Gene Symbol: Tgfb2
Description: transforming growth factor, beta 2
Alias: BB105277, Tgf-beta2, Tgfb-2, transforming growth factor beta-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Tgfb2

Top Publications

  1. Yamazaki S, Iwama A, Takayanagi S, Eto K, Ema H, Nakauchi H. TGF-beta as a candidate bone marrow niche signal to induce hematopoietic stem cell hibernation. Blood. 2009;113:1250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover a critical role for TGF-beta as a candidate niche signal in the control of HSC hibernation and provide TGF-beta as a novel tool for ex vivo modeling of the HSC niche. ..
  2. Flanders K, Lüdecke G, Engels S, Cissel D, Roberts A, Kondaiah P, et al. Localization and actions of transforming growth factor-beta s in the embryonic nervous system. Development. 1991;113:183-91 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that TGF-beta s 2 and 3 may play a role in regulation of neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as in glial cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
  3. Azhar M, Brown K, Gard C, Chen H, Rajan S, Elliott D, et al. Transforming growth factor Beta2 is required for valve remodeling during heart development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2127-41 pubmed publisher
    ..dysregulation of major extracellular matrix (ECM) components contributed to valve remodeling defects in Tgfb2(-/-) embryos. The data indicated that cushion mesenchymal cell differentiation was impaired in Tgfb2(-/-) embryos...
  4. St Jacques B, Dassule H, Karavanova I, Botchkarev V, Li J, Danielian P, et al. Sonic hedgehog signaling is essential for hair development. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1058-68 pubmed
    ..Shh signaling is not required for initiating hair follicle development. Shh signaling is essential, however, for controlling ingrowth and morphogenesis of the hair follicle. ..
  5. Ma L, Lu M, Schwartz R, Martin J. Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning. Development. 2005;132:5601-11 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Bmp2 has a crucial role in coordinating multiple aspects of AV canal morphogenesis. ..
  6. Millan F, Denhez F, Kondaiah P, Akhurst R. Embryonic gene expression patterns of TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 suggest different developmental functions in vivo. Development. 1991;111:131-43 pubmed
    ..Finally both TGF beta 1 and beta 2 transcripts are seen in regions actively undergoing cardiac septation and valve formation, suggesting some interaction of these growth factors in this developmental process. ..
  7. Sims Lucas S, Caruana G, Dowling J, Kett M, Bertram J. Augmented and accelerated nephrogenesis in TGF-beta2 heterozygous mutant mice. Pediatr Res. 2008;63:607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of TGF-beta2 signaling in vivo may provide avenues for protection or rescue of nephron endowment in fetuses at risk. ..
  8. Memon M, Anway M, Covert T, Uzumcu M, Skinner M. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2 and TGFbeta3) null-mutant phenotypes in embryonic gonadal development. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;294:70-80 pubmed publisher
    The role transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) isoforms TGFb1, TGFb2 and TGFb3 have in the regulation of embryonic gonadal development was investigated with the use of null-mutant (i.e. knockout) mice for each of the TGFb isoforms...
  9. Azhar M, Runyan R, Gard C, Sanford L, Miller M, Andringa A, et al. Ligand-specific function of transforming growth factor beta in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in heart development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:431-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the function of TGFbeta in cushion EMT, we analyzed Tgfb1(-/-), Tgfb2(-/-), and Tgfb3(-/-) mice between embryonic day (E) 9.5 and E14.5 using both in vitro and in vivo approaches...

More Information


  1. Sanford L, Ormsby I, Gittenberger de Groot A, Sariola H, Friedman R, Boivin G, et al. TGFbeta2 knockout mice have multiple developmental defects that are non-overlapping with other TGFbeta knockout phenotypes. Development. 1997;124:2659-70 pubmed
    ..There is no phenotypic overlap with TGFbeta1- and TGFbeta3-null mice indicating numerous non-compensated functions between the TGFbeta isoforms. ..
