Tgfb1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tgfb1
Description: transforming growth factor, beta 1
Alias: TGF-beta1, TGFbeta1, Tgfb, Tgfb-1, transforming growth factor beta-1
Species: mouse
Products:     Tgfb1

Top Publications

  1. Portella G, Cumming S, Liddell J, Cui W, Ireland H, Akhurst R, et al. Transforming growth factor beta is essential for spindle cell conversion of mouse skin carcinoma in vivo: implications for tumor invasion. Cell Growth Differ. 1998;9:393-404 pubmed
  2. Lin J, Kitzmiller T, Cates J, Gorham J. MHC-independent genetic regulation of liver damage in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatocellular injury. Lab Invest. 2005;85:550-61 pubmed
    ..This constitutes the first direct evidence that susceptibility to autoimmune hepatocellular damage, at least in mice, can be determined by genetic loci distinct from the MHC. ..
  3. Pelton R, Dickinson M, Moses H, Hogan B. In situ hybridization analysis of TGF beta 3 RNA expression during mouse development: comparative studies with TGF beta 1 and beta 2. Development. 1990;110:609-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in several organ systems, TGF beta 3 transcripts are expressed during periods of active morphogenesis suggesting that the protein may be an important factor for the growth and differentiation of many embryonic tissues. ..
  4. Tinoco R, Alcalde V, Yang Y, Sauer K, Zuniga E. Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in vivo. Immunity. 2009;31:145-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal persisting TGF-beta-Smad signaling as a hallmark and key regulator of CD8(+) T cell responses during chronic viral infections in vivo. ..
  5. Beynon A, Thome J, Coogan A. Age and time of day influences on the expression of transforming growth factor-beta and phosphorylated SMAD3 in the mouse suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2009;16:392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TGF-beta and pSMAD3 are expressed under basal conditions in the SCN and PVN, and this expression is modulated in both a diurnal and age-dependent manner. ..
  6. Kim S, Na H, Ding Y, Wang Z, Lee S, Choi M. Autophagy promotes intracellular degradation of type I collagen induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a novel role of autophagy as a cytoprotective mechanism to negatively regulate and prevent excess collagen accumulation in the kidney. ..
  7. Roarty K, Serra R. Wnt5a is required for proper mammary gland development and TGF-beta-mediated inhibition of ductal growth. Development. 2007;134:3929-39 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to show a requirement for Wnt5a in normal mammary development and its functional connection to TGF-beta. ..
  8. Nemeth K, Keane Myers A, Brown J, Metcalfe D, Gorham J, Gorham J, et al. Bone marrow stromal cells use TGF-beta to suppress allergic responses in a mouse model of ragweed-induced asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5652-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Koeglsperger T, Li S, Brenneis C, Saulnier J, Mayo L, Carrier Y, et al. Impaired glutamate recycling and GluN2B-mediated neuronal calcium overload in mice lacking TGF-?1 in the CNS. Glia. 2013;61:985-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study demonstrates a previously unrecognized function of TGF-?1 in the CNS to control extracellular glutamate homeostasis and GluN2B-mediated calcium responses in the mouse hippocampus. ..
  10. Kaplan D, Li M, Jenison M, Shlomchik W, Flavell R, Shlomchik M. Autocrine/paracrine TGFbeta1 is required for the development of epidermal Langerhans cells. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2545-52 pubmed
    ..Epidermal LCs are absent in transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1-deficient mice. It is not clear whether TGFbeta1 acts directly on LC precursors to promote maturation or whether it acts on accessory cells, which in turn affect ..

Detail Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Portella G, Cumming S, Liddell J, Cui W, Ireland H, Akhurst R, et al. Transforming growth factor beta is essential for spindle cell conversion of mouse skin carcinoma in vivo: implications for tumor invasion. Cell Growth Differ. 1998;9:393-404 pubmed
  2. Lin J, Kitzmiller T, Cates J, Gorham J. MHC-independent genetic regulation of liver damage in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatocellular injury. Lab Invest. 2005;85:550-61 pubmed
    ..This constitutes the first direct evidence that susceptibility to autoimmune hepatocellular damage, at least in mice, can be determined by genetic loci distinct from the MHC. ..
