Gene Symbol: Tgfbr2
Description: transforming growth factor, beta receptor II
Alias: 1110020H15Rik, AU042018, DNIIR, RIIDN, TBR-II, TbetaR-II, TbetaRII, TGF-beta receptor type-2, TGF-beta receptor II, TGF-beta receptor type II, TGF-beta type II receptor, TGFR-2, transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II
Species: mouse
Products:     Tgfbr2

Top Publications

  1. Ito Y, Yeo J, Chytil A, Han J, Bringas P, Nakajima A, et al. Conditional inactivation of Tgfbr2 in cranial neural crest causes cleft palate and calvaria defects. Development. 2003;130:5269-80 pubmed
    ..We show that mice with Tgfbr2 conditional gene ablation in the CNC have complete cleft secondary palate, calvaria agenesis, and other skull ..
  2. Falk S, Wurdak H, Ittner L, Ille F, Sumara G, Schmid M, et al. Brain area-specific effect of TGF-beta signaling on Wnt-dependent neural stem cell expansion. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;2:472-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In the midbrain, but not in the forebrain, Tgfbr2 ablation results in ectopic expression of Wnt1/beta-catenin and FGF8, activation of Wnt target genes, and ..
  3. Bartholin L, Cyprian F, Vincent D, Garcia C, Martel S, Horvat B, et al. Generation of mice with conditionally activated transforming growth factor beta signaling through the TbetaRI/ALK5 receptor. Genesis. 2008;46:724-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the information provided on TGFbeta effects on T-cell biology, LSL-TbetaRI(CA) mouse constitutes an attractive tool to address the effect of TGFbeta signaling upregulation in any cell type expressing the cre-recombinase. ..
  4. Qiu T, Wu X, Zhang F, Clemens T, Wan M, Cao X. TGF-beta type II receptor phosphorylates PTH receptor to integrate bone remodelling signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:224-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII) forms an endocytic complex with PTH1R in response to PTH and regulates signalling by PTH and TGF-beta...
  5. Ozdemir B, Pentcheva Hoang T, Carstens J, Zheng X, Wu C, Simpson T, et al. Depletion of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and fibrosis induces immunosuppression and accelerates pancreas cancer with reduced survival. Cancer Cell. 2014;25:719-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This study underscores the need for caution in targeting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in PDAC. ..
  6. Carvalho R, Jonker L, Goumans M, Larsson J, Bouwman P, Karlsson S, et al. Defective paracrine signalling by TGFbeta in yolk sac vasculature of endoglin mutant mice: a paradigm for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Development. 2004;131:6237-47 pubmed
    ..from endoglin knockout mice and from mice with endothelial-specific deletion of the TGFbeta type II receptor (TbetaRII) or ALK5...
  7. Longobardi L, O Rear L, Aakula S, Johnstone B, Shimer K, Chytil A, et al. Effect of IGF-I in the chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the presence or absence of TGF-beta signaling. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:626-36 pubmed
    ..We conditionally inactivated the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII) in MSCs using a cre-lox system, generating TbetaRII knockout MSCs (RIIKO-MSCs)...
  8. Allinson K, Lee H, Fruttiger M, McCarty J, McCarty J, Arthur H. Endothelial expression of TGF? type II receptor is required to maintain vascular integrity during postnatal development of the central nervous system. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39336 pubmed publisher
    ..address this we used a tamoxifen inducible Cre-LoxP strategy in neonatal mice to deplete the TypeII TGF? receptor (Tgfbr2) specifically in endothelial cells...
  9. Wurdak H, Ittner L, Lang K, Leveen P, Suter U, Fischer J, et al. Inactivation of TGFbeta signaling in neural crest stem cells leads to multiple defects reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome. Genes Dev. 2005;19:530-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, TGFbeta signal modulation in neural crest differentiation might play a crucial role in the etiology of DiGeorge syndrome. ..

More Information


  1. Chai Y, Zhao J, Mogharei A, Xu B, Bringas P, Shuler C, et al. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor signaling accelerates tooth formation in mouse first branchial arch explants. Mech Dev. 1999;86:63-74 pubmed
  2. Schadt E, Lamb J, Yang X, Zhu J, Edwards S, GuhaThakurta D, et al. An integrative genomics approach to infer causal associations between gene expression and disease. Nat Genet. 2005;37:710-7 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate the utility of this approach by identifying and experimentally validating the involvement of three new genes in susceptibility to obesity. ..
  3. Sasaki T, Ito Y, Bringas P, Chou S, Urata M, Slavkin H, et al. TGFbeta-mediated FGF signaling is crucial for regulating cranial neural crest cell proliferation during frontal bone development. Development. 2006;133:371-81 pubmed
    ..Our previous study has demonstrated that conditional inactivation of Tgfbr2 in the neural crest results in severe defects in calvarial development, although the cellular and molecular ..
  4. Tulachan S, Tei E, Hembree M, Crisera C, Prasadan K, Koizumi M, et al. TGF-beta isoform signaling regulates secondary transition and mesenchymal-induced endocrine development in the embryonic mouse pancreas. Dev Biol. 2007;305:508-21 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta RII in the ducts and islets may normally serve to downregulate the production of beta cells from embryonic ducts. ..
  5. Ouyang W, Beckett O, Ma Q, Li M. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling curbs thymic negative selection promoting regulatory T cell development. Immunity. 2010;32:642-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a critical function for TGF-beta in control of autoreactive T cell fates with important implications for understanding T cell self-tolerance mechanisms. ..
  6. Serra R, Johnson M, Filvaroff E, LaBorde J, Sheehan D, Derynck R, et al. Expression of a truncated, kinase-defective TGF-beta type II receptor in mouse skeletal tissue promotes terminal chondrocyte differentiation and osteoarthritis. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:541-52 pubmed
    ..can compete with the endogenous receptors for complex formation, thereby acting as a dominant-negative mutant (DNIIR)...
  7. Leveen P, Larsson J, Ehinger M, Cilio C, Sundler M, Sjöstrand L, et al. Induced disruption of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor gene in mice causes a lethal inflammatory disorder that is transplantable. Blood. 2002;100:560-8 pubmed
    ..phenotype would develop following transplantation of bone marrow deficient for the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII) gene to normal recipient animals...
  8. Yoshida K, Yang G, Zhang W, Tsuda M, Tsuneyama K, Moritoki Y, et al. Deletion of interleukin-12p40 suppresses autoimmune cholangitis in dominant negative transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice. Hepatology. 2009;50:1494-500 pubmed publisher
  9. Ijichi H, Chytil A, Gorska A, Aakre M, Bierie B, Tada M, et al. Inhibiting Cxcr2 disrupts tumor-stromal interactions and improves survival in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously generated pancreas epithelium-specific TGF-? receptor type II (Tgfbr2) knockout mice in the context of Kras activation (mice referred to herein as Kras+Tgfbr2KO mice) and found that ..
  10. Baffi M, Slattery E, Sohn P, Moses H, Chytil A, Serra R. Conditional deletion of the TGF-beta type II receptor in Col2a expressing cells results in defects in the axial skeleton without alterations in chondrocyte differentiation or embryonic development of long bones. Dev Biol. 2004;276:124-42 pubmed skeletal development, we generated mice with a conditional deletion of the TGF-beta type II receptor gene (Tgfbr2) specifically in Col2a expressing cells using the Cre/lox recombinase system...
  11. Clotman F, Jacquemin P, Plumb Rudewiez N, Pierreux C, Van Der Smissen P, Dietz H, et al. Control of liver cell fate decision by a gradient of TGF beta signaling modulated by Onecut transcription factors. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1849-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, a gradient of activin/TGFbeta signaling modulated by Onecut factors is required to segregate the hepatocytic and the biliary lineages. ..
  12. Alejandre Alcazar M, Michiels Corsten M, Vicencio A, Reiss I, Ryu J, de Krijger R, et al. TGF-beta signaling is dynamically regulated during the alveolarization of rodent and human lungs. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:259-69 pubmed
    ..Pronounced changes in the expression and localization of the TGF-beta receptors Acvrl1, Tgfbr1, Tgfbr2, Tgfbr3, and endoglin, and the intracellular messengers Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad6, and Smad7 were noted as mouse ..
  13. Hirota S, Liu Q, Lee H, Hossain M, Lacy Hulbert A, McCarty J. The astrocyte-expressed integrin ?v?8 governs blood vessel sprouting in the developing retina. Development. 2011;138:5157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate that ?v?8 integrin is a component of a paracrine signaling axis that links astrocytes to blood vessels and is essential for proper regulation of retinal angiogenesis. ..
  14. Seo H, Serra R. Deletion of Tgfbr2 in Prx1-cre expressing mesenchyme results in defects in development of the long bones and joints. Dev Biol. 2007;310:304-16 pubmed
    In this study, we address the function of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) and its type II receptor (Tgfbr2) in limb development in vivo...
  15. Wang X, Greenhalgh D, Bickenbach J, Jiang A, Bundman D, Krieg T, et al. Expression of a dominant-negative type II transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor in the epidermis of transgenic mice blocks TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2386-91 pubmed
    ..These data document the role of the type II TGF-beta receptor in mediating TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition of the epidermis in vivo and in maintenance of epidermal homeostasis. ..
  16. Goumans M, Valdimarsdottir G, Itoh S, Lebrin F, Larsson J, Mummery C, et al. Activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 is an antagonistic mediator of lateral TGFbeta/ALK5 signaling. Mol Cell. 2003;12:817-28 pubmed
    ..TGFbeta type II receptor is also required for ALK1 activation by TGFbeta. Interestingly, ALK1 not only induces a biological response opposite to that of ALK5 but also directly antagonizes ALK5/Smad signaling. ..
  17. Robson A, Allinson K, Anderson R, Henderson D, Arthur H. The TGF? type II receptor plays a critical role in the endothelial cells during cardiac development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2435-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Atrioventricular-myocardial-specific Tgfbr2 knockout (KO) embryos had short septal leaflets of the tricuspid valve, whereas ventricular myocardial-specific KO ..
  18. Ramalingam R, Larmonier C, Thurston R, Midura Kiela M, Zheng S, Ghishan F, et al. Dendritic cell-specific disruption of TGF-? receptor II leads to altered regulatory T cell phenotype and spontaneous multiorgan autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2012;189:3878-93 pubmed publisher
    ..previously in vitro, we generated conditional knockout (KO) mice with Cre-mediated DC-specific deletion of Tgfbr2 (DC-Tgfbr2 KO)...
  19. Antoniou A, Raynaud P, Cordi S, Zong Y, Tronche F, Stanger B, et al. Intrahepatic bile ducts develop according to a new mode of tubulogenesis regulated by the transcription factor SOX9. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:2325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the embryo, hepatoblasts differentiate to cholangiocytes, which give rise to the bile ducts. Here, we investigated duct development in mouse liver and characterized the role of the SRY-related HMG box transcription factor 9 (SOX9)...
  20. Zuo W, Huang F, Chiang Y, Li M, Du J, Ding Y, et al. c-Cbl-mediated neddylation antagonizes ubiquitination and degradation of the TGF-? type II receptor. Mol Cell. 2013;49:499-510 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also identified a neddylation-activity-defective c-Cbl mutation from leukemia patients, implying a link between aberrant T?RII neddylation and leukemia development. ..
  21. Carvalho R, Itoh F, Goumans M, Lebrin F, Kato M, Takahashi S, et al. Compensatory signalling induced in the yolk sac vasculature by deletion of TGFbeta receptors in mice. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:4269-77 pubmed
    ..To address this, we selectively deleted the type I (ALK5, TGFBR1) and type II (TbetaRII, TGFBR2) receptors in mice...
  22. Chytil A, Magnuson M, Wright C, Moses H. Conditional inactivation of the TGF-beta type II receptor using Cre:Lox. Genesis. 2002;32:73-5 pubmed
  23. Li M, Sanjabi S, Flavell R. Transforming growth factor-beta controls development, homeostasis, and tolerance of T cells by regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Immunity. 2006;25:455-71 pubmed
    ..This study reveals pleiotropic functions of TGF-beta signaling in T cells that may ensure a diverse and self-tolerant T cell repertoire in vivo. ..
  24. Chen C, Liu I, Fliesler S, Han X, Huang S, Huang J. Cholesterol suppresses cellular TGF-beta responsiveness: implications in atherogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3509-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that high cholesterol contributes to atherogenesis, at least in part, by suppressing TGF-beta responsiveness in vascular cells. ..
  25. Lawler S, Candia A, Ebner R, Shum L, Lopez A, Moses H, et al. The murine type II TGF-beta receptor has a coincident embryonic expression and binding preference for TGF-beta 1. Development. 1994;120:165-75 pubmed
  26. Taya Y, O Kane S, Ferguson M. Pathogenesis of cleft palate in TGF-beta3 knockout mice. Development. 1999;126:3869-79 pubmed
  27. Park S, Lee Y, Seki T, Hong K, Fliess N, Jiang Z, et al. ALK5- and TGFBR2-independent role of ALK1 in the pathogenesis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2. Blood. 2008;111:633-42 pubmed
    ..We directly addressed these issues in vivo by comparing the phenotypes of mice in which the Alk1, Alk5, or Tgfbr2 gene was conditionally deleted in restricted vascular endothelia using a novel endothelial Cre transgenic line...
  28. Xiao X, Wiersch J, El Gohary Y, Guo P, Prasadan K, Paredes J, et al. TGF? receptor signaling is essential for inflammation-induced but not ?-cell workload-induced ?-cell proliferation. Diabetes. 2013;62:1217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus provides important information for understanding ?-cell proliferation during normal growth and in pancreatic diseases. ..
  29. Choudhary B, Ito Y, Makita T, Sasaki T, Chai Y, Sucov H. Cardiovascular malformations with normal smooth muscle differentiation in neural crest-specific type II TGFbeta receptor (Tgfbr2) mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2006;289:420-9 pubmed
    ..We infer that TGFbeta is an essential morphogenic signal for the neural crest cell lineage in specific aspects of cardiovascular development, although one that is not required for smooth muscle differentiation...
  30. Weiss J, Bilate A, Gobert M, Ding Y, Curotto de Lafaille M, Parkhurst C, et al. Neuropilin 1 is expressed on thymus-derived natural regulatory T cells, but not mucosa-generated induced Foxp3+ T reg cells. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1723-42, S1 pubmed
    ..In the same animals, iT reg cells in secondary lymphoid organs remain Nrp1(low). We also determined that, in spontaneous EAE, iT reg cells help to establish a chronic phase of the disease...
  31. PLACENCIO V, Sharif Afshar A, Li X, Huang H, Uwamariya C, Neilson E, et al. Stromal transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates prostatic response to androgen ablation by paracrine Wnt activity. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4709-18 pubmed publisher
    ..response to androgen ablation, conditional TGF-beta type II receptor knockout mouse models of the epithelia (Tgfbr2(NKX3.1KO)) and stromal fibroblasts (Tgfbr2(fspKO)) were used. After castration, the prostates of Tgfbr2(NKX3...
  32. Plumb Rudewiez N, Clotman F, Strick Marchand H, Pierreux C, Weiss M, Rousseau G, et al. Transcription factor HNF-6/OC-1 inhibits the stimulation of the HNF-3alpha/Foxa1 gene by TGF-beta in mouse liver. Hepatology. 2004;40:1266-74 pubmed
    ..This identifies a new mechanism of interaction between liver-enriched transcription factors whereby one factor indirectly controls another by modulating the activity of a signaling pathway. ..
  33. Dunker N, Krieglstein K. Targeted mutations of transforming growth factor-beta genes reveal important roles in mouse development and adult homeostasis. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:6982-8 pubmed
    ..5. Together, gene ablation within the TGF-beta signalling pathway supports the notion of a prominent role of TGF-beta during development. ..
  34. Iseki S, Osumi Yamashita N, Miyazono K, Franzen P, Ichijo H, Ohtani H, et al. Localization of transforming growth factor-beta type I and type II receptors in mouse development. Exp Cell Res. 1995;219:339-47 pubmed
  35. Wilkes M, Murphy S, Garamszegi N, Leof E. Cell-type-specific activation of PAK2 by transforming growth factor beta independent of Smad2 and Smad3. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8878-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, PAK2 represents a novel Smad-independent pathway that differentiates TGF-beta signaling in fibroblast (growth-stimulated) and epithelial cell (growth-inhibited) cultures. ..
  36. Moreno S, Attali M, Allemand I, Messiaen S, Fouchet P, Coffigny H, et al. TGFbeta signaling in male germ cells regulates gonocyte quiescence and fertility in mice. Dev Biol. 2010;342:74-84 pubmed publisher
  37. Oshima M, Oshima H, Taketo M. TGF-beta receptor type II deficiency results in defects of yolk sac hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis. Dev Biol. 1996;179:297-302 pubmed
    ..To determine the role of TGF-betaRII in embryogenesis, we have generated a TGF-betaRII gene (Tgfbr2) knockout mouse line. The heterozygous Tgfbr2 knockout mice are developmentally normal...
  38. Doisne J, Bartholin L, Yan K, Garcia C, Duarte N, Le Luduec J, et al. iNKT cell development is orchestrated by different branches of TGF-beta signaling. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1365-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these three different branches of TGF-beta signaling function in concert as complementary effectors, allowing TGF-beta to fine tune the iNKT cell differentiation program. ..
  39. Arnold T, Ferrero G, Qiu H, Phan I, Akhurst R, Huang E, et al. Defective retinal vascular endothelial cell development as a consequence of impaired integrin ?V?8-mediated activation of transforming growth factor-?. J Neurosci. 2012;32:1197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Of special interest, the retinal vascular phenotypes observed in each mutant are remarkably similar to those of others following inhibition of neuropilin-1, a receptor previously implicated in TGF? activation and signaling. ..
  40. Pryce B, Watson S, Murchison N, Staverosky J, Dünker N, Schweitzer R. Recruitment and maintenance of tendon progenitors by TGFbeta signaling are essential for tendon formation. Development. 2009;136:1351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..double mutant embryos or through inactivation of the type II TGFbeta receptor (TGFBR2; also known as TbetaRII) results in the loss of most tendons and ligaments in the limbs, trunk, tail and head...
  41. Jiao K, Langworthy M, Batts L, Brown C, Moses H, Baldwin H. Tgfbeta signaling is required for atrioventricular cushion mesenchyme remodeling during in vivo cardiac development. Development. 2006;133:4585-93 pubmed
    ..To understand the role(s) of Tgfbeta signaling during cardiogenesis in vivo and to overcome the early lethality of Tgfbr2(-/-) embryos, we applied a Cre/loxp system to specifically inactivate Tgfbr2 in either the myocardium or the ..
  42. Yi J, Barnes A, Hand R, Polleux F, Ehlers M. TGF-beta signaling specifies axons during brain development. Cell. 2010;142:144-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define an extrinsic cue for neuronal polarity in vivo that patterns neural circuits in the developing brain. ..
  43. Nguyen H, Lee Y, Shin J, Lee E, Park S, McCarty J, et al. TGF-? signaling in endothelial cells, but not neuroepithelial cells, is essential for cerebral vascular development. Lab Invest. 2011;91:1554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that deletion of Tgfbr2 in the neuroepithelium does not impact brain vascular development...
  44. Mariano J, Montuenga L, Prentice M, Cuttitta F, Jakowlew S. Concurrent and distinct transcription and translation of transforming growth factor-beta type I and type II receptors in rodent embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:1125-36 pubmed
    ..These data show that regulation of TGF-beta1 RI and RII occurs concurrently, but distinctly, in a spatial and temporal manner in rodent embryogenesis which may allow control of signal transduction of TGF-beta during development. ..
  45. Bierie B, Stover D, Abel T, Chytil A, Gorska A, Aakre M, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta regulates mammary carcinoma cell survival and interaction with the adjacent microenvironment. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1809-19 pubmed publisher
  46. Zhang N, Bevan M. TGF-? signaling to T cells inhibits autoimmunity during lymphopenia-driven proliferation. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that TGF-? signaling controls the self-reactivity of peripheral T cells but that in the absence of TGF-? signals, an added trigger such as lymphopenia is needed to drive overt autoimmune disease. ..
  47. Xu X, Han J, Ito Y, Bringas P, Urata M, Chai Y. Cell autonomous requirement for Tgfbr2 in the disappearance of medial edge epithelium during palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006;297:238-48 pubmed
    ..By using the Cre/lox system, we are able to label the MEE genetically and to ablate Tgfbr2 specifically in the palatal epithelial cells...
  48. Miyabayashi K, Ijichi H, Mohri D, Tada M, Yamamoto K, Asaoka Y, et al. Erlotinib prolongs survival in pancreatic cancer by blocking gemcitabine-induced MAPK signals. Cancer Res. 2013;73:2221-34 pubmed publisher
    ..gemcitabine alone in blocking progression and prolonging survival in a murine model of PDAC (Kras activation with Tgfbr2 knockout)...
  49. Ittmann M, Huang J, Radaelli E, Martin P, Signoretti S, Sullivan R, et al. Animal models of human prostate cancer: the consensus report of the New York meeting of the Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Prostate Pathology Committee. Cancer Res. 2013;73:2718-36 pubmed publisher
  50. Li X, PLACENCIO V, Iturregui J, Uwamariya C, Sharif Afshar A, Koyama T, et al. Prostate tumor progression is mediated by a paracrine TGF-beta/Wnt3a signaling axis. Oncogene. 2008;27:7118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, the conditional stromal knockout of the TGF-beta type II receptor expression (Tgfbr2(fspKO)) resulted in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and progression to adenocarcinoma ..
  51. Bhowmick N, Chytil A, Plieth D, Gorska A, Dumont N, Shappell S, et al. TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts modulates the oncogenic potential of adjacent epithelia. Science. 2004;303:848-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts modulates the growth and oncogenic potential of adjacent epithelia in selected tissues. ..
  52. Marie J, Liggitt D, Rudensky A. Cellular mechanisms of fatal early-onset autoimmunity in mice with the T cell-specific targeting of transforming growth factor-beta receptor. Immunity. 2006;25:441-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, TGF-beta signaling in peripheral T cells is crucial in restraining TCR activation-dependent Th1, cytotoxic, and NK cell-like differentiation program which, when left unchecked, leads to rapidly progressing fatal autoimmunity. ..
  53. Dudas M, Kim J, Li W, Nagy A, Larsson J, Karlsson S, et al. Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006;296:298-314 pubmed
    ..Remarkable divergence between Tgfbr2 and Alk5 phenotypes, together with our biochemical in vitro data, imply that (1) ALK5 mediates signaling of a ..
  54. Leveen P, Carlsén M, Makowska A, Oddsson S, Larsson J, Goumans M, et al. TGF-beta type II receptor-deficient thymocytes develop normally but demonstrate increased CD8+ proliferation in vivo. Blood. 2005;106:4234-40 pubmed
    ..system to generate a mouse model with inducible deficiency of transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TbetaRII)...