  2. Bartram U, Molin D, Wisse L, Mohamad A, Sanford L, Doetschman T, et al. Double-outlet right ventricle and overriding tricuspid valve reflect disturbances of looping, myocardialization, endocardial cushion differentiation, and apoptosis in TGF-beta(2)-knockout mice. Circulation. 2001;103:2745-52 pubmed
    ..Apoptosis in TGF-beta(2)-knockout mice was increased, although regional distribution was normal. TGF-beta(2)-knockout mice exhibited characteristic cardiovascular anomalies comparable to malformations seen in the human population. ..
  3. Proetzel G, Pawlowski S, Wiles M, Yin M, Boivin G, Howles P, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 3 is required for secondary palate fusion. Nat Genet. 1995;11:409-14 pubmed
    ..No craniofacial abnormalities were observed. This result demonstrates that TGF-beta 3 affects palatal shelf fusion by an intrinsic, primary mechanism rather than by effects secondary to craniofacial defects. ..
  4. Stenvers K, Tursky M, Harder K, Kountouri N, Amatayakul Chantler S, Grail D, et al. Heart and liver defects and reduced transforming growth factor beta2 sensitivity in transforming growth factor beta type III receptor-deficient embryos. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4371-85 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that TbetaRIII is an important modulator of TGFbeta2 function in embryonic fibroblasts and that reduced sensitivity to TGFbeta2 may underlie aspects of the TbetaRIII mutant phenotype. ..
  5. Kaartinen V, Dudas M, Nagy A, Sridurongrit S, Lu M, Epstein J. Cardiac outflow tract defects in mice lacking ALK2 in neural crest cells. Development. 2004;131:3481-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, the type I BMP receptor ALK2 plays an essential cell-autonomous role in the development of the cardiac outflow tract and aortic arch derivatives. ..
  6. Pryce B, Watson S, Murchison N, Staverosky J, Dünker N, Schweitzer R. Recruitment and maintenance of tendon progenitors by TGFbeta signaling are essential for tendon formation. Development. 2009;136:1351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..TNP) marker scleraxis both in organ culture and in cultured cells, and disruption of TGFbeta signaling in Tgfb2(-/-);Tgfb3(-/-) double mutant embryos or through inactivation of the type II TGFbeta receptor (TGFBR2; also known ..
  7. Dünker N, Schmitt K, Krieglstein K. TGF-beta is required for programmed cell death in interdigital webs of the developing mouse limb. Mech Dev. 2002;113:111-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TGF- is a critical extrinsic regulator of PCD. ..
  8. Leveen P, Larsson J, Ehinger M, Cilio C, Sundler M, Sjöstrand L, et al. Induced disruption of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor gene in mice causes a lethal inflammatory disorder that is transplantable. Blood. 2002;100:560-8 pubmed
    ..This animal model provides an important tool to further clarify the pathogenic mechanisms in animals deficient for TGF-beta signaling and the importance of TGF-beta to regulate immune functions. ..
  9. McLennan I, Koishi K. The transforming growth factor-betas: multifaceted regulators of the development and maintenance of skeletal muscles, motoneurons and Schwann cells. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:559-67 pubmed
    ..The review concludes with a discussion of whether all of these of postulated functions can occur independently of each other, within the confines of the neuromuscular system. ..
  10. Moreno S, Attali M, Allemand I, Messiaen S, Fouchet P, Coffigny H, et al. TGFbeta signaling in male germ cells regulates gonocyte quiescence and fertility in mice. Dev Biol. 2010;342:74-84 pubmed publisher
  11. Molin D, Poelmann R, DeRuiter M, Azhar M, Doetschman T, Gittenberger de Groot A. Transforming growth factor beta-SMAD2 signaling regulates aortic arch innervation and development. Circ Res. 2004;95:1109-17 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that disturbed maturation of the fourth pharyngeal arch artery, and especially abrogated vascular innervation, will result in fourth arch interruptions. ..
  12. Henckaerts E, Langer J, Orenstein J, Snoeck H. The positive regulatory effect of TGF-beta2 on primitive murine hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells is dependent on age, genetic background, and serum factors. J Immunol. 2004;173:2486-93 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest a role for TGF-beta2 and as yet unknown serum factors in the aging of the hemopoietic stem cell compartment and possibly in organismal aging. ..