  3. Pelton R, Dickinson M, Moses H, Hogan B. In situ hybridization analysis of TGF beta 3 RNA expression during mouse development: comparative studies with TGF beta 1 and beta 2. Development. 1990;110:609-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in several organ systems, TGF beta 3 transcripts are expressed during periods of active morphogenesis suggesting that the protein may be an important factor for the growth and differentiation of many embryonic tissues. ..
  4. Tinoco R, Alcalde V, Yang Y, Sauer K, Zuniga E. Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in vivo. Immunity. 2009;31:145-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal persisting TGF-beta-Smad signaling as a hallmark and key regulator of CD8(+) T cell responses during chronic viral infections in vivo. ..
  5. Beynon A, Thome J, Coogan A. Age and time of day influences on the expression of transforming growth factor-beta and phosphorylated SMAD3 in the mouse suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2009;16:392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TGF-beta and pSMAD3 are expressed under basal conditions in the SCN and PVN, and this expression is modulated in both a diurnal and age-dependent manner. ..
  6. Kim S, Na H, Ding Y, Wang Z, Lee S, Choi M. Autophagy promotes intracellular degradation of type I collagen induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a novel role of autophagy as a cytoprotective mechanism to negatively regulate and prevent excess collagen accumulation in the kidney. ..
  7. Roarty K, Serra R. Wnt5a is required for proper mammary gland development and TGF-beta-mediated inhibition of ductal growth. Development. 2007;134:3929-39 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to show a requirement for Wnt5a in normal mammary development and its functional connection to TGF-beta. ..
  8. Nemeth K, Keane Myers A, Brown J, Metcalfe D, Gorham J, Gorham J, et al. Bone marrow stromal cells use TGF-beta to suppress allergic responses in a mouse model of ragweed-induced asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5652-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Koeglsperger T, Li S, Brenneis C, Saulnier J, Mayo L, Carrier Y, et al. Impaired glutamate recycling and GluN2B-mediated neuronal calcium overload in mice lacking TGF-?1 in the CNS. Glia. 2013;61:985-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study demonstrates a previously unrecognized function of TGF-?1 in the CNS to control extracellular glutamate homeostasis and GluN2B-mediated calcium responses in the mouse hippocampus. ..
  10. Kaplan D, Li M, Jenison M, Shlomchik W, Flavell R, Shlomchik M. Autocrine/paracrine TGFbeta1 is required for the development of epidermal Langerhans cells. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2545-52 pubmed
    ..Epidermal LCs are absent in transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1-deficient mice. It is not clear whether TGFbeta1 acts directly on LC precursors to promote maturation or whether it acts on accessory cells, which in turn affect ..
  11. Romão L, Sousa V, Neto V, Gomes F. Glutamate activates GFAP gene promoter from cultured astrocytes through TGF-beta1 pathways. J Neurochem. 2008;106:746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..marker, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) of cerebral cortex astrocytes by inducing TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) secretion in vitro...
  12. Tsuchiya M, Sharma R, Tye C, Sugiyama T, Bartlett J. Transforming growth factor-beta1 expression is up-regulated in maturation-stage enamel organ and may induce ameloblast apoptosis. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TGF-beta1 may play an important role in ameloblast apoptosis during the maturation stage of enamel development...
  13. Crawford S, Stellmach V, Murphy Ullrich J, Ribeiro S, Lawler J, Hynes R, et al. Thrombospondin-1 is a major activator of TGF-beta1 in vivo. Cell. 1998;93:1159-70 pubmed
  14. Kato M, Zhang J, Wang M, Lanting L, Yuan H, Rossi J, et al. MicroRNA-192 in diabetic kidney glomeruli and its function in TGF-beta-induced collagen expression via inhibition of E-box repressors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3432-7 pubmed
    ..These results uncover a role for miRs in the kidney and DN in controlling TGF-beta-induced Col1a2 expression by down-regulating E-box repressors. ..
