Gene Symbol: Tgfa
Description: transforming growth factor alpha
Alias: wa-1, wa1, protransforming growth factor alpha
Species: mouse
Products:     Tgfa

Top Publications

  1. Mann G, Fowler K, Gabriel A, Nice E, Williams R, Dunn A. Mice with a null mutation of the TGF alpha gene have abnormal skin architecture, wavy hair, and curly whiskers and often develop corneal inflammation. Cell. 1993;73:249-61 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that TGF alpha plays a pivotal role in determining skin architecture and in regulating hair development. ..
  2. Luetteke N, Qiu T, Peiffer R, Oliver P, Smithies O, Lee D. TGF alpha deficiency results in hair follicle and eye abnormalities in targeted and waved-1 mice. Cell. 1993;73:263-78 pubmed
    ..Crosses between wa-1 homozygotes and TGF alpha-targeted mice confirmed that wa-1 and TGF alpha are allelic. ..
  3. Lee D, Pearsall R, Das S, Dey S, Godfrey V, Threadgill D. Epiregulin is not essential for development of intestinal tumors but is required for protection from intestinal damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:8907-16 pubmed
    ..However, Ereg null mice are highly susceptible to cancer-predisposing intestinal damage caused by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium. ..
  4. Kronmiller J, Upholt W, Kollar E. Effects of retinol on the temporal expression of transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA in the embryonic mouse mandible. Arch Oral Biol. 1993;38:185-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that retinoids may act to control the proliferative pattern of the dental lamina through EGF expression and not TGF alpha expression, although mRNAs for both mitogens are present at the same time. ..
  5. Burrows R, Levitt P, Shors T. Postnatal decrease in transforming growth factor alpha is associated with enlarged ventricles, deficient amygdaloid vasculature and performance deficits. Neuroscience. 2000;96:825-36 pubmed
  6. Musselman A, Bennett G, Greer K, Eberwine J, Finnell R. Preliminary evidence of phenytoin-induced alterations in embryonic gene expression in a mouse model. Reprod Toxicol. 1994;8:383-95 pubmed
  7. Iamaroon A, Tait B, Diewert V. Cell proliferation and expression of EGF, TGF-alpha, and EGF receptor in the developing primary palate. J Dent Res. 1996;75:1534-9 pubmed
  8. Muller W, Arteaga C, Muthuswamy S, Siegel P, Webster M, Cardiff R, et al. Synergistic interaction of the Neu proto-oncogene product and transforming growth factor alpha in the mammary epithelium of transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5726-36 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that Neu and TGF-alpha cooperate in mammary tumorigenesis through a mechanism involving Neu and EGFR transactivation. ..
  9. Koshibu K, Ahrens E, Levitt P. Postpubertal sex differentiation of forebrain structures and functions depend on transforming growth factor-alpha. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3870-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a lack of a behavioral phenotype, despite anatomical alterations in peripubertal Wa-1 mice, suggests that analysis of certain neuroanatomical features at puberty may predict neurobehavioral deficits in adulthood. ..

More Information


  1. Ida S, Ohmuraya M, Hirota M, Ozaki N, Hiramatsu S, Uehara H, et al. Chronic pancreatitis in mice by treatment with choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet. Exp Anim. 2010;59:421-9 pubmed
    ..Neoplastic lesions were not found after 54 weeks of treatment, suggesting that a continuation of CDE diet or another insult is required for the development of PDA. ..
  2. Charalambous C, Hannigan A, Tsimbouri P, McPhee G, Wilson J. Latent membrane protein 1-induced EGFR signalling is negatively regulated by TGF alpha prior to neoplasia. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:1839-48 pubmed
    ..It reveals what regulatory circuits are in place in a normal tissue, thus facilitating further prediction of causative events in carcinogenic progression. ..