  13. Pelton R, Saxena B, Jones M, Moses H, Gold L. Immunohistochemical localization of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 in the mouse embryo: expression patterns suggest multiple roles during embryonic development. J Cell Biol. 1991;115:1091-105 pubmed
    ..This also indicates that TGF beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 act through both paracrine and autocrine mechanisms during mammalian embryogenesis. ..
  14. Roussa E, Wiehle M, Dünker N, Becker Katins S, Oehlke O, Krieglstein K. Transforming growth factor beta is required for differentiation of mouse mesencephalic progenitors into dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo: ectopic induction in dorsal mesencephalon. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2120-9 pubmed
    ..Together, the results clearly demonstrate that TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 are essential signals for differentiation of midbrain progenitors toward neuronal fate and dopaminergic phenotype. ..
  15. Dünker N, Krieglstein K. Tgfbeta2 -/- Tgfbeta3 -/- double knockout mice display severe midline fusion defects and early embryonic lethality. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2002;206:73-83 pubmed
  16. Todorovic V, Frendewey D, Gutstein D, Chen Y, Freyer L, Finnegan E, et al. Long form of latent TGF-beta binding protein 1 (Ltbp1L) is essential for cardiac outflow tract septation and remodeling. Development. 2007;134:3723-32 pubmed
    ..This phenotype reveals a crucial role for Ltbp1L and matrix as extracellular regulators of Tgf-beta activity in heart organogenesis. ..
  17. Karamboulas K, Dranse H, Underhill T. Regulation of BMP-dependent chondrogenesis in early limb mesenchyme by TGFbeta signals. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the programs differ in the transient signals driving chondrogenic responsiveness to BMPs, with SHH operating in the former and TGFbeta activation in the latter. ..
  18. Liang X, Sun Y, Schneider J, Ding J, Cheng H, Ye M, et al. Pinch1 is required for normal development of cranial and cardiac neural crest-derived structures. Circ Res. 2007;100:527-35 pubmed
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that Pinch1 plays an essential role in neural crest development, perhaps in part through transforming growth factor-beta signaling. ..
  19. Spiller C, Wilhelm D, Koopman P. Retinoblastoma 1 protein modulates XY germ cell entry into G1/G0 arrest during fetal development in mice. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:433-43 pubmed publisher
    ..5 dpc, but in its absence, upregulation of other cell cycle suppressors, including Cdkn1b and Cdkn2b, can induce delayed germ cell arrest. ..
  20. Singla D, Kumar D, Sun B. Transforming growth factor-beta2 enhances differentiation of cardiac myocytes from embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:135-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, TGF-beta2 but not TGF-beta1, or -beta3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from ES cells. ..
  21. Foitzik K, Paus R, Doetschman T, Dotto G. The TGF-beta2 isoform is both a required and sufficient inducer of murine hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;212:278-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, the TGF-beta2 isoform plays a specific role, not shared by the other TGF-beta isoforms, as an inducer of hair follicle morphogenesis and is both required and sufficient to promote this process. ..
  22. Xu B, Qu X, Gu S, Doughman Y, Watanabe M, Dunwoodie S, et al. Cited2 is required for fetal lung maturation. Dev Biol. 2008;317:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Cited2-Tcfap2c complex controls lung maturation by regulating Cebpa expression. Understanding the function of this complex may provide novel therapeutic strategies for patients with respiratory distress syndromes. ..
  23. Bagot S, Campino S, Penha Gonçalves C, Pied S, Cazenave P, Holmberg D. Identification of two cerebral malaria resistance loci using an inbred wild-derived mouse strain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9919-23 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first evidence of loci associated with resistance to murine cerebral malaria, which may have important implications for the search for genetic factors controlling cerebral malaria in humans. ..
  24. Zhang C, Zhang F, Tsan R, Fidler I. Transforming growth factor-beta2 is a molecular determinant for site-specific melanoma metastasis in the brain. Cancer Res. 2009;69:828-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that TGF-beta2 expression by murine melanoma cells is necessary for the establishment and growth of metastases in the brain parenchyma. ..