  15. Azhar M, Runyan R, Gard C, Sanford L, Miller M, Andringa A, et al. Ligand-specific function of transforming growth factor beta in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in heart development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:431-42 pubmed publisher
    ..5 with elevated levels of well-validated indicators of EMT. Collectively, these data indicate that TGFbeta2, and not TGFbeta1 or TGFbeta3, mediates cardiac cushion EMT by promoting both the initiation and cessation of EMT.
  16. Oida T, Weiner H. TGF-? induces surface LAP expression on murine CD4 T cells independent of Foxp3 induction. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15523 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated anti-mouse LAP mAbs by immunizing TGF-?(-/-) animals with a mouse Tgfb1-transduced P3U1 cell line...
  17. Todorovic V, Finnegan E, Freyer L, Zilberberg L, Ota M, Rifkin D. Long form of latent TGF-? binding protein 1 (Ltbp1L) regulates cardiac valve development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Ltbp1L is a major regulator of Tgf-? activity during valvulogenesis since its absence results in a perturbed Tgf-? pathway that causes all Ltbp1L(-/-) valvular defects. ..
  18. Yang X, Chen L, Xu X, Li C, Huang C, Deng C. TGF-beta/Smad3 signals repress chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation and are required for maintaining articular cartilage. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:35-46 pubmed
    ..Without these inhibition signals, chondrocytes break quiescent state and undergo abnormal terminal differentiation, ultimately leading to osteoarthritis. ..
  19. Maeda S, Hayashi M, Komiya S, Imamura T, Miyazono K. Endogenous TGF-beta signaling suppresses maturation of osteoblastic mesenchymal cells. EMBO J. 2004;23:552-63 pubmed
  20. Millan F, Denhez F, Kondaiah P, Akhurst R. Embryonic gene expression patterns of TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 suggest different developmental functions in vivo. Development. 1991;111:131-43 pubmed
    ..Finally both TGF beta 1 and beta 2 transcripts are seen in regions actively undergoing cardiac septation and valve formation, suggesting some interaction of these growth factors in this developmental process. ..
  21. Wyss Coray T, Lin C, Yan F, Yu G, Rohde M, McConlogue L, et al. TGF-beta1 promotes microglial amyloid-beta clearance and reduces plaque burden in transgenic mice. Nat Med. 2001;7:612-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TGF-beta1 is an important modifier of amyloid deposition in vivo and indicate that TGF-beta1 might promote microglial processes that inhibit the accumulation of Abeta in the brain parenchyma. ..
  22. Sato M, Muragaki Y, Saika S, Roberts A, Ooshima A. Targeted disruption of TGF-beta1/Smad3 signaling protects against renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1486-94 pubmed
    ..Together the data demonstrate that the Smad3 pathway is central to the pathogenesis of interstitial fibrosis and suggest that inhibitors of this pathway may have clinical application in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy. ..
  23. Lacmann A, Hess D, Gohla G, Roussa E, Krieglstein K. Activity-dependent release of transforming growth factor-beta in a neuronal network in vitro. Neuroscience. 2007;150:647-57 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest an activity-dependent release and gene transcription of TGF-beta from mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro as well as subsequent autocrine functions of the released TGF-beta within the hippocampal network. ..
  24. Wu S, Kasisomayajula K, Peng J, Bancalari E. Inhibition of JNK enhances TGF-beta1-activated Smad2 signaling in mouse embryonic lung. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the JNK pathway may antagonize TGF-beta1 dependent Smad2 signaling during mouse embryonic lung development. ..
  25. Coomes S, Wilke C, Moore T, Moore B. Induction of TGF-beta 1, not regulatory T cells, impairs antiviral immunity in the lung following bone marrow transplant. J Immunol. 2010;184:5130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that overexpression of TGF-beta1 following myeloablative conditioning post-BMT results in impaired effector T cell responses to viral infection...
