Th

Summary

Gene Symbol: Th
Description: tyrosine hydroxylase
Alias: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, tyrosine 3-hydroxylase
Species: mouse
Products:     Th

Top Publications

  1. Huang C, Miyagawa S, Matsumaru D, Parker K, Yao H. Progenitor cell expansion and organ size of mouse adrenal is regulated by sonic hedgehog. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results not only provide the genetic evidence to support that the adrenal capsule contributes to the growth of adrenocortex in both fetal and adult life but also identify a novel role of Shh in this process...
  2. Hammond R, Blaess S, Abeliovich A. Sonic hedgehog is a chemoattractant for midbrain dopaminergic axons. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7007 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Shh signaling is involved in determining the structural diversity of these dopaminergic projections. ..
  3. Potzner M, Tsarovina K, BINDER E, Penzo Méndez A, Lefebvre V, Rohrer H, et al. Sequential requirement of Sox4 and Sox11 during development of the sympathetic nervous system. Development. 2010;137:775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, sympathetic ganglia were rudimentary in the adult and sympathetic innervation of target tissues was impaired leading to severe dysautonomia. ..
  4. Rose M, Ren J, Ahmad K, Chao H, Klisch T, Flora A, et al. Math1 is essential for the development of hindbrain neurons critical for perinatal breathing. Neuron. 2009;64:341-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies Math1-dependent neurons that are critical for perinatal breathing that may link proprioception and arousal with respiration. ..
  5. Ferri A, Lin W, Mavromatakis Y, Wang J, Sasaki H, Whitsett J, et al. Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner. Development. 2007;134:2761-9 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner. ..
  6. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  7. Xu B, Goldman J, Rymar V, Forget C, Lo P, Bull S, et al. Critical roles for the netrin receptor deleted in colorectal cancer in dopaminergic neuronal precursor migration, axon guidance, and axon arborization. Neuroscience. 2010;169:932-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DCC regulates appropriate precursor cell migration, axon guidance, and terminal arborization by DA neurons. ..
  8. Andersson E, Prakash N, Cajanek L, Minina E, Bryja V, Bryjova L, et al. Wnt5a regulates ventral midbrain morphogenesis and the development of A9-A10 dopaminergic cells in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3517 pubmed publisher
    ..and flattened, a typical CE phenotype, and the domains occupied by Ngn2+ DA progenitors, NR4A2+ DA precursors and TH+ DA neurons were rostrocaudally reduced and laterally expanded...
  9. Basson M, Echevarria D, Ahn C, Sudarov A, Joyner A, Mason I, et al. Specific regions within the embryonic midbrain and cerebellum require different levels of FGF signaling during development. Development. 2008;135:889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a molecular explanation for this phenomenon by providing evidence that FGF signaling functions to inhibit the BMP signaling that promotes roof plate development. ..
  10. Friling S, Andersson E, Thompson L, Jönsson M, Hebsgaard J, Nanou E, et al. Efficient production of mesencephalic dopamine neurons by Lmx1a expression in embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the enriched generation of functional mesDA neurons by forced expression of Lmx1a may be of future importance in cell replacement therapy of Parkinson disease. ..

Detail Information

Publications82

  1. Huang C, Miyagawa S, Matsumaru D, Parker K, Yao H. Progenitor cell expansion and organ size of mouse adrenal is regulated by sonic hedgehog. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results not only provide the genetic evidence to support that the adrenal capsule contributes to the growth of adrenocortex in both fetal and adult life but also identify a novel role of Shh in this process...
  2. Hammond R, Blaess S, Abeliovich A. Sonic hedgehog is a chemoattractant for midbrain dopaminergic axons. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7007 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Shh signaling is involved in determining the structural diversity of these dopaminergic projections. ..
  3. Potzner M, Tsarovina K, BINDER E, Penzo Méndez A, Lefebvre V, Rohrer H, et al. Sequential requirement of Sox4 and Sox11 during development of the sympathetic nervous system. Development. 2010;137:775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, sympathetic ganglia were rudimentary in the adult and sympathetic innervation of target tissues was impaired leading to severe dysautonomia. ..
  4. Rose M, Ren J, Ahmad K, Chao H, Klisch T, Flora A, et al. Math1 is essential for the development of hindbrain neurons critical for perinatal breathing. Neuron. 2009;64:341-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies Math1-dependent neurons that are critical for perinatal breathing that may link proprioception and arousal with respiration. ..
  5. Ferri A, Lin W, Mavromatakis Y, Wang J, Sasaki H, Whitsett J, et al. Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner. Development. 2007;134:2761-9 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate multiple phases of midbrain dopaminergic neuron development in a dosage-dependent manner. ..
  6. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  7. Xu B, Goldman J, Rymar V, Forget C, Lo P, Bull S, et al. Critical roles for the netrin receptor deleted in colorectal cancer in dopaminergic neuronal precursor migration, axon guidance, and axon arborization. Neuroscience. 2010;169:932-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DCC regulates appropriate precursor cell migration, axon guidance, and terminal arborization by DA neurons. ..
  8. Andersson E, Prakash N, Cajanek L, Minina E, Bryja V, Bryjova L, et al. Wnt5a regulates ventral midbrain morphogenesis and the development of A9-A10 dopaminergic cells in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3517 pubmed publisher
    ..and flattened, a typical CE phenotype, and the domains occupied by Ngn2+ DA progenitors, NR4A2+ DA precursors and TH+ DA neurons were rostrocaudally reduced and laterally expanded...
  9. Basson M, Echevarria D, Ahn C, Sudarov A, Joyner A, Mason I, et al. Specific regions within the embryonic midbrain and cerebellum require different levels of FGF signaling during development. Development. 2008;135:889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a molecular explanation for this phenomenon by providing evidence that FGF signaling functions to inhibit the BMP signaling that promotes roof plate development. ..
  10. Friling S, Andersson E, Thompson L, Jönsson M, Hebsgaard J, Nanou E, et al. Efficient production of mesencephalic dopamine neurons by Lmx1a expression in embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the enriched generation of functional mesDA neurons by forced expression of Lmx1a may be of future importance in cell replacement therapy of Parkinson disease. ..
  11. Yamauchi K, Mizushima S, Tamada A, Yamamoto N, Takashima S, Murakami F. FGF8 signaling regulates growth of midbrain dopaminergic axons by inducing semaphorin 3F. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4044-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the MHB signaling center regulates the growth polarity of mDAN axons along the RC axis by inducing sema3F. ..
  12. Schmidt M, Lin S, Pape M, Ernsberger U, Stanke M, Kobayashi K, et al. The bHLH transcription factor Hand2 is essential for the maintenance of noradrenergic properties in differentiated sympathetic neurons. Dev Biol. 2009;329:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..in the expression of the noradrenergic marker genes dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In contrast, expression of the pan-neuronal genes TuJ1, HuC and SCG10 was not affected...
  13. Alerte T, Akinfolarin A, Friedrich E, Mader S, Hong C, Perez R. Alpha-synuclein aggregation alters tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and immunoreactivity: lessons from viral transduction of knockout mice. Neurosci Lett. 2008;435:24-9 pubmed publisher
    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, is frequently used as a marker of dopaminergic neuronal loss in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  14. Feng L, Xie X, Joshi P, Yang Z, Shibasaki K, Chow R, et al. Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina. Development. 2006;133:4815-25 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes. ..
  15. Mavromatakis Y, Lin W, Metzakopian E, Ferri A, Yan C, Sasaki H, et al. Foxa1 and Foxa2 positively and negatively regulate Shh signalling to specify ventral midbrain progenitor identity. Mech Dev. 2011;128:90-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data indicate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 contribute to the specification of ventral midbrain progenitor identity by regulating Shh signalling in a positive and negative manner. ..
  16. Ching S, Vilain E. Targeted disruption of Sonic Hedgehog in the mouse adrenal leads to adrenocortical hypoplasia. Genesis. 2009;47:628-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results establish a direct role for Shh signaling in normal adrenal development...
  17. Val P, Martinez Barbera J, Swain A. Adrenal development is initiated by Cited2 and Wt1 through modulation of Sf-1 dosage. Development. 2007;134:2349-58 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the importance of transcription factor dosage in organogenesis and the role of transcription co-factors such as Cited2 in determining the levels of these factors. ..
  18. Makita T, Sucov H, Gariepy C, Yanagisawa M, Ginty D. Endothelins are vascular-derived axonal guidance cues for developing sympathetic neurons. Nature. 2008;452:759-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they suggest a model in which newborn sympathetic neurons distinguish and choose between distinct vascular trajectories to innervate their appropriate end organs. ..
  19. Tang M, Miyamoto Y, Huang E. Multiple roles of beta-catenin in controlling the neurogenic niche for midbrain dopamine neurons. Development. 2009;136:2027-38 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, Th-IRES-Cre removes beta-catenin in a subset of neural progenitor cells without perturbing the cellular and structural ..
  20. Nam J, Onitsuka I, Hatch J, Uchida Y, Ray S, Huang S, et al. Coronary veins determine the pattern of sympathetic innervation in the developing heart. Development. 2013;140:1475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed mechanism underlies a distinct, stereotypical pattern of autonomic innervation that is adapted to the complex tissue structure and physiology of the heart. ..
  21. Zhang J, Pho V, Bonasera S, Holtzman J, Tang A, Hellmuth J, et al. Essential function of HIPK2 in TGFbeta-dependent survival of midbrain dopamine neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:77-86 pubmed
    ..These data underscore the importance of the TGFbeta-Smad-HIPK2 pathway in the survival of DA neurons and its potential as a therapeutic target for promoting DA neuron survival during neurodegeneration. ..
  22. Platero Luengo A, González Granero S, Durán R, Diaz Castro B, Piruat J, Garcia Verdugo J, et al. An O2-sensitive glomus cell-stem cell synapse induces carotid body growth in chronic hypoxia. Cell. 2014;156:291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, glomus cells not only acutely activate the respiratory center but also induce NSC-dependent CB hypertrophy necessary for acclimatization to chronic hypoxemia. ..
  23. Joksimovic M, Anderegg A, Roy A, Campochiaro L, Yun B, Kittappa R, et al. Spatiotemporally separable Shh domains in the midbrain define distinct dopaminergic progenitor pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This refined ontogenetic definition will expand understanding of dopamine neuron biology and selective susceptibility, and will impact stem cell-derived therapies and models for PD. ..
  24. García Moreno F, Pedraza M, Di Giovannantonio L, Di Salvio M, López Mascaraque L, Simeone A, et al. A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The diencephalic transcription factor OTP was necessary for this migratory behavior. ..
  25. Bupesh M, Abellan A, Medina L. Genetic and experimental evidence supports the continuum of the central extended amygdala and a mutiple embryonic origin of its principal neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3507-31 pubmed publisher
  26. Dugan J, Stratton A, Riley H, Farmer W, Mastick G. Midbrain dopaminergic axons are guided longitudinally through the diencephalon by Slit/Robo signals. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..test the potential roles of Slit/Robo guidance in ascending trajectories, we examined tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) projections from mdDA neurons in mutant mouse embryos...
  27. George L, Chaverra M, Wolfe L, Thorne J, Close Davis M, Eibs A, et al. Familial dysautonomia model reveals Ikbkap deletion causes apoptosis of Pax3+ progenitors and peripheral neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:18698-703 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that FD does not result from a failure in trunk neural crest migration, but rather from a critical function for Ikbkap in TrkA progenitors and TrkA(+) neurons. ..
  28. Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Heide L, Kouwenhoven W, Veenvliet J, Wever I, et al. Lmx1a encodes a rostral set of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons marked by the Wnt/B-catenin signaling activator R-spondin 2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74049 pubmed publisher
  29. Tang M, Villaescusa J, Luo S, Guitarte C, Lei S, Miyamoto Y, et al. Interactions of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and sonic hedgehog regulate the neurogenesis of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of beta-catenin in the midline progenitors using the tyrosine hydroxylase-internal ribosomal entry site-Cre (Th-IRES-Cre) mice leads to increased dopaminergic neurogenesis...
  30. Tsai H, Zhang F, Adamantidis A, Stuber G, Bonci A, de Lecea L, et al. Phasic firing in dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for behavioral conditioning. Science. 2009;324:1080-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that phasic dopaminergic activity is sufficient to mediate mammalian behavioral conditioning. ..
  31. Perez Balaguer A, Puelles E, Wurst W, Martinez S. Shh dependent and independent maintenance of basal midbrain. Mech Dev. 2009;126:301-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our results and recently published data, we suggest the existence of a specific genetic pathway for the specification of the mesencephalic red nucleus. Foxa2 could be the candidate gene that might control this genetic pathway. ..
  32. Nakatani T, Kumai M, Mizuhara E, Minaki Y, Ono Y. Lmx1a and Lmx1b cooperate with Foxa2 to coordinate the specification of dopaminergic neurons and control of floor plate cell differentiation in the developing mesencephalon. Dev Biol. 2010;339:101-13 pubmed publisher
  33. Stott S, Metzakopian E, Lin W, Kaestner K, Hen R, Ang S. Foxa1 and foxa2 are required for the maintenance of dopaminergic properties in ventral midbrain neurons at late embryonic stages. J Neurosci. 2013;33:8022-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of both Foxa1 and Foxa2 resulted in a significant reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive mDA neurons...
  34. Fuerst P, Bruce F, Tian M, Wei W, Elstrott J, Feller M, et al. DSCAM and DSCAML1 function in self-avoidance in multiple cell types in the developing mouse retina. Neuron. 2009;64:484-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, DSCAM and DSCAML1 function similarly in self-avoidance, and are not essential for synaptic specificity in the mouse retina. ..
  35. Hendershot T, Liu H, Clouthier D, Shepherd I, Coppola E, Studer M, et al. Conditional deletion of Hand2 reveals critical functions in neurogenesis and cell type-specific gene expression for development of neural crest-derived noradrenergic sympathetic ganglion neurons. Dev Biol. 2008;319:179-91 pubmed publisher
    ..disruption of Hand2 results in a significant and progressive loss of neurons as well as a significant loss of TH expression...
  36. Bonilla S, Hall A, Pinto L, Attardo A, Gotz M, Huttner W, et al. Identification of midbrain floor plate radial glia-like cells as dopaminergic progenitors. Glia. 2008;56:809-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our experiments support the concept that the midbrain FP differs from other FP regions and demonstrate that FP radial glia-like cells in the midbrain are neurogenic and give rise to midbrain DA neurons. ..
  37. Jacobs F, Veenvliet J, Almirza W, Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent and -independent gene-regulatory pathways of Pitx3 in meso-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Development. 2011;138:5213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas all mdDA neurons require Nurr1 for expression of Th and survival, dependence on Pitx3 is displayed only by the mdDA subpopulation that will form the substantia nigra (..
  38. Bodmer D, Levine Wilkinson S, Richmond A, Hirsh S, Kuruvilla R. Wnt5a mediates nerve growth factor-dependent axonal branching and growth in developing sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings define a novel regulatory pathway in which Wnt5a, expressed in sympathetic neurons in response to target-derived NGF, regulates innervation of peripheral targets. ..
  39. Rotolo T, Smallwood P, Williams J, Nathans J. Genetically-directed, cell type-specific sparse labeling for the analysis of neuronal morphology. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4099 pubmed publisher
    ..in cholinergic or catecholaminergic neurons [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-CreER or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IRES-CreER], predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light chain (NFL)-IRES-CreER], or broadly in ..
  40. Flames N, Hobert O. Gene regulatory logic of dopamine neuron differentiation. Nature. 2009;458:885-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal a simple and apparently conserved regulatory logic of dopamine neuron terminal differentiation and may provide new entry points into the diagnosis or therapy of conditions in which dopamine neurons are defective. ..
  41. Deppmann C, Mihalas S, Sharma N, Lonze B, Niebur E, Ginty D. A model for neuronal competition during development. Science. 2008;320:369-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that three target-initiated events are essential for rapid and robust competition between neurons: sensitization, paracrine apoptotic signaling, and protection from such effects. ..
  42. Andersson E, Salto C, Villaescusa J, Cajanek L, Yang S, Bryjova L, et al. Wnt5a cooperates with canonical Wnts to generate midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo and in stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E602-10 pubmed publisher
  43. Vincentz J, Vandusen N, Fleming A, Rubart M, Firulli B, Howard M, et al. A Phox2- and Hand2-dependent Hand1 cis-regulatory element reveals a unique gene dosage requirement for Hand2 during sympathetic neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that Hand1 is dispensable for normal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) expression in sympathetic neurons, even when Hand2 gene dosage is concurrently ..
  44. Bauer M, Szulc J, Meyer M, Jensen C, Terki T, Meixner A, et al. Delta-like 1 participates in the specification of ventral midbrain progenitor derived dopaminergic neurons. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1101-15 pubmed
    ..5 (E11.5) followed by exclusive expression in tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (TH) positive neurons from E12.5 onwards...
  45. Di Salvio M, Di Giovannantonio L, Acampora D, Prosperi R, Omodei D, Prakash N, et al. Otx2 controls neuron subtype identity in ventral tegmental area and antagonizes vulnerability to MPTP. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that Otx2 is required to specify neuron subtype identity in VTA and may antagonize vulnerability to the Parkinsonian toxin MPTP. ..
  46. Joksimovic M, Yun B, Kittappa R, Anderegg A, Chang W, Taketo M, et al. Wnt antagonism of Shh facilitates midbrain floor plate neurogenesis. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate how the dynamic interplay of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and Shh may orchestrate floor plate neurogenesis or a lack thereof. ..
  47. Ono Y, Nakatani T, Sakamoto Y, Mizuhara E, Minaki Y, Kumai M, et al. Differences in neurogenic potential in floor plate cells along an anteroposterior location: midbrain dopaminergic neurons originate from mesencephalic floor plate cells. Development. 2007;134:3213-25 pubmed
    ..Our data provide insights into the mechanisms of specification and generation of mesDA neurons, and illustrate a useful cell replacement approach for Parkinson's disease. ..
  48. Richards A, Scheel T, Wang K, Henkemeyer M, Kromer L. EphB1 null mice exhibit neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars reticulata and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:2619-28 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization data and a direct comparison of SN neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and/or the beta-gal marker for EphB1 revealed that EphB1 is not expressed in TH+ neurons of pars compacta (SNc), ..
  49. Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, Schellevis R, Scheppink G, Holstege F, et al. Lmx1a is an activator of Rgs4 and Grb10 and is responsible for the correct specification of rostral and medial mdDA neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;37:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, microarray analysis of an LMX1A-overexpression cell system resulted in the identification of novel direct or indirect downstream targets of Lmx1a in mdDA neurons: Grb10, Rgs4 and Vmat2. ..
  50. Berghard A, Hägglund A, Bohm S, Carlsson L. Lhx2-dependent specification of olfactory sensory neurons is required for successful integration of olfactory, vomeronasal, and GnRH neurons. FASEB J. 2012;26:3464-72 pubmed publisher
    ..As adults, the conditional mutants do not pass puberty, and these findings support the view of an exclusive nasal origin of GnRH neurons in the mouse. Thus, Lhx2 in OSNs is required for functional development of three separate systems. ..
  51. Li L, Rutlin M, Abraira V, Cassidy C, Kus L, Gong S, et al. The functional organization of cutaneous low-threshold mechanosensory neurons. Cell. 2011;147:1615-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a model of mechanosensation in which the activities of A?-, A?-, and C-LTMRs are integrated within dorsal horn LTMR columns and processed into outputs that underlie the perception of myriad touch sensations. ..
  52. Peng C, Aron L, Klein R, Li M, Wurst W, Prakash N, et al. Pitx3 is a critical mediator of GDNF-induced BDNF expression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12802-15 pubmed publisher
  53. Guo C, Qiu H, Huang Y, Chen H, Yang R, Chen S, et al. Lmx1b is essential for Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression in the isthmic organizer during tectum and cerebellum development in mice. Development. 2007;134:317-25 pubmed
  54. Jacobs F, van der Linden A, Wang Y, von Oerthel L, Sul H, Burbach J, et al. Identification of Dlk1, Ptpru and Klhl1 as novel Nurr1 target genes in meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons. Development. 2009;136:2363-73 pubmed publisher
  55. Wang J, Lou H, Pedersen C, Smith A, Perez R. 14-3-3zeta contributes to tyrosine hydroxylase activity in MN9D cells: localization of dopamine regulatory proteins to mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14011-9 pubmed publisher
    The 14-3-3 proteins stimulate the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme...
  56. Chung S, Leung A, Han B, Chang M, Moon J, Kim C, et al. Wnt1-lmx1a forms a novel autoregulatory loop and controls midbrain dopaminergic differentiation synergistically with the SHH-FoxA2 pathway. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5:646-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with previous works, this study shows that two regulatory loops (Wnt1-Lmx1a and SHH-FoxA2) critically link extrinsic signals to cell-intrinsic factors and cooperatively regulate mDA neuron development. ..
  57. Pelling M, Anthwal N, McNay D, Gradwohl G, Leiter A, Guillemot F, et al. Differential requirements for neurogenin 3 in the development of POMC and NPY neurons in the hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2011;349:406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..mapping and loss of function studies in mice demonstrate that Ngn3+ progenitors contribute to subsets of POMC, NPY, TH and SF1 neurons and is required for the specification of these neuronal subtypes in the ventral hypothalamus...
  58. Sammeta N, Hardin D, McClintock T. Uncx regulates proliferation of neural progenitor cells and neuronal survival in the olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that UNCX acts downstream of neural determination factors to broadly control transcriptional mechanisms used by neural progenitor cells to specify neural phenotypes...
  59. Kim A, Reuter A, Zubair M, Else T, Serecky K, Bingham N, et al. Targeted disruption of beta-catenin in Sf1-expressing cells impairs development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex. Development. 2008;135:2593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define crucial roles for beta-catenin--presumably as part of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway--in both embryonic development of the adrenal cortex and in maintenance of the adult organ. ..
  60. Bodmer D, Ascano M, Kuruvilla R. Isoform-specific dephosphorylation of dynamin1 by calcineurin couples neurotrophin receptor endocytosis to axonal growth. Neuron. 2011;70:1085-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NGF-dependent phosphoregulation of dynamin1 is a critical event coordinating neurotrophin receptor endocytosis and axonal growth. ..
  61. Yang J, Brown A, Ellisor D, Paul E, Hagan N, Zervas M. Dynamic temporal requirement of Wnt1 in midbrain dopamine neuron development. Development. 2013;140:1342-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our analyses resolve the spatial and temporal function of Wnt1 in Mb and Cb patterning and in MbDA neuron development in vivo. ..
  62. Hayes L, Ralls S, Wang H, Ahn S. Duration of Shh signaling contributes to mDA neuron diversity. Dev Biol. 2013;374:115-26 pubmed publisher
  63. Jacobs F, Smits S, Noorlander C, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, Burbach J, et al. Retinoic acid counteracts developmental defects in the substantia nigra caused by Pitx3 deficiency. Development. 2007;134:2673-84 pubmed
    ..The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons was significantly increased after RA treatment in the rostral mdDA region of Pitx3-/- embryos...
  64. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N. FRS2 alpha 2F/2F mice lack carotid body and exhibit abnormalities of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and carotid sinus nerve. Dev Biol. 2008;314:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the sympathetic ganglion provides glomus cell precursors into the third arch artery derivative in the presence of sensory fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve...
  65. Brown A, Machan J, Hayes L, Zervas M. Molecular organization and timing of Wnt1 expression define cohorts of midbrain dopamine neuron progenitors in vivo. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:2978-3000 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and E11.5. Collectively, our findings delineate the temporal window of MbDA neuron generation and show that lineage and timing predicts the terminal distribution pattern of MbDA neurons. ..
  66. Lin W, Metzakopian E, Mavromatakis Y, Gao N, Balaskas N, Sasaki H, et al. Foxa1 and Foxa2 function both upstream of and cooperatively with Lmx1a and Lmx1b in a feedforward loop promoting mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neuron development. Dev Biol. 2009;333:386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that Nkx2.2 and TH genes are likely direct targets of Foxa1 and Foxa2 in mesodiencephalic dopaminergic cells in vivo...
  67. Castelo Branco G, Andersson E, Minina E, Sousa K, Ribeiro D, Kokubu C, et al. Delayed dopaminergic neuron differentiation in Lrp6 mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Our results, therefore, suggest a role for Lrp6 in the onset of DA neuron development in the VM as well as a role in midbrain morphogenesis. ..
  68. Jacobs F, van Erp S, van der Linden A, von Oerthel L, Burbach J, Smidt M. Pitx3 potentiates Nurr1 in dopamine neuron terminal differentiation through release of SMRT-mediated repression. Development. 2009;136:531-40 pubmed publisher
  69. Ieda M, Kanazawa H, Kimura K, Hattori F, Ieda Y, Taniguchi M, et al. Sema3a maintains normal heart rhythm through sympathetic innervation patterning. Nat Med. 2007;13:604-12 pubmed
    ..We conclude that appropriate cardiac Sema3a expression is needed for sympathetic innervation patterning and is critical for heart rate control. ..
  70. Omodei D, Acampora D, Mancuso P, Prakash N, Di Giovannantonio L, Wurst W, et al. Anterior-posterior graded response to Otx2 controls proliferation and differentiation of dopaminergic progenitors in the ventral mesencephalon. Development. 2008;135:3459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data provide new insights into the mechanism of mesDA neuron specification and suggest Otx2 as a potential target for cell replacement-based therapeutic approaches in PD. ..
  71. Morikawa Y, D Autréaux F, Gershon M, Cserjesi P. Hand2 determines the noradrenergic phenotype in the mouse sympathetic nervous system. Dev Biol. 2007;307:114-26 pubmed
    ..noradrenergic differentiation, the levels of the norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) was examined...
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    ..We further show that abnormal sympathetic development in mice lacking NRP1 in the sympathetic lineage has functional consequences, as it causes sinus bradycardia, similar to mice lacking SEMA3A. ..
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    ..Understanding the mechanisms underlying FD will provide insights for potential new therapeutic interventions not only for FD, but also for other peripheral neuropathies. ..
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