  25. Maitra M, Schluterman M, Nichols H, Richardson J, Lo C, Srivastava D, et al. Interaction of Gata4 and Gata6 with Tbx5 is critical for normal cardiac development. Dev Biol. 2009;326:368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the unique genetic interactions of Gata4 and Gata6 with Tbx5 for normal cardiac morphogenesis in vivo. ..
  26. Timme T, Truong L, Merz V, Krebs T, Kadmon D, Flanders K, et al. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions and transforming growth factor-beta expression during mouse prostate morphogenesis. Endocrinology. 1994;134:1039-45 pubmed
  27. Schmid P, Cox D, van Der Putten H, McMaster G, Bilbe G. Expression of TGF-beta s and TGF-beta type II receptor mRNAs in mouse folliculogenesis: stored maternal TGF-beta 2 message in oocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;201:649-56 pubmed
    ..These findings, and the presence of specific sequence motifs in the 3' untranslated region of TGF-beta 2 mRNAs, suggest that TGF-beta 2 transcripts are stored as maternal messages. ..
  28. Ahlfeld S, Wang J, Gao Y, Snider P, Conway S. Initial Suppression of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling and Loss of TGFBI Causes Early Alveolar Structural Defects Resulting in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:777-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies underline the complex (and often contradictory) role of TGF-β and indicate a need to design studies to associate alterations with initial appearance of phenotypical changes suggestive of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. ..
  29. Biressi S, Miyabara E, Gopinath S, Carlig P, Rando T. A Wnt-TGFβ2 axis induces a fibrogenic program in muscle stem cells from dystrophic mice. Sci Transl Med. 2014;6:267ra176 pubmed publisher
  30. Li W, Xiong Y, Shang C, Twu K, Hang C, Yang J, et al. Brg1 governs distinct pathways to direct multiple aspects of mammalian neural crest cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1738-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an important role for Brg1 and its downstream pathways in the survival, differentiation, and migration of the multipotent NCCs critical for mammalian cardiovascular development. ..
  31. Tachi N, Hashimoto Y, Nawa M, Matsuoka M. TAG-1 is an inhibitor of TGFbeta2-induced neuronal death via amyloid beta precursor protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may contribute to the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease-relevant neuronal cell death. ..
  32. Fischer A, Steidl C, Wagner T, Lang E, Jakob P, Friedl P, et al. Combined loss of Hey1 and HeyL causes congenital heart defects because of impaired epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Circ Res. 2007;100:856-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Hey gene family shows overlap in controlling Notch induced endocardial epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a process critical for valve and septum formation. ..
  33. Gründer A, Ebel T, Mallo M, Schwarzkopf G, Shimizu T, Sippel A, et al. Nuclear factor I-B (Nfib) deficient mice have severe lung hypoplasia. Mech Dev. 2002;112:69-77 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates that Nfib is essential for normal lung development, and suggests that it could be involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndromes in humans. ..
  34. Robb L, Hartley L, Begley C, Brodnicki T, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of murine and human homologues of a Xenopus mix gene. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:497-504 pubmed
    ..0, in the caudal notochord and tail bud mesoderm. Mix transcripts were no longer detectable after embryonic day 9.5. ..
  35. Andrews Z, Zhao H, Frugier T, Meguro R, Grattan D, Koishi K, et al. Transforming growth factor beta2 haploinsufficient mice develop age-related nigrostriatal dopamine deficits. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;21:568-75 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that people with naturally low levels of TGF-beta2 may have less functional reserve in their nigrostriatal pathway, causing them to be at increased risk of developing Parkinson disease. ..
  36. Alvira C, Guignabert C, Kim Y, Chen C, Wang L, Duong T, et al. Inhibition of transforming growth factor ? worsens elastin degradation in a murine model of Kawasaki disease. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, strategies to block TGF-?, used in those with Marfan syndrome, are unlikely to be beneficial and could be detrimental. ..
  37. Wang X, Le Roy I, Nicodeme E, Li R, Wagner R, Petros C, et al. Using advanced intercross lines for high-resolution mapping of HDL cholesterol quantitative trait loci. Genome Res. 2003;13:1654-64 pubmed
    ..We tested 27 candidate genes and found significant mRNA expression differences for 12 (Nr1i3, Apoa2, Sap, Tgfb2, Fgfbp1, Prom, Ppargc1, Tcf1, Ncor2, Srb1, App, and Ifnar)...