  3. Vassar R, Fuchs E. Transgenic mice provide new insights into the role of TGF-alpha during epidermal development and differentiation. Genes Dev. 1991;5:714-27 pubmed
  4. Cardiff R, Munn R. Comparative pathology of mammary tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. Cancer Lett. 1995;90:13-9 pubmed
    ..The tumors arise from hyperplasias. The tumor natural history and histogenesis are oncogene specific. Interactions between oncogenes may impede or accelerate tumorigenesis. ..
  5. Russell W, Kaufmann W, Sitaric S, Luetteke N, Lee D. Liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-alpha-targeted mice. Mol Carcinog. 1996;15:183-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that TGF alpha is not required for early events in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis but suggest that it could be important in the progression from small preneoplastic foci to large tumors. ..
  6. Riese D, Kim E, Elenius K, Buckley S, Klagsbrun M, Plowman G, et al. The epidermal growth factor receptor couples transforming growth factor-alpha, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like factor, and amphiregulin to Neu, ErbB-3, and ErbB-4. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20047-52 pubmed
    ..Therefore, EGF, TGF-alpha, AR, and HB-EGF are functionally identical in this model system and behave differently from the EGF family hormones betacellulin and neuregulins. ..
  7. Hilakivi Clarke L, Arora P, Sabol M, Clarke R, Dickson R, Lippman M. Alterations in behavior, steroid hormones and natural killer cell activity in male transgenic TGF alpha mice. Brain Res. 1992;588:97-103 pubmed
    ..It remains to be determined whether hepatocarcinoma is associated with the direct proliferative and transforming effects of TGF alpha and/or indirect effects mediated through immune, hormonal and behavioral mechanisms. ..
  8. Lin C, Dempsey P, Coffey R, Bissell M. Extracellular matrix regulates whey acidic protein gene expression by suppression of TGF-alpha in mouse mammary epithelial cells: studies in culture and in transgenic mice. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:1115-26 pubmed
    ..These results provide a clear example of cooperation among lactogenic hormones, ECM, and locally acting growth factors in regulation of tissue-specific gene expression. ..
  9. Bryant P, Schmid J, Fenton S, Buckalew A, Abbott B. Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking the expression of EGF and/or TGF-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2001;62:103-14 pubmed
    ..Also, EGF and TGF-alpha are not required for the induction of hydronephrosis, but when either is absent the response of the fetal urinary tract to TCDD is enhanced. ..
  10. Le Cras T, Hardie W, Deutsch G, Albertine K, Ikegami M, Whitsett J, et al. Transient induction of TGF-alpha disrupts lung morphogenesis, causing pulmonary disease in adulthood. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;287:L718-29 pubmed
    ..Transient induction of TGF-alpha during early alveologenesis permanently disrupted lung structure and function and caused chronic lung disease. ..
  11. Reddy K, McGowen R, Schuger L, Visscher D, Sheng S. Maspin expression inversely correlates with breast tumor progression in MMTV/TGF-alpha transgenic mouse model. Oncogene. 2001;20:6538-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data suggests that MMTV/TGF-alpha transgenic mouse model is advantageous for in vivo evaluation of both the expression and the biological function of maspin during the slow multi-stage carcinogenesis of mammary gland. ..
  12. Kakizaki S, Takagi H, Fukusato T, Toyoda M, Horiguchi N, Sato K, et al. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on hepatocarcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) transgenic mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001;71:261-7 pubmed
    ..At best, these data demonstrate that alpha-tocopherol-deficiency is not beneficial for prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis in this model. Alpha-tocopherol may be useful for the chemoprevention for liver cancer. ..
  13. Kim I, Mogford J, Chao J, Mustoe T. Wound epithelialization deficits in the transforming growth factor-alpha knockout mouse. Wound Repair Regen. 2001;9:386-90 pubmed
    ..The data further show the importance of appropriate wound models to address the role of vulnerary factors. ..
