells. ..
  26. Hawighorst T, Velasco P, Streit M, Hong Y, Kyriakides T, Brown L, et al. Thrombospondin-2 plays a protective role in multistep carcinogenesis: a novel host anti-tumor defense mechanism. EMBO J. 2001;20:2631-40 pubmed
    ..These results reveal upregulation of an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor during multi step tumorigenesis and identify enhanced stromal TSP-2 expression as a novel host anti-tumor defense mechanism. ..
  27. Meng H, Zhang X, Lee S, Strickland D, Lawrence D, Wang M. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) regulates thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) enhancement of Notch3 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) enhances Notch signaling and binds to both Jagged1 and Notch3 ectodomains, potentially bridging two essential ..
  28. Meng H, Zhang X, Hankenson K, Wang M. Thrombospondin 2 potentiates notch3/jagged1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7866-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that TSP2, but not TSP1, enhances the potency of Notch3 signal transduction...
  29. Lange Asschenfeldt B, Weninger W, Velasco P, Kyriakides T, von Andrian U, Bornstein P, et al. Increased and prolonged inflammation and angiogenesis in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions elicited in the skin of thrombospondin-2--deficient mice. Blood. 2002;99:538-45 pubmed
    ..These results reveal an important role of TSP-2 in limiting the extent and the duration of edema formation, angiogenesis, and inflammatory cell infiltration during acute and chronic inflammation. ..
  30. Alford A, Reddy A, Goldstein S, Murthy P, Tayim R, Sharma G. Two molecular weight species of thrombospondin-2 are present in bone and differentially modulated in fractured and nonfractured tibiae in a murine model of bone healing. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;90:420-8 pubmed publisher
    We report two immuoreactive species of thrombospondin-2 (TSP2), sized approximately 200 and 125 kDa, in the long bones of growing, but not skeletally mature, mice...
  31. Isenberg J, Annis D, Pendrak M, Ptaszynska M, Frazier W, Mosher D, et al. Differential interactions of thrombospondin-1, -2, and -4 with CD47 and effects on cGMP signaling and ischemic injury responses. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, thrombospondin-1 is the dominant regulator of NO/cGMP signaling via CD47, and its limiting role in acute ischemic injury responses is not shared by thrombospondin-2. ..
  32. Neuschwander Tetri B, Talkad V, Otis Stephen F. Induced thrombospondin expression in the mouse pancreas during pancreatic injury. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:102-9 pubmed
    ..These modulators of fibrogenesis could play a role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis that characterizes chronic pancreatitis. ..
  33. MacLauchlan S, Skokos E, Agah A, Zeng J, Tian W, Davidson J, et al. Enhanced angiogenesis and reduced contraction in thrombospondin-2-null wounds is associated with increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9, and soluble VEGF. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:301-13 pubmed publisher
    Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is an inhibitor of angiogenesis with pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects on endothelial cells...
  34. Zhang L, Chen M, Wen Q, Li Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. Reprogramming of Sertoli cells to fetal-like Leydig cells by Wt1 ablation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4003-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus provides a novel concept for somatic cell fate determination in testis development that may also represent an etiology of male infertility in human patients. ..
  35. Reinecke H, Robey T, Mignone J, Muskheli V, Bornstein P, Murry C. Lack of thrombospondin-2 reduces fibrosis and increases vascularity around cardiac cell grafts. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2013;22:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TSP-2 is an attractive target for therapeutic knockdown to improve cardiac graft integration and survival. ..
  36. Childress P, Stayrook K, Alvarez M, Wang Z, Shao Y, Hernandez Buquer S, et al. Genome-Wide Mapping and Interrogation of the Nmp4 Antianabolic Bone Axis. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1269-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Nmp4 suppresses bone anabolism, in part, by regulating IGF-binding protein expression. Changes in Nmp4 status may lead to improvements in osteoprogenitor response to therapeutic cues. ..
  37. Scott Drew S, ffrench Constant C. Expression and function of thrombospondin-1 in myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system. J Neurosci Res. 1997;50:202-14 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the extracellular matrix molecule TSP-1 plays a role in normal central nervous system development by contributing to the regulation of oligodendrocyte precursor migration. ..
  38. Hankenson K, James I, Apone S, Stroup G, Blake S, Liang X, et al. Increased osteoblastogenesis and decreased bone resorption protect against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in thrombospondin-2-null mice. Matrix Biol. 2005;24:362-70 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that mice deficient in the matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2-null) form excess endocortical bone; thus, we postulated that enhanced bone formation in TSP2-null mice could ..
  39. Shingu T, Bornstein P. Characterization of the mouse thrombospondin 2 gene. Genomics. 1993;16:78-84 pubmed
    ..5 kb of the promoter/5' flanking region of the mouse thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) gene...
  40. Cursiefen C, Masli S, Ng T, Dana M, Bornstein P, Lawler J, et al. Roles of thrombospondin-1 and -2 in regulating corneal and iris angiogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:1117-24 pubmed
    ..By contrast, TSP-1, more than TSP-2, helps to suppress inflammation-induced corneal angiogenesis postnatally, implying that angiogenic privilege in the cornea is actively maintained. ..
  41. Carlson C, Gunderson K, Mosher D. Mutations targeting intermodular interfaces or calcium binding destabilize the thrombospondin-2 signature domain. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27089-99 pubmed publisher
  42. Haddadin R, Oh D, Kang M, Villarreal G, Kang J, Jin R, et al. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1)-null and TSP2-null mice exhibit lower intraocular pressures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6708-17 pubmed
    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and TSP2 are matricellular proteins that have been shown to regulate cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Both TSP1 and TSP2 are found in the trabecular meshwork (TM)...
  43. Taylor D, Meganck J, Terkhorn S, Rajani R, Naik A, O Keefe R, et al. Thrombospondin-2 influences the proportion of cartilage and bone during fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:1043-54 pubmed publisher
    Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is a matricellular protein with increased expression during growth and regeneration. TSP2-null mice show accelerated dermal wound healing and enhanced bone formation...
  44. Liska D, Hawkins R, Wikstrom K, Bornstein P. Modulation of thrombospondin expression during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 1994;158:495-505 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the expression of two of the TSPs--TPS1 and TSP2--during the course of differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro...
  45. Mendus D, Rankin Gee E, Mustapha M, Porter B. Increased sensitivity to kindling in mice lacking TSP1. Neuroscience. 2015;305:302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we explore the development of epilepsy using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in mice lacking TSP1 and TSP2. Unexpectedly, we found increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling in mice lacking TSP1, while mice lacking TSP2 kindled ..
  46. Lopes N, Gregg D, Vasudevan S, Hassanain H, Goldschmidt Clermont P, Kovacic H. Thrombospondin 2 regulates cell proliferation induced by Rac1 redox-dependent signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5401-8 pubmed
    b>Thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) is a matricellular protein controlling the apoptosis-proliferation balance in endothelial cells. Little is known about its transcriptional regulation compared with that of TSP1...
  47. Trachtulec Z, Vincek V, Hamvas R, Forejt J, Lehrach H, Klein J. Physical map of mouse chromosome 17 in the region relevant for positional cloning of the Hybrid sterility 1 gene. Genomics. 1994;23:132-7 pubmed
    ..The Hst1 gene maps approximately 0.2 cM proximal to the D17Ph1 locus encompassed by the YAC contig. Since the contig extends at least 1200 kb proximal to D17Ph1, it should contain the Hst1 gene. ..
  48. Bornstein P, Kyriakides T, Yang Z, Armstrong L, Birk D. Thrombospondin 2 modulates collagen fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2000;5:61-6 pubmed
    b>Thrombospondin 2 (TSP2)-null mice, generated by targeted disruption of the Thbs2 gene, display a complex phenotype that is characterized, in part, by a variety of connective tissue abnormalities and increased vascular density in skin and ..
  49. Nishiwaki T, Yamaguchi T, Zhao C, Amano H, Hankenson K, Bornstein P, et al. Reduced expression of thrombospondins and craniofacial dysmorphism in mice overexpressing Fra1. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:596-604 pubmed
    ..We found that expression of Thbs1 and Thbs2 was reduced in Fra1 Tg osteoblasts...
  50. Kopp H, Hooper A, Broekman M, Avecilla S, Petit I, Luo M, et al. Thrombospondins deployed by thrombopoietic cells determine angiogenic switch and extent of revascularization. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:3277-91 pubmed
    ..thrombopoietic recovery following myelosuppression was significantly enhanced in mice deficient in both TSP1 and TSP2 (TSP-DKO mice) in comparison with WT mice...
  51. Kunstfeld R, Hawighorst T, Streit M, Hong Y, Nguyen L, Brown L, et al. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically induced multistep skin carcinogenesis. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;74:106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that enhanced levels of TSP-2 in the skin result in reduced susceptibility to chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis and identify TSP-2 as a new target for the prevention of skin cancer. ..
  52. Mitchell E, Taylor D, Woods K, Davis M, Nelson A, Teasdale R, et al. Differential gene expression in the developing mouse ureter. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:519-38 pubmed
    ..novel genes with spatial expression within the smooth muscle, Acta1; ureteric mesenchyme and smooth muscle, Thbs2 and Col5a2; and urothelium, Kcnj8 and Adh1...
  53. Tooney P, Sakai T, Sakai K, Aeschlimann D, Mosher D. Restricted localization of thrombospondin-2 protein during mouse embryogenesis: a comparison to thrombospondin-1. Matrix Biol. 1998;17:131-43 pubmed
    Thrombospondin-1 and -2 (TSP1 and TSP2) are multifunctional, multimodular extracellular matrix proteins encoded by separate genes. We compared the distributions of TSP1 and TSP2 in mouse embryos (day 10 and later) by immunohistochemistry...
  54. Chatterjee A, Oh D, Kang M, Rhee D. Central corneal thickness does not correlate with TonoLab-measured IOP in several mouse strains with single transgenic mutations of matricellular proteins. Exp Eye Res. 2013;115:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This does not exclude the possibility of an IOP-CCT correlation for CCT values outside this range or for inter-strain comparisons where the mean CCT differs more than 10%. ..
  55. Melnick M, Chen H, Zhou Y, Jaskoll T. Thrombospondin-2 gene expression and protein localization during embryonic mouse palate development. Arch Oral Biol. 2000;45:19-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TSP-2 is multifunctional during embryonic palate formation. ..
  56. Klocke J, Barcia R, Heimer S, Cario E, ZIESKE J, Gilmore M, et al. Spontaneous bacterial keratitis in CD36 knockout mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of spontaneous bacterial keratitis in mice. ..
  57. Agah A, Kyriakides T, Letrondo N, Björkblom B, Bornstein P. Thrombospondin 2 levels are increased in aged mice: consequences for cutaneous wound healing and angiogenesis. Matrix Biol. 2004;22:539-47 pubmed
    The inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin 2 (TSP2), belongs to a group of matricellular proteins that are induced in response to injury and modulate the healing of dermal wounds...
  58. Miedel E, Dishowitz M, Myers M, Dopkin D, Yu Y, Miclau T, et al. Disruption of thrombospondin-2 accelerates ischemic fracture healing. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:935-43 pubmed publisher
    Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is a matricellular protein that is highly up-regulated during fracture healing. TSP2 negatively regulates vascularity, vascular reperfusion following ischemia, and cutaneous wound healing...
  59. Kyriakides T, Zhu Y, Yang Z, Huynh G, Bornstein P. Altered extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis in sponge granulomas of thrombospondin 2-null mice. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:1255-62 pubmed
    ..Specifically, TSP2-null mice display improved healing with minimal scarring and form well-vascularized foreign body capsules...
  60. Palenski T, Gurel Z, Sorenson C, Hankenson K, Sheibani N. Cyp1B1 expression promotes angiogenesis by suppressing NF-?B activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;305:C1170-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of capillary morphogenesis, sustained activation of NF-?B, and increased expression of thrombospondin-2 (TSP2), an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis...
  61. Swinnen M, Vanhoutte D, Van Almen G, Hamdani N, Schellings M, D hooge J, et al. Absence of thrombospondin-2 causes age-related dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2009;120:1585-97 pubmed publisher
    ..At the cardiomyocyte level, TSP-2 deficiency in vivo and its knockdown in vitro decreased the activation of the Akt survival pathway in cardiomyocytes. TSP-2 expression in the heart protects against age-dependent dilated cardiomyopathy. ..
  62. Puolakkainen P, Bradshaw A, Brekken R, Reed M, Kyriakides T, Funk S, et al. SPARC-thrombospondin-2-double-null mice exhibit enhanced cutaneous wound healing and increased fibrovascular invasion of subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponges. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005;53:571-81 pubmed
    ..SPARC and TSP-2 therefore perform similar functions in the regulation of cutaneous wound healing, but fine-tuning with respect to ECM production and remodeling could account for the enhanced response seen in ST-double-null mice. ..
  63. Isenberg J, Maxhimer J, Hyodo F, Pendrak M, Ridnour L, DeGraff W, et al. Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 limit cell and tissue survival of radiation injury. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1100-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, thrombospondin-1/CD47 antagonists may have selective radioprotective activity for normal tissues...
  64. Lamy L, Foussat A, Brown E, Bornstein P, Ticchioni M, Bernard A. Interactions between CD47 and thrombospondin reduce inflammation. J Immunol. 2007;178:5930-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results reveal an important role in vivo for this new CD47/BNIP3 pathway in limiting inflammation by controlling the number of activated T cells. ..
  65. Bae O, Wang J, Baek S, Wang Q, Yuan H, Chen A. Oxidative stress-mediated thrombospondin-2 upregulation impairs bone marrow-derived angiogenic cell function in diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1920-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The upregulation of TSP-2 mediated by increased oxidative stress contributes to angiogenesis dysfunction in diabetic BMACs. ..
  66. Spicer A, Seldin M, Olsen A, Brown N, Wells D, Doggett N, et al. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes. Genomics. 1997;41:493-7 pubmed
    ..HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. ..
  67. Suzuma K, Takagi H, Otani A, Oh H, Honda Y. Expression of thrombospondin-1 in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. Am J Pathol. 1999;154:343-54 pubmed
    ..VEGF-mediated thrombospondin-1 induction in ischemia-induced angiogenesis may be a negative feedback mechanism. ..
  68. Alford A, Golicz A, Cathey A, Reddy A. Thrombospondin-2 facilitates assembly of a type-I collagen-rich matrix in marrow stromal cells undergoing osteoblastic differentiation. Connect Tissue Res. 2013;54:275-82 pubmed publisher
    We examined the effects of Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) deficiency on assembly of collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) by primary marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) undergoing osteoblast differentiation in culture...
  69. Himmelbauer H, Harvey R, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Silver L. High-resolution genetic analysis of a deletion on mouse chromosome 17 extending over the fused, tufted, and homeobox Nkx2-5 loci. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:814-6 pubmed
  70. Tian W, Sawyer A, Kocaoglu F, Kyriakides T. Astrocyte-derived thrombospondin-2 is critical for the repair of the blood-brain barrier. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:860-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our observations suggest that astrocyte-derived TSP-2 is critical for the maintenance of physiological MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels during the FBR and contributes to the repair of the BBB. ..
  71. Bancroft T, Bouaouina M, Roberts S, Lee M, Calderwood D, Schwartz M, et al. Up-regulation of thrombospondin-2 in Akt1-null mice contributes to compromised tissue repair due to abnormalities in fibroblast function. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:409-22 pubmed publisher
    Vascular remodeling is essential for tissue repair and is regulated by multiple factors, including thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) and hypoxia/VEGF-induced activation of Akt...