  38. Yang G, Yuan G, Ye W, Cho K, Chen Y. An atypical canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) expression during odontogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31492-502 pubmed publisher
  39. Lacmann A, Hess D, Gohla G, Roussa E, Krieglstein K. Activity-dependent release of transforming growth factor-beta in a neuronal network in vitro. Neuroscience. 2007;150:647-57 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest an activity-dependent release and gene transcription of TGF-beta from mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro as well as subsequent autocrine functions of the released TGF-beta within the hippocampal network. ..
  40. Lorda Diez C, Montero J, Garcia Porrero J, Hurle J. Tgfbeta2 and 3 are coexpressed with their extracellular regulator Ltbp1 in the early limb bud and modulate mesodermal outgrowth and BMP signaling in chicken embryos. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:69 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose the occurrence of an interplay between Tgfbeta and BMP signaling functionally associated with the regulation of early limb outgrowth by modulating limb mesenchymal cell proliferation. ..
  41. Bleux C, Bobe P, Kanellopoulos Langevin C. A mouse placental immunoregulatory factor different from transforming growth factor beta. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1995;15:351-7 pubmed
    ..Aliquots of the same preparations retained their full immune inhibitory capacity in vivo throughout the various assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  42. Takahashi E, Nagano O, Ishimoto T, Yae T, Suzuki Y, Shinoda T, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates transforming growth factor-beta-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition by promoting hyaluronan-CD44-moesin interaction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4060-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The production of hyaluronan and its interaction with CD44, thus, play an essential role in TNF-alpha-induced EMT and are potential therapeutic targets in fibrotic disorders. ..
  43. James J, Nalbandian A, Mukouyama Y. TGF? signaling is required for sprouting lymphangiogenesis during lymphatic network development in the skin. Development. 2013;140:3903-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a dual role for TGF? signaling during lymphatic network morphogenesis in the skin, such that it enhances LEC sprouting and branching complexity while attenuating LEC proliferation. ..
  44. Eslami P, Johnson M, Terzakaryan E, Chew C, Harris White M. TGF beta2-induced changes in LRP-1/T beta R-V and the impact on lysosomal A beta uptake and neurotoxicity. Brain Res. 2008;1241:176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a key role for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/transforming growth factor beta receptor V in mediating transforming growth factor beta2 enhancement of amyloid beta peptide uptake and neurotoxicity. ..
  45. Gorvy D, Herrick S, Shah M, Ferguson M. Experimental manipulation of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms significantly affects adhesion formation in a murine surgical model. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:1005-19 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results show that by blocking both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 using neutralizing antibodies, it is possible to prevent abdominal adhesion formation. ..
  46. Bragado P, Estrada Y, Parikh F, Krause S, Capobianco C, Farina H, et al. TGF-?2 dictates disseminated tumour cell fate in target organs through TGF-?-RIII and p38?/? signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reveals a 'seed and soil' mechanism where TGF-?2 and TGF-?-RIII signalling through p38?/? regulates DTC dormancy and defines restrictive (BM) and permissive (lung) microenvironments for HNSCC metastasis. ..
  47. Shah C, Wang H, Bei L, Platanias L, Eklund E. HoxA10 regulates transcription of the gene encoding transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFbeta2) in myeloid cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3161-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Because HoxA proteins had not been previously known to influence expression of pro-proliferative cytokines, this has implications for understanding molecular mechanisms involved in progenitor expansion and the pathobiology of AML. ..
  48. Takahashi T, Takahashi K, St John P, Fleming P, Tomemori T, Watanabe T, et al. A mutant receptor tyrosine phosphatase, CD148, causes defects in vascular development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1817-31 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate a member of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase family, CD148, in developmental vascular organization and provide evidence that it regulates endothelial proliferation and endothelium-pericyte interactions. ..
  49. Schmid P, Cox D, Bilbe G, Maier R, McMaster G. Differential expression of TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 genes during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1991;111:117-30 pubmed
    ..In the root sheath of the whisker follicle, TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 were expressed simultaneously. We discuss the implication of these results in regard to known regulatory elements of the TGF beta genes and their receptors. ..
  50. Mesbah K, Harrelson Z, Théveniau Ruissy M, Papaioannou V, Kelly R. Tbx3 is required for outflow tract development. Circ Res. 2008;103:743-50 pubmed publisher
  51. Huang X, Gao X, Diaz Trelles R, Ruiz Lozano P, Wang Z. Coronary development is regulated by ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling component BAF180. Dev Biol. 2008;319:258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data reveal for the first time that BAF180 is critical for coronary vessel formation. ..
  52. Shipley J, Mecham R, Maus E, Bonadio J, Rosenbloom J, McCarthy R, et al. Developmental expression of latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2 and its requirement early in mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4879-87 pubmed
  53. Barnette D, Hulin A, Ahmed A, Colige A, Azhar M, Lincoln J. Tgf?-Smad and MAPK signaling mediate scleraxis and proteoglycan expression in heart valves. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;65:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies identify an important role for Scx in regulating proteoglycans in embryonic and mature valve cells and suggest that imbalanced regulation could influence myxomatous pathogenesis. ..
  54. Martínez Armenta M, Díaz de León Guerrero S, Catalán A, Alvarez Arellano L, Uribe R, Subramaniam M, et al. TGFβ2 regulates hypothalamic Trh expression through the TGFβ inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) during fetal development. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;400:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that TGFβ signaling, through the upregulation of TIEG1, plays an important role in the establishment of Trh expression in the embryonic hypothalamus. ..
  55. Alvarez J, Sohn P, Zeng X, Doetschman T, Robbins D, Serra R. TGFbeta2 mediates the effects of hedgehog on hypertrophic differentiation and PTHrP expression. Development. 2002;129:1913-24 pubmed
    ..expression of PTHRP: We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a functional substitute for Ihh, stimulates expression of Tgfb2 and Tgfb3 mRNA in the perichondrium of embryonic mouse metatarsal bones grown in organ cultures and that TGFbeta ..
  56. Tulachan S, Tei E, Hembree M, Crisera C, Prasadan K, Koizumi M, et al. TGF-beta isoform signaling regulates secondary transition and mesenchymal-induced endocrine development in the embryonic mouse pancreas. Dev Biol. 2007;305:508-21 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta RII in the ducts and islets may normally serve to downregulate the production of beta cells from embryonic ducts. ..
  57. Arai K, Nishiyama T. Developmental changes in extracellular matrix messenger RNAs in the mouse placenta during the second half of pregnancy: possible factors involved in the regulation of placental extracellular matrix expression. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:923-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that an increase in oxygen tension and nutrient supply during placentation rather than TGFB family members may be responsible for the increase in the placental ECM mRNA expression. ..
  58. Schachtrup C, Ryu J, Helmrick M, Vagena E, Galanakis D, Degen J, et al. Fibrinogen triggers astrocyte scar formation by promoting the availability of active TGF-beta after vascular damage. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5843-54 pubmed publisher
  59. Kinbara T, Shirasaki F, Kawara S, Inagaki Y, de Crombrugghe B, Takehara K. Transforming growth factor-beta isoforms differently stimulate proalpha2 (I) collagen gene expression during wound healing process in transgenic mice. J Cell Physiol. 2002;190:375-81 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TGF-beta1 and -beta3 have similar but not identical regulatory mechanisms of COL1A2 expression, and that their pathophysiological roles in wound healing might be different from each other. ..
  60. Maleszewska M, Moonen J, Huijkman N, van De Sluis B, Krenning G, Harmsen M. IL-1? and TGF?2 synergistically induce endothelial to mesenchymal transition in an NF?B-dependent manner. Immunobiology. 2013;218:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of pathological EndMT. ..
  61. Fumoto K, Takigawa Imamura H, Sumiyama K, Kaneiwa T, Kikuchi A. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition. Development. 2017;144:151-162 pubmed publisher
  62. Dalton T, Kover K, Dey S, Andrews G. Analysis of the expression of growth factor, interleukin-1, and lactoferrin genes and the distribution of inflammatory leukocytes in the preimplantation mouse oviduct. Biol Reprod. 1994;51:597-606 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, unlike the uterus on Day 1, the oviduct does not exhibit an inflammatory response to mating. ..
  63. Dickson M, Slager H, Duffie E, Mummery C, Akhurst R. RNA and protein localisations of TGF beta 2 in the early mouse embryo suggest an involvement in cardiac development. Development. 1993;117:625-39 pubmed
    ..5 days post coitum. The results are discussed in terms of a potential role of TGF beta 2 in controlling cardiomyogenesis and in inductive interactions leading to cardiac cushion tissue formation. ..
  64. Krcmery J, Gupta R, Sadleir R, Ahrens M, Misener S, Kamide C, et al. Loss of the cytoskeletal protein Pdlim7 predisposes mice to heart defects and hemostatic dysfunction. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80809 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel and unexpected function for Pdlim7 in maintaining proper hemostasis in neonatal and adult mice. ..
  65. Kruger O, Plum A, Kim J, Winterhager E, Maxeiner S, Hallas G, et al. Defective vascular development in connexin 45-deficient mice. Development. 2000;127:4179-93 pubmed
    ..Development of different types of vessels was impaired to a varying extent, which possibly reflects the complementation by other connexin(s). ..
  66. Chow J, Lee K, Chan S, Yeung W. Quantification of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) mRNA expression in mouse preimplantation embryos and determination of TGFbeta receptor (type I and type II) expression in mouse embryos and reproductive tract. Mol Hum Reprod. 2001;7:1047-56 pubmed
    ..This study has shown that preimplantation mouse embryos produce TGFbeta(1) and that both the embryos and the reproductive tract are responsive to TGFbeta(1) in the preimplantation period. ..
  67. Bjork B, Turbe Doan A, Prysak M, Herron B, Beier D. Prdm16 is required for normal palatogenesis in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:774-89 pubmed publisher
    ..PRDM16 should be considered a candidate for mutation in human clefting disorders, especially NSCP and PRS-like CP. ..
  68. Chai Y, Mah A, Crohin C, Groff S, Bringas P, Le T, et al. Specific transforming growth factor-beta subtypes regulate embryonic mouse Meckel's cartilage and tooth development. Dev Biol. 1994;162:85-103 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta 3 appears to regulate Meckel's cartilage size without altering tooth size or shape. The results are discussed in terms of the regulatory functions of the TGF-beta subtypes during embryonic craniofacial morphogenesis. ..
  69. Chen F, Desai T, Qian J, Niederreither K, LU J, Cardoso W. Inhibition of Tgf beta signaling by endogenous retinoic acid is essential for primary lung bud induction. Development. 2007;134:2969-79 pubmed
    ..Our data support a novel mechanism of RA-Tgfbeta-Fgf10 interactions in the developing foregut, in which endogenous RA controls Tgfbeta activity in the prospective lung field to allow local expression of Fgf10 and induction of lung buds. ..
  70. Lalive P, Paglinawan R, Biollaz G, Kappos E, Leone D, Malipiero U, et al. TGF-beta-treated microglia induce oligodendrocyte precursor cell chemotaxis through the HGF-c-Met pathway. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:727-37 pubmed
    ..Taken these findings, TGF-beta may play a pivotal role in remyelination by inducing microglia to release HGF which is both a chemotactic and differentiation factor for OPC. ..
  71. Kubalak S, Hutson D, Scott K, Shannon R. Elevated transforming growth factor beta2 enhances apoptosis and contributes to abnormal outflow tract and aortic sac development in retinoic X receptor alpha knockout embryos. Development. 2002;129:733-46 pubmed
    ..Importantly, Rxra(-/-) embryos that were heterozygous for a null mutation in the Tgfb2 allele exhibited a partial restoration of the elevated apoptosis and of the malformations...
  72. Whitby D, Ferguson M. Immunohistochemical localization of growth factors in fetal wound healing. Dev Biol. 1991;147:207-15 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that it may be possible to manipulate the adult wound to produce more fetal-like, scarless, wound healing. ..
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