  26. Nistala H, Lee Arteaga S, Smaldone S, Siciliano G, Carta L, Ono R, et al. Fibrillin-1 and -2 differentially modulate endogenous TGF-? and BMP bioavailability during bone formation. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:1107-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings identify the extracellular microfibrils as critical regulators of bone formation through the modulation of endogenous TGF-? and BMP signaling...
  27. Gutcher I, Donkor M, Ma Q, Rudensky A, Flavell R, Li M. Autocrine transforming growth factor-?1 promotes in vivo Th17 cell differentiation. Immunity. 2011;34:396-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we showed that deletion of the Tgfb1 gene from activated T cells and Treg cells, but not Treg cells alone, abrogated Th17 cell differentiation, ..
  28. Heldin C, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P. TGF-beta signalling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Nature. 1997;390:465-71 pubmed
    ..Inhibitory SMADs have been identified that block the activation of these pathway-restricted SMADs. ..
  29. Ng C, Cheng A, Myers L, Martinez Murillo F, Jie C, Bedja D, et al. TGF-beta-dependent pathogenesis of mitral valve prolapse in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1586-92 pubmed
  30. Marie J, Letterio J, Gavin M, Rudensky A. TGF-beta1 maintains suppressor function and Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1061-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results establish an essential link between TGF-beta1 signaling in peripheral T reg cells and T reg cell maintenance in vivo. ..
  31. van den Brule S, Misson P, Buhling F, Lison D, Huaux F. Overexpression of cathepsin K during silica-induced lung fibrosis and control by TGF-beta. Respir Res. 2005;6:84 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data suggest that while Cat K may contribute to control lung fibrosis, TGF-beta appears to limit its overexpression in response to silica particles. ..
  32. Cicchini C, Laudadio I, Citarella F, Corazzari M, Steindler C, Conigliaro A, et al. TGFbeta-induced EMT requires focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:143-52 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the first evidence of FAK functional role in TGFbeta-mediated EMT in hepatocytes. ..
  33. Bottoms S, Howell J, Reinhardt A, Evans I, McAnulty R. Tgf-Beta isoform specific regulation of airway inflammation and remodelling in a murine model of asthma. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9674 pubmed publisher
  34. Jeon S, Chae B, Kim H, Seo G, Seo D, Chun G, et al. Mechanisms underlying TGF-beta1-induced expression of VEGF and Flk-1 in mouse macrophages and their implications for angiogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:557-66 pubmed
    ..The results from the present study indicate that TGF-beta1 can activate mouse macrophages to express angiogenic mediators such as VEGF, MMP-9, and Flk-1. ..
  35. Joetham A, Takeda K, Takada K, Taube C, Miyahara N, Matsubara S, et al. Naturally occurring lung CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell regulation of airway allergic responses depends on IL-10 induction of TGF-beta. J Immunol. 2007;178:1433-42 pubmed
    ..By analogy, anti-TGF-beta treatment reduced regulatory T cell activity. These data identify naturally occurring lung CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells as capable of regulating lung allergic responses in an IL-10- and TGF-beta-dependent manner. ..
  36. Gros M, Naquet P, Guinamard R. Cell intrinsic TGF-beta 1 regulation of B cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:8153-8 pubmed
    ..The analysis of T cell-deficient, TGF-beta1 knockout mice and the production of chimeras in which B but not T cells lacked TGF-beta1 allowed us to show that B cells are controlled in part by cell autonomous production of TGF-beta1. ..
  37. Presser K, Schwinge D, Wegmann M, Huber S, Schmitt S, Quaas A, et al. Coexpression of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 enables regulatory T cells to completely suppress airway hyperreactivity. J Immunol. 2008;181:7751-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, modulation of cytokine expression by Treg may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of AHR in asthma. The mechanisms of the effects of Treg on airway inflammation require further clarification. ..
  38. Foitzik K, Paus R, Doetschman T, Dotto G. The TGF-beta2 isoform is both a required and sufficient inducer of murine hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;212:278-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, the TGF-beta2 isoform plays a specific role, not shared by the other TGF-beta isoforms, as an inducer of hair follicle morphogenesis and is both required and sufficient to promote this process. ..
  39. Parekh V, Prasad D, Banerjee P, Joshi B, Kumar A, Mishra G. B cells activated by lipopolysaccharide, but not by anti-Ig and anti-CD40 antibody, induce anergy in CD8+ T cells: role of TGF-beta 1. J Immunol. 2003;170:5897-911 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this study, for the first time, provides a novel mechanism of B cell surface TGF-beta1-mediated hyporesponsiveness leading to anergy of CD8(+) T cells. ..
  40. Shipley J, Mecham R, Maus E, Bonadio J, Rosenbloom J, McCarthy R, et al. Developmental expression of latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2 and its requirement early in mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4879-87 pubmed
  41. Neptune E, Frischmeyer P, Arking D, Myers L, Bunton T, Gayraud B, et al. Dysregulation of TGF-beta activation contributes to pathogenesis in Marfan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2003;33:407-11 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that matrix sequestration of cytokines is crucial to their regulated activation and signaling and that perturbation of this function can contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. ..
  42. Fattouh R, Midence N, Arias K, Johnson J, Walker T, Goncharova S, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta regulates house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation but not airway remodeling. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a powerful regulator of both the tissue repair and inflammatory responses, and numerous experimental and clinical studies suggest that it may play an integral role in the pathogenesis of asthma...
  43. Andersson J, Tran D, Pesu M, Davidson T, Ramsey H, O Shea J, et al. CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells confer infectious tolerance in a TGF-beta-dependent manner. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1975-81 pubmed publisher
    ..T reg cell-mediated generation of functional CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells via this TGF-beta-dependent pathway may represent a major mechanism as to how T reg cells maintain tolerance and expand their suppressive abilities. ..
  44. Moo Young T, Larson J, Belt B, Tan M, Hawkins W, Eberlein T, et al. Tumor-derived TGF-beta mediates conversion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in a murine model of pancreas cancer. J Immunother. 2009;32:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations further support the role of TGF-beta in the induction of Treg in pancreas adenocarcinoma. ..
  45. Sanderson N, Factor V, Nagy P, Kopp J, Kondaiah P, Wakefield L, et al. Hepatic expression of mature transforming growth factor beta 1 in transgenic mice results in multiple tissue lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2572-6 pubmed
    Aberrant expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been implicated in a number of disease processes, particularly those involving fibrotic and inflammatory lesions...
  46. Singla D, Kumar D, Sun B. Transforming growth factor-beta2 enhances differentiation of cardiac myocytes from embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:135-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, TGF-beta2 but not TGF-beta1, or -beta3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from ES cells. ..
  47. Fichtner Feigl S, Strober W, Kawakami K, Puri R, Kitani A. IL-13 signaling through the IL-13alpha2 receptor is involved in induction of TGF-beta1 production and fibrosis. Nat Med. 2006;12:99-106 pubmed
    ..signaling through IL-13Ralpha(2) to activate an AP-1 variant containing c-jun and Fra-2, which then activates the TGFB1 promoter...
  48. Engle S, Ormsby I, Pawlowski S, Boivin G, Croft J, Balish E, et al. Elimination of colon cancer in germ-free transforming growth factor beta 1-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6362-6 pubmed
    ..This animal model should provide insight into the protective role of TGF-beta1 in early stages of ulcerative colitis-associated human colon cancer. ..
  49. Atti E, Gomez S, Wahl S, Mendelsohn R, Paschalis E, Boskey A. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta deficiency on bone development: a Fourier transform-infrared imaging analysis. Bone. 2002;31:675-84 pubmed
    ..results, consistent with a mechanism of impaired bone maturation in the TGF-beta1 null mice, may be directly related to TGF-beta1 deficiency and indirectly to increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in the TGFbeta1 null mice.
  50. Mangan P, Harrington L, O Quinn D, Helms W, Bullard D, Elson C, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage. Nature. 2006;441:231-4 pubmed
    ..The action of TGF-beta on naive T cells is antagonized by interferon-gamma and IL-4, thus providing a mechanism for divergence of the T(H)1, T(H)2 and T(H)17 lineages. ..
  51. Ramjaun A, Tomlinson S, Eddaoudi A, Downward J. Upregulation of two BH3-only proteins, Bmf and Bim, during TGF beta-induced apoptosis. Oncogene. 2007;26:970-81 pubmed
    ..The TGFbeta-triggered cell death programme thus involves induction of multiple BH3-only proteins during the induction of apoptosis. ..
  52. Tan X, Weng T, Zhang J, Wang J, Li W, Wan H, et al. Smad4 is required for maintaining normal murine postnatal bone homeostasis. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2162-70 pubmed
    ..This correlated with reduced bone resorption possibly caused by downregulation of TGFbeta1 and alteration of the ligand receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANKL)-osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis...
  53. Luo J, Ho P, Buckwalter M, Hsu T, Lee L, Zhang H, et al. Glia-dependent TGF-beta signaling, acting independently of the TH17 pathway, is critical for initiation of murine autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3306-15 pubmed
    ..Importantly, inhibition of TGF-beta signaling may have benefits in the treatment of the acute phase of autoimmune CNS inflammation. ..
  54. Srinivasan Y, Lovicu F, Overbeek P. Lens-specific expression of transforming growth factor beta1 in transgenic mice causes anterior subcapsular cataracts. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:625-34 pubmed
    ..The corneal opacities were associated with increased exfoliation of the squamous layer of the corneal epithelium and increased DNA replication in the basal epithelium. ..
  55. Flügel Koch C, Ohlmann A, Piatigorsky J, Tamm E. Disruption of anterior segment development by TGF-beta1 overexpression in the eyes of transgenic mice. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:111-25 pubmed
  56. Kang Y, Siegel P, Shu W, Drobnjak M, Kakonen S, Cordon Cardo C, et al. A multigenic program mediating breast cancer metastasis to bone. Cancer Cell. 2003;3:537-49 pubmed
  57. Sowa H, Kaji H, Hendy G, Canaff L, Komori T, Sugimoto T, et al. Menin is required for bone morphogenetic protein 2- and transforming growth factor beta-regulated osteoblastic differentiation through interaction with Smads and Runx2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40267-75 pubmed
    ..In osteoblasts the interaction of menin and the transforming growth factor-beta/Smad3 pathway negatively regulates the BMP-2/Smad1/5- and Runx2-induced transcriptional activities leading to inhibition of late-stage differentiation. ..
  58. Mecha M, Rabadán M, Pena Melian A, Valencia M, Mondéjar T, Blanco M. Expression of TGF-betas in the embryonic nervous system: analysis of interbalance between isoforms. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1709-17 pubmed publisher
  59. Gonzalez C, Gonzalez B, Rulli S, Huhtaniemi I, Calandra R, Gonzalez Calvar S. TGF-beta1 system in Leydig cells. Part I: effect of hCG and progesterone. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:389-95 pubmed
    b>Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) modulates male reproductive function...
  60. Gründer A, Ebel T, Mallo M, Schwarzkopf G, Shimizu T, Sippel A, et al. Nuclear factor I-B (Nfib) deficient mice have severe lung hypoplasia. Mech Dev. 2002;112:69-77 pubmed
    ..Heterozygotes do survive, but exhibit delayed pulmonary differentiation. Expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and sonic hedgehog (Shh) is not down-regulated in mutant lung epithelium at late stages ..
  61. Van Blokland S, Versnel M. Pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome: characteristics of different mouse models for autoimmune exocrinopathy. Clin Immunol. 2002;103:111-24 pubmed
  62. Santibanez J, Letamendia A, Perez Barriocanal F, Silvestri C, Saura M, Vary C, et al. Endoglin increases eNOS expression by modulating Smad2 protein levels and Smad2-dependent TGF-beta signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:456-68 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that endoglin enhances Smad2 protein levels potentiating TGF-beta signaling, and leading to an increased eNOS expression in endothelial cells. ..
  63. Myllärniemi M, Lindholm P, Ryynänen M, KLIMENT C, Salmenkivi K, Keski Oja J, et al. Gremlin-mediated decrease in bone morphogenetic protein signaling promotes pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:321-9 pubmed
    ..Rescue of BMP signaling activity may represent a potential beneficial strategy for treating human pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  64. Sullivan D, Ferris M, Nguyen H, Abboud E, Brody A. TNF-alpha induces TGF-beta1 expression in lung fibroblasts at the transcriptional level via AP-1 activation. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:1866-76 pubmed publisher
  65. Dennler S, Andre J, Alexaki I, Li A, Magnaldo T, Ten Dijke P, et al. Induction of sonic hedgehog mediators by transforming growth factor-beta: Smad3-dependent activation of Gli2 and Gli1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6981-6 pubmed
    ..We thus identify TGF-beta as a potent transcriptional inducer of Gli transcription factors. Targeting the cooperation of Hh and TGF-beta signaling may provide new therapeutic opportunities for cancer treatment. ..
  66. Kato M, Wang L, Putta S, Wang M, Yuan H, Sun G, et al. Post-transcriptional up-regulation of Tsc-22 by Ybx1, a target of miR-216a, mediates TGF-{beta}-induced collagen expression in kidney cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34004-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation of Tsc-22 mediated through Ybx1, a miR-216a target, plays a key role in TGF-?-induced Col1a2 in MC related to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  67. Li M, Sanjabi S, Flavell R. Transforming growth factor-beta controls development, homeostasis, and tolerance of T cells by regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Immunity. 2006;25:455-71 pubmed
    ..This study reveals pleiotropic functions of TGF-beta signaling in T cells that may ensure a diverse and self-tolerant T cell repertoire in vivo. ..
  68. Nelson C, Hunter R, Quigley L, Girgenrath S, Weber W, McCullough J, et al. Inhibiting TGF-? activity improves respiratory function in mdx mice. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..For all endpoints, 1D11 was equivalent or superior to losartan; coadministration of the two agents was not superior to 1D11 alone. In conclusion, TGF-? antagonism may be a useful therapeutic approach for treating DMD patients. ..
  69. Sterner Kock A, Thorey I, Koli K, Wempe F, Otte J, Bangsow T, et al. Disruption of the gene encoding the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) causes abnormal lung development, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2264-73 pubmed
    ..This phenotype supports the predicted dual role of LTBP-4 as a structural component of the extracellular matrix and as a local regulator of TGF-beta tissue deposition and signaling. ..
  70. Akhurst R, Balmain A. Genetic events and the role of TGF beta in epithelial tumour progression. J Pathol. 1999;187:82-90 pubmed
    ..It is this latter effect which may be clinically more significant, since many human tumours overexpress TGF beta, yet the majority still retain the intracellular signaling systems necessary for the cell to respond to this growth factor. ..
  71. Grainger D. Transforming growth factor beta and atherosclerosis: so far, so good for the protective cytokine hypothesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:399-404 pubmed
    ..First, is the role of TGF-beta in vascular biology similar in humans and in mice? Secondly, how important, compared with defects in thrombosis or lipoprotein metabolism, is the protective role of TGF-beta during atherogenesis? ..
  72. Todorovic V, Frendewey D, Gutstein D, Chen Y, Freyer L, Finnegan E, et al. Long form of latent TGF-beta binding protein 1 (Ltbp1L) is essential for cardiac outflow tract septation and remodeling. Development. 2007;134:3723-32 pubmed
    ..This phenotype reveals a crucial role for Ltbp1L and matrix as extracellular regulators of Tgf-beta activity in heart organogenesis. ..
  73. Brand T, Schneider M. The TGF beta superfamily in myocardium: ligands, receptors, transduction, and function. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995;27:5-18 pubmed
  74. Ge G, Greenspan D. BMP1 controls TGFbeta1 activation via cleavage of latent TGFbeta-binding protein. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:111-20 pubmed
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