  14. Leikauf G, McDowell S, Wesselkamper S, Miller C, Hardie W, Gammon K, et al. Pathogenomic mechanisms for particulate matter induction of acute lung injury and inflammation in mice. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2001;:5-58; discussion 59-71 pubmed
    ..Future assessment of these susceptibility genes (including evaluations of human synteny and function) could provide valuable insights into individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of particulate matter. ..
  15. Abbott B, Buckalew A, DeVito M, Ross D, Bryant P, Schmid J. EGF and TGF-alpha expression influence the developmental toxicity of TCDD: dose response and AhR phenotype in EGF, TGF-alpha, and EGF + TGF-alpha knockout mice. Toxicol Sci. 2003;71:84-95 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the EGFR pathway is mechanistically important in responses of the embryo to TCDD. Specific ligands confer sensitivity or resistance that are target tissue-dependent. ..
  16. Lemarié C, Tharaux P, Esposito B, Tedgui A, Lehoux S. Transforming growth factor-alpha mediates nuclear factor kappaB activation in strained arteries. Circ Res. 2006;99:434-41 pubmed
    ..Hence, our data identify TGF-alpha as a potential specific target to modulate mechanosensitive NF-kappaB activation and associated vascular remodeling. ..
  17. Nam K, Lee H, Mok H, Romero Gallo J, Crowe J, Peek R, et al. Amphiregulin-deficient mice develop spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1288-96 pubmed publisher
    ..AR-/- mice develop SPEM, which gives rise to goblet cell IM and invasive fundic dysplastic lesions. The AR-/- mouse represents the first mouse model for spontaneous development of fundic SPEM with progression to IM. ..
  18. Caronia Brown G, Grove E. Timing of cortical interneuron migration is influenced by the cortical hem. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:748-55 pubmed publisher
  19. Heuer J, Harlan S, Yang D, Jaqua D, Boyles J, Wilson J, et al. Role of TGF-alpha in the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;312:F951-F962 pubmed publisher
    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA) has been shown to play a role in experimental chronic kidney disease associated with nephron reduction, while its role in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is unknown...
  20. Smith G, Sharp R, Kordon E, Jhappan C, Merlino G. Transforming growth factor-alpha promotes mammary tumorigenesis through selective survival and growth of secretory epithelial cells. Am J Pathol. 1995;147:1081-96 pubmed
    ..These points support the notion that TGF-alpha can act as a mitogen and also as a differentiation factor in mammary epithelium. ..
  21. Abbott B, Lin T, Rasmussen N, Albrecht R, Schmid J, Peterson R. Lack of expression of EGF and TGF-alpha in the fetal mouse alters formation of prostatic epithelial buds and influences the response to TCDD. Toxicol Sci. 2003;76:427-36 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, EGF and TGF-alpha expression are important for the formation of ADLBs and VBs, and expression of EGF and TGF-alpha affects the ability of TCDD to inhibit prostatic bud formation in a region-specific manner. ..
  22. Lazar L, Blum M. Regional distribution and developmental expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA in mouse brain by a quantitative nuclease protection assay. J Neurosci. 1992;12:1688-97 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the synthesis of EGF in brain and suggest a role for both EGF and TGF-alpha in the development and support of the mammalian CNS. ..
  23. Nomura S, Settle S, Leys C, Means A, Peek R, Leach S, et al. Evidence for repatterning of the gastric fundic epithelium associated with Ménétrier's disease and TGFalpha overexpression. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:1292-305 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of TGFalpha in MT-TGFalpha mice and Ménétrier's disease patients elicits ectopic expression in the fundus of Pdx1, consistent with the phenotype of antralization. ..
  24. Mock B, D Hoostelaere L, Matthai R, Huppi K. A mouse homeo box gene, Hox-1.5, and the morphological locus, Hd, map to within 1 cM on chromosome 6. Genetics. 1987;116:607-12 pubmed
    ..5 was mapped in backcross experiments to within 1 cM of the hypodactyly locus on chromosome 6. This identifies the Hd mutation as a useful model for the examination of homeo box expression during mammalian development. ..
  25. Rose Hellekant T, Wentworth K, Nikolai S, Kundel D, Sandgren E. Mammary carcinogenesis is preceded by altered epithelial cell turnover in transforming growth factor-alpha and c-myc transgenic mice. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:1821-32 pubmed
    ..These observations support the evaluation of cell turnover as a biomarker of cancer risk and indicator of prevention/treatment efficacy in preclinical models and warrant validation in human breast cancer. ..
  26. Pollard P, Spencer Dene B, Shukla D, Howarth K, Nye E, El Bahrawy M, et al. Targeted inactivation of fh1 causes proliferative renal cyst development and activation of the hypoxia pathway. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:311-9 pubmed
    ..Our mouse may be useful for testing therapeutic interventions that target angiogenesis and HIF-prolyl hydroxylation. ..
  27. Madala S, Edukulla R, Schmidt S, Davidson C, Ikegami M, Hardie W. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells are invasive and hyperproliferative and alter transforming growth factor-?-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;50:777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, fibrocytes are increased in the progressive, fibrotic lesions of TGF-?-transgenic mice and activate resident fibroblasts to cause severe lung disease. ..
  28. Reddy C, Wells A, Lauffenburger D. Receptor-mediated effects on ligand availability influence relative mitogenic potencies of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha. J Cell Physiol. 1996;166:512-22 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model of regulation of hormone responsiveness which favors dissociative ligands (such as TGF alpha) in receptor-limited situations and non-dissociative ligands (such as EGF) in the face of high receptor levels. ..
  29. Fowler K, Mann G, Dunn A. Linkage of the murine transforming growth factor alpha gene with Igk, Ly-2, and Fabp1 on chromosome 6. Genomics. 1993;16:782-4 pubmed
    ..To explore the possibility that pre-existing mouse mutants might have concordance with the mouse TGF alpha locus (Tgfa) we sought to establish the chromosomal localization of the murine TGF alpha gene...
  30. Nam K, Varro A, Coffey R, Goldenring J. Potentiation of oxyntic atrophy-induced gastric metaplasia in amphiregulin-deficient mice. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1804-19 pubmed
    ..The absence of AR promoted the rapid emergence of SPEM in response to oxyntic atrophy. ..
  31. Tao H, Shimizu M, Kusumoto R, Ono K, Noji S, Ohuchi H. A dual role of FGF10 in proliferation and coordinated migration of epithelial leading edge cells during mouse eyelid development. Development. 2005;132:3217-30 pubmed
    ..The expression of activin/inhibin betaB (ActbetaB/Inhbb) and transforming growth factor alpha (Tgfa), previously reported to be crucial for eyelid development, is down-regulated in the mutant leading edge, while the ..
  32. Isono M, Goda M, Kobayashi H, Wu J. TGF-alpha overexpression induces astrocytic hypertrophy after cortical stab wound injury. Neurol Res. 2003;25:546-50 pubmed
    ..Moreover, overexpression of TGF-alpha induced obvious expression of IL-6 around the lesion. This fact might indicate possible role of TGF-alpha in affecting neuronal function. ..
  33. Assimacopoulos S, Grove E, Ragsdale C. Identification of a Pax6-dependent epidermal growth factor family signaling source at the lateral edge of the embryonic cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6399-403 pubmed
    ..We find that the antihem is lost in mice homozygous for the Small eye (Pax6) mutation and suggest the loss of EGF signaling at least partially explains defects in cortical patterning and cell migration in Small eye mice. ..
  34. Tropepe V, Craig C, Morshead C, van der Kooy D. Transforming growth factor-alpha null and senescent mice show decreased neural progenitor cell proliferation in the forebrain subependyma. J Neurosci. 1997;17:7850-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that endogenous TGFalpha and the effects of senescence may regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult subependyma, but that the number of neural stem cells is maintained throughout life. ..
  35. Sharma S, Oomizu S, