Gene Symbol: Tgfb3
Description: transforming growth factor, beta 3
Alias: TGF-beta-3, Tgfb-3, transforming growth factor beta-3
Species: mouse
Products:     Tgfb3

Top Publications

  1. Millan F, Denhez F, Kondaiah P, Akhurst R. Embryonic gene expression patterns of TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 suggest different developmental functions in vivo. Development. 1991;111:131-43 pubmed
    ..Finally both TGF beta 1 and beta 2 transcripts are seen in regions actively undergoing cardiac septation and valve formation, suggesting some interaction of these growth factors in this developmental process. ..
  2. Sasaki Y, O Kane S, Dixon J, Dixon M, Ferguson M. Temporal and spatial expression of Pax9 and Sonic hedgehog during development of normal mouse palates and cleft palates in TGF-beta3 null embryos. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:260-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Pax9 and Shh expression are altered when the TGF-beta3 gene is deleted and suggest that Pax9 and Shh may be involved in the TGF-beta3 regulation of normal palatal fusion. ..
  3. Lan Y, Ovitt C, Cho E, Maltby K, Wang Q, Jiang R. Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) encodes a key intrinsic regulator of secondary palate growth and morphogenesis. Development. 2004;131:3207-16 pubmed
    ..we show that the Osr2 mutants exhibit altered gene expression patterns, including those of Osr1, Pax9 and Tgfb3, during palate development. These data identify Osr2 as a key intrinsic regulator of palatal growth and patterning. ..
  4. Flanders K, Lüdecke G, Engels S, Cissel D, Roberts A, Kondaiah P, et al. Localization and actions of transforming growth factor-beta s in the embryonic nervous system. Development. 1991;113:183-91 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that TGF-beta s 2 and 3 may play a role in regulation of neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as in glial cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
  5. Pelton R, Saxena B, Jones M, Moses H, Gold L. Immunohistochemical localization of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 in the mouse embryo: expression patterns suggest multiple roles during embryonic development. J Cell Biol. 1991;115:1091-105 pubmed
    Isoform-specific antibodies to TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 proteins were generated and have been used to examine the expression of these factors in the developing mouse embryo from 12.5-18.5 d post coitum (d.p.c.)...
  6. Kaartinen V, Haataja L, Nagy A, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J. TGFbeta3-induced activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway is necessary but not sufficient for epithelio-mesenchymal transdifferentiation: implications for palatogenesis. Int J Mol Med. 2002;9:563-70 pubmed
    ..These changes are likely to be necessary in biological processes in which EMT has been shown to play a critical role, such as palatal fusion. ..
  7. Lee Y, Awasthi A, Yosef N, Quintana F, Xiao S, Peters A, et al. Induction and molecular signature of pathogenic TH17 cells. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, TGF-?3-induced T(H)17 cells were functionally and molecularly distinct from TGF-?1-induced T(H)17 cells and had a molecular signature that defined pathogenic effector T(H)17 cells in autoimmune disease. ..
  8. Yang L, Li W, Kaartinen V. Tissue-specific expression of Cre recombinase from the Tgfb3 locus. Genesis. 2008;46:112-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Tgfb3, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, is tightly regulated, both spatially and temporally, during embryogenesis...
  9. Casey L, Lan Y, Cho E, Maltby K, Gridley T, Jiang R. Jag2-Notch1 signaling regulates oral epithelial differentiation and palate development. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1830-44 pubmed

More Information


  1. Pelton R, Dickinson M, Moses H, Hogan B. In situ hybridization analysis of TGF beta 3 RNA expression during mouse development: comparative studies with TGF beta 1 and beta 2. Development. 1990;110:609-20 pubmed
    To date, three closely-related TGF beta genes have been found in the mouse; TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3. Previous experiments have indicated that TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 may play important roles during mouse embryogenesis...
  2. Xu X, Han J, Ito Y, Bringas P, Deng C, Chai Y. Ectodermal Smad4 and p38 MAPK are functionally redundant in mediating TGF-beta/BMP signaling during tooth and palate development. Dev Cell. 2008;15:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of epithelium to utilize both pathways illustrates the complicated nature of TGF-beta signaling mechanisms in development and disease. ..
  3. Todorovic V, Frendewey D, Gutstein D, Chen Y, Freyer L, Finnegan E, et al. Long form of latent TGF-beta binding protein 1 (Ltbp1L) is essential for cardiac outflow tract septation and remodeling. Development. 2007;134:3723-32 pubmed
    ..This phenotype reveals a crucial role for Ltbp1L and matrix as extracellular regulators of Tgf-beta activity in heart organogenesis. ..
  4. Braybrook C, Lisgo S, Doudney K, Henderson D, Marcano A, Strachan T, et al. Craniofacial expression of human and murine TBX22 correlates with the cleft palate and ankyloglossia phenotype observed in CPX patients. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:2793-804 pubmed
    ..We conclude that expression of TBX22 is entirely consistent with the CPX phenotype and that the mouse should provide a useful model for elucidating its role in craniofacial development...
  5. Kaartinen V, Cui X, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Shuler C. Transforming growth factor-beta3 regulates transdifferentiation of medial edge epithelium during palatal fusion and associated degradation of the basement membrane. Dev Dyn. 1997;209:255-60 pubmed
    ..Our data define a specific role for TGF-beta3 in the events that control transdifferentiation of the medial edge epithelial cells including degradation of the underlying basement membrane. ..
  6. Brunet C, Sharpe P, Ferguson M. Inhibition of TGF-beta 3 (but not TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2) activity prevents normal mouse embryonic palate fusion. Int J Dev Biol. 1995;39:345-55 pubmed
    ..These data indicate an isoform specific role for TGF-beta 3 in palatal fusion. ..
  7. Kaartinen V, Voncken J, Shuler C, Warburton D, Bu D, Heisterkamp N, et al. Abnormal lung development and cleft palate in mice lacking TGF-beta 3 indicates defects of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Nat Genet. 1995;11:415-21 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates an essential function for TGF-beta 3 in the normal morphogenesis of palate and lung, and directly implicates this cytokine in mechanisms of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. ..
  8. Nawshad A, Medici D, Liu C, Hay E. TGFbeta3 inhibits E-cadherin gene expression in palate medial-edge epithelial cells through a Smad2-Smad4-LEF1 transcription complex. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1646-53 pubmed
    ..We proved that TGFbeta3 signaling induces EMT in MEE cells by forming activated transcription complexes of Smad2-P, Smad4 and LEF1 that directly inhibit E-cadherin gene expression. ..
  9. Azhar M, Runyan R, Gard C, Sanford L, Miller M, Andringa A, et al. Ligand-specific function of transforming growth factor beta in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in heart development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:431-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the function of TGFbeta in cushion EMT, we analyzed Tgfb1(-/-), Tgfb2(-/-), and Tgfb3(-/-) mice between embryonic day (E) 9.5 and E14.5 using both in vitro and in vivo approaches...
  10. Memon M, Anway M, Covert T, Uzumcu M, Skinner M. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2 and TGFbeta3) null-mutant phenotypes in embryonic gonadal development. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;294:70-80 pubmed publisher
    The role transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) isoforms TGFb1, TGFb2 and TGFb3 have in the regulation of embryonic gonadal development was investigated with the use of null-mutant (i.e. knockout) mice for each of the TGFb isoforms...
  11. Martínez Sanz E, Del Río A, Barrio C, Murillo J, Maldonado E, Garcillán B, et al. Alteration of medial-edge epithelium cell adhesion in two Tgf-beta3 null mouse strains. Differentiation. 2008;76:417-30 pubmed
    ..We thus provide insight into the molecular bases of this important process and the cleft palate presented by Tgf-beta3 null mutant mice...
  12. Karamboulas K, Dranse H, Underhill T. Regulation of BMP-dependent chondrogenesis in early limb mesenchyme by TGFbeta signals. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the programs differ in the transient signals driving chondrogenic responsiveness to BMPs, with SHH operating in the former and TGFbeta activation in the latter. ..
  13. Proetzel G, Pawlowski S, Wiles M, Yin M, Boivin G, Howles P, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 3 is required for secondary palate fusion. Nat Genet. 1995;11:409-14 pubmed
    ..No craniofacial abnormalities were observed. This result demonstrates that TGF-beta 3 affects palatal shelf fusion by an intrinsic, primary mechanism rather than by effects secondary to craniofacial defects. ..
  14. Tudela C, Formoso M, Martínez T, Perez R, Aparicio M, Maestro C, et al. TGF-beta3 is required for the adhesion and intercalation of medial edge epithelial cells during palate fusion. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:333-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the substantial alteration of MEE intercellular adhesion observed in TGF-beta3 -/- palates may account for the defect in palatal shelf adhesion and the formation of cleft palate. ..
  15. Li J, Foitzik K, Calautti E, Baden H, Doetschman T, Dotto G. TGF-beta3, but not TGF-beta1, protects keratinocytes against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:4213-9 pubmed
  16. Taya Y, O Kane S, Ferguson M. Pathogenesis of cleft palate in TGF-beta3 knockout mice. Development. 1999;126:3869-79 pubmed
  17. Fitzpatrick D, Denhez F, Kondaiah P, Akhurst R. Differential expression of TGF beta isoforms in murine palatogenesis. Development. 1990;109:585-95 pubmed
    ..5 to 15.5 days postcoitum using in situ hybridisation. The RNA detected at the earliest developmental stage is TGF beta 3, which is localised in the epithelial component of the vertical palatal shelf...
  18. Huang X, Yokota T, Iwata J, Chai Y. Tgf-beta-mediated FasL-Fas-Caspase pathway is crucial during palatogenesis. J Dent Res. 2011;90:981-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that the FasL-Fas-caspase extrinsic apoptosis pathway is regulated by the Tgf-?3 signaling cascade and is essential for palatal fusion during craniofacial development. ..
  19. Cui X, Chai Y, Chen J, Yamamoto T, Ito Y, Bringas P, et al. TGF-beta3-dependent SMAD2 phosphorylation and inhibition of MEE proliferation during palatal fusion. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:387-94 pubmed
    ..05). This finding suggests that TGF-beta3 is required for inhibiting MEE proliferation during palatal fusion. The inhibition of MEE proliferation may be mediated by TGF-beta3-dependent phosphorylation of SMAD2. ..
  20. Roussa E, Wiehle M, Dünker N, Becker Katins S, Oehlke O, Krieglstein K. Transforming growth factor beta is required for differentiation of mouse mesencephalic progenitors into dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo: ectopic induction in dorsal mesencephalon. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2120-9 pubmed
    ..Together, the results clearly demonstrate that TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 are essential signals for differentiation of midbrain progenitors toward neuronal fate and dopaminergic phenotype. ..
  21. Gato A, Martinez M, Tudela C, Alonso I, Moro J, Formoso M, et al. TGF-beta(3)-induced chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan mediates palatal shelf adhesion. Dev Biol. 2002;250:393-405 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate the absence of this apical CSPG in the clefted palates of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta(3)) null mutant mice, and its induction, together with palatal shelf adhesion, when TGF-..
  22. Yang L, Kaartinen V. Tgfb1 expressed in the Tgfb3 locus partially rescues the cleft palate phenotype of Tgfb3 null mutants. Dev Biol. 2007;312:384-95 pubmed
    ..During embryogenesis, TGF-betas play important roles in several developmental processes. Tgfb3 is strongly expressed in the prefusion palatal epithelium, and mice lacking Tgfb3 display a cleft of the secondary ..
  23. Nawshad A, LaGamba D, Hay E. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signalling in palatal growth, apoptosis and epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Arch Oral Biol. 2004;49:675-89 pubmed
    ..A major aim of this review is to document the genetic mechanisms that TGFbeta uses to bring about palatal EMT and to compare these with EMT mechanisms used elsewhere. ..
  24. Dünker N, Krieglstein K. Tgfbeta2 -/- Tgfbeta3 -/- double knockout mice display severe midline fusion defects and early embryonic lethality. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2002;206:73-83 pubmed
  25. Jalali A, Zhu X, Liu C, Nawshad A. Induction of palate epithelial mesenchymal transition by transforming growth factor ?3 signaling. Dev Growth Differ. 2012;54:633-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation and intervention of the pathways stimulated by TGF?3 during palate development may have a significant therapeutic potential...
  26. Murray S, Oram K, Gridley T. Multiple functions of Snail family genes during palate development in mice. Development. 2007;134:1789-97 pubmed
  27. Jin J, Li Q, Higashi Y, Darling D, Ding J. Analysis of Zfhx1a mutant mice reveals palatal shelf contact-independent medial edge epithelial differentiation during palate fusion. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;333:29-38 pubmed publisher
    ..5 in a contact-independent manner, suggesting that differentiation of the medial edge epithelium was largely programmed through an intrinsic mechanism within the palate shelf. ..
  28. Dünker N, Schmitt K, Krieglstein K. TGF-beta is required for programmed cell death in interdigital webs of the developing mouse limb. Mech Dev. 2002;113:111-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TGF- is a critical extrinsic regulator of PCD. ..
  29. Blavier L, Lazaryev A, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N, DeClerck Y, Kaartinen V. TGF-beta3-induced palatogenesis requires matrix metalloproteinases. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1457-66 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate for the first time that the proteolytic degradation of the ECM by MMPs is a necessary step for palatal fusion. ..
  30. Moreno S, Attali M, Allemand I, Messiaen S, Fouchet P, Coffigny H, et al. TGFbeta signaling in male germ cells regulates gonocyte quiescence and fertility in mice. Dev Biol. 2010;342:74-84 pubmed publisher
  31. Martínez Álvarez C, Blanco M, Perez R, Rabadán M, Aparicio M, Resel E, et al. Snail family members and cell survival in physiological and pathological cleft palates. Dev Biol. 2004;265:207-18 pubmed
  32. Nawshad A, Hay E. TGFbeta3 signaling activates transcription of the LEF1 gene to induce epithelial mesenchymal transformation during mouse palate development. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1291-301 pubmed
    ..When phospho-Smad2 and Smad4 are present in the nucleus, LEF1 is activated without beta-catenin. Our paper is the first to show that the Smad2,4/LEF1 complex replaces beta-catenin/LEF1 during activation of EMT in vivo by TGFbeta3. ..
  33. Bjork B, Turbe Doan A, Prysak M, Herron B, Beier D. Prdm16 is required for normal palatogenesis in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:774-89 pubmed publisher
    ..PRDM16 should be considered a candidate for mutation in human clefting disorders, especially NSCP and PRS-like CP. ..
  34. d Amaro R, Scheidegger R, Blumer S, Pazera P, Katsaros C, Graf D, et al. Putative functions of extracellular matrix glycoproteins in secondary palate morphogenesis. Front Physiol. 2012;3:377 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that distinct ECM proteins are important for morphogenesis of the secondary palate, both as downstream effectors and as regulators of Tgf-?/Bmp activity. ..
  35. Lin H, Kao C, Lin K, Kaartinen V, Yang L. Notch signaling regulates late-stage epidermal differentiation and maintains postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15842 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line...
  36. Foitzik K, Paus R, Doetschman T, Dotto G. The TGF-beta2 isoform is both a required and sufficient inducer of murine hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;212:278-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, the TGF-beta2 isoform plays a specific role, not shared by the other TGF-beta isoforms, as an inducer of hair follicle morphogenesis and is both required and sufficient to promote this process. ..
  37. Cuervo R, Valencia C, Chandraratna R, Covarrubias L. Programmed cell death is required for palate shelf fusion and is regulated by retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2002;245:145-56 pubmed
    ..In contrast, exogenous RA also blocked fusion, but in this situation the increased cell death within the MEE appeared to affect adhesion, thereby causing cleft palate in vivo. ..
  38. Pryce B, Watson S, Murchison N, Staverosky J, Dünker N, Schweitzer R. Recruitment and maintenance of tendon progenitors by TGFbeta signaling are essential for tendon formation. Development. 2009;136:1351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..marker scleraxis both in organ culture and in cultured cells, and disruption of TGFbeta signaling in Tgfb2(-/-);Tgfb3(-/-) double mutant embryos or through inactivation of the type II TGFbeta receptor (TGFBR2; also known as TbetaRII)..
  39. Ahmed S, Liu C, Nawshad A. Mechanisms of palatal epithelial seam disintegration by transforming growth factor (TGF) beta3. Dev Biol. 2007;309:193-207 pubmed
    ..We believe that our findings will lead to more effective treatment of facial clefting. ..
  40. Kaestner K, Silberg D, Traber P, Schutz G. The mesenchymal winged helix transcription factor Fkh6 is required for the control of gastrointestinal proliferation and differentiation. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1583-95 pubmed
  41. Krausgruber T, Schiering C, Adelmann K, Harrison O, Chomka A, Pearson C, et al. T-bet is a key modulator of IL-23-driven pathogenic CD4(+) T cell responses in the intestine. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11627 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies T-bet as a key modulator of IL-23-driven colitogenic responses in the intestine and has important implications for understanding of heterogeneity among inflammatory bowel disease patients. ..
  42. Ginsburg G, Royster D, Kassabian G, Shuler C, Dougherty W, Sank A. Mesenchymal commitment to digital joint formation. Ann Plast Surg. 1995;35:95-104 pubmed
  43. Flanders K, Wakefield L. Transforming growth factor-(beta)s and mammary gland involution; functional roles and implications for cancer progression. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2009;14:131-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we will discuss the putative role of TGF-beta during involution, as well as its effects on the mammary microenvironment and possible implications for pregnancy-associated tumorigenesis. ..
  44. Saqui Salces M, Covés Datson E, Veniaminova N, Waghray M, Syu L, Dlugosz A, et al. Inflammation and Gli2 suppress gastrin gene expression in a murine model of antral hyperplasia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48039 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, epithelial Gli2 expression was sufficient to stimulate Il-1? expression, repress Gast gene expression and increase proliferation, leading to antral hyperplasia. ..
  45. Luo S, Timbang L, Kim J, Shang Y, Sandoval K, Tang A, et al. TGF-? Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons Regulates Dendritic Growth, Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Balance, and Reversal Learning. Cell Rep. 2016;17:3233-3245 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a role for TGF-? in regulating the delicate balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input in local microcircuits involving DA and GABAergic neurons and its potential contributions to neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
  46. Smoak I. Hyperglycemia-induced TGFbeta and fibronectin expression in embryonic mouse heart. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:179-89 pubmed
    ..Prominent TGF beta1, and minimal TGF beta2 or TGF beta 3, protein expression was demonstrated in embryonic day (E) 9.5-E13.5 hearts...
  47. Jaskoll T, Choy H, Melnick M. Glucocorticoids, TGF-beta, and embryonic mouse salivary gland morphogenesis. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1994;14:217-30 pubmed
    ..Northern analysis suggests that the CORT-GR signal transduction pathway modulates the rate of morphogenesis by regulating TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 mRNA expression. ..
  48. Wada K, Nomura S, Morii E, Kitamura Y, Nishizawa Y, Miyake A, et al. Changes in levels of mRNAs of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, -beta2, -beta3, TGF-beta type II receptor and sulfated glycoprotein-2 during apoptosis of mouse uterine epithelium. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;59:367-75 pubmed
  49. Shi W, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J, Zhao J, Warburton D, Kaartinen V. TGF-beta3-null mutation does not abrogate fetal lung maturation in vivo by glucocorticoids. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:L1205-13 pubmed
    ..This finding provides direct evidence that glucocorticoid signaling in the lung can use alternative pathways and can exert its effect without the presence of TGF-beta3. ..
  50. Mu Z, Yang Z, Yu D, Zhao Z, Munger J. TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta3 are partially redundant effectors in brain vascular morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2008;125:508-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Tgfb1(RGE/RGE); Tgfb3(-/-) mice have severely perturbed development of the brain vasculature that is highly similar to that in mice ..
  51. Takahashi T, Eitzman B, Bossert N, Walmer D, Sparrow K, Flanders K, et al. Transforming growth factors beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 messenger RNA and protein expression in mouse uterus and vagina during estrogen-induced growth: a comparison to other estrogen-regulated genes. Cell Growth Differ. 1994;5:919-35 pubmed
    ..of the three mammalian transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) isoforms, TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3, in both the uterus and the vagina of the prepubescent mouse...
  52. Kaartinen V, Dudas M, Nagy A, Sridurongrit S, Lu M, Epstein J. Cardiac outflow tract defects in mice lacking ALK2 in neural crest cells. Development. 2004;131:3481-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, the type I BMP receptor ALK2 plays an essential cell-autonomous role in the development of the cardiac outflow tract and aortic arch derivatives. ..
  53. Okamura T, Sumitomo S, Morita K, Iwasaki Y, Inoue M, Nakachi S, et al. TGF-β3-expressing CD4+CD25(-)LAG3+ regulatory T cells control humoral immune responses. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6329 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clarify the mechanism of B-cell regulation and suggest therapeutic strategies. ..
  54. Letterio J, Bottinger E. TGF-beta knockout and dominant-negative receptor transgenic mice. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1998;24:161-7 pubmed
    ..New approaches to tissue- and cell-restricted disruption of TGF-beta signaling pathways in transgenic mice carrying dominant-negative mutant TGF-beta receptors will be discussed. ..
  55. Dickson M, Slager H, Duffie E, Mummery C, Akhurst R. RNA and protein localisations of TGF beta 2 in the early mouse embryo suggest an involvement in cardiac development. Development. 1993;117:625-39 pubmed
    ..b>TGF beta 3 RNA was not seen in any of the tissue sections, but very low levels of the RNA were seen by whole-mount in situ ..
  56. Buchman V, Sporn M, Davies A. Role of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in regulating the expression of nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNA levels in embryonic cutaneous cells at different stages of development. Development. 1994;120:1621-9 pubmed
    ..All three TGF-beta mRNAs were detected in the maxillary territory in vivo before the arrival of the earliest axons and their levels rose throughout the period in which sensory axons reach this territory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  57. Aubin J, Déry U, Lemieux M, Chailler P, Jeannotte L. Stomach regional specification requires Hoxa5-driven mesenchymal-epithelial signaling. Development. 2002;129:4075-87 pubmed
  58. Schachtrup C, Ryu J, Helmrick M, Vagena E, Galanakis D, Degen J, et al. Fibrinogen triggers astrocyte scar formation by promoting the availability of active TGF-beta after vascular damage. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5843-54 pubmed publisher
  59. Dalton T, Kover K, Dey S, Andrews G. Analysis of the expression of growth factor, interleukin-1, and lactoferrin genes and the distribution of inflammatory leukocytes in the preimplantation mouse oviduct. Biol Reprod. 1994;51:597-606 pubmed
    ..TGF) alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3; of estrogen-regulated lactoferrin (LF); and of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta in the ..
  60. Shipley J, Mecham R, Maus E, Bonadio J, Rosenbloom J, McCarthy R, et al. Developmental expression of latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2 and its requirement early in mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4879-87 pubmed
  61. Schmid P, Cox D, van Der Putten H, McMaster G, Bilbe G. Expression of TGF-beta s and TGF-beta type II receptor mRNAs in mouse folliculogenesis: stored maternal TGF-beta 2 message in oocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;201:649-56 pubmed
    ..These findings, and the presence of specific sequence motifs in the 3' untranslated region of TGF-beta 2 mRNAs, suggest that TGF-beta 2 transcripts are stored as maternal messages. ..
  62. Miller K, Tan T, Welfare M, White S, Stark Z, Savarirayan R, et al. A mouse splice-site mutant and individuals with atypical chromosome 22q11.2 deletions demonstrate the crucial role for crkl in craniofacial and pharyngeal development. Mol Syndromol. 2014;5:276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses demonstrate the central role of Crkl in regulating signalling events in the developing oropharyngeal complex and its potential to contribute to dysmorphology. ..
  63. Tulachan S, Tei E, Hembree M, Crisera C, Prasadan K, Koizumi M, et al. TGF-beta isoform signaling regulates secondary transition and mesenchymal-induced endocrine development in the embryonic mouse pancreas. Dev Biol. 2007;305:508-21 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta RII in the ducts and islets may normally serve to downregulate the production of beta cells from embryonic ducts. ..
  64. Qu X, Song X, Yuan W, Shu Y, Wang Y, Zhao X, et al. Expression signature of lncRNAs and their potential roles in cardiac fibrosis of post-infarct mice. Biosci Rep. 2016;36: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has identified the expression signature of lncRNAs in cardiac fibrosis induced by MI and unravelled the possible involvement of the deregulated lncRNAs in cardiac fibrosis and the associated pathological processes. ..
  65. Liu W, Lan Y, Pauws E, Meester Smoor M, Stanier P, Zwarthoff E, et al. The Mn1 transcription factor acts upstream of Tbx22 and preferentially regulates posterior palate growth in mice. Development. 2008;135:3959-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Mn1 in NIH3T3 cells also increased endogenous Tbx22 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that Mn1 and Tbx22 function in a novel molecular pathway regulating mammalian palate development. ..
  66. Arai K, Nishiyama T. Developmental changes in extracellular matrix messenger RNAs in the mouse placenta during the second half of pregnancy: possible factors involved in the regulation of placental extracellular matrix expression. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:923-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that an increase in oxygen tension and nutrient supply during placentation rather than TGFB family members may be responsible for the increase in the placental ECM mRNA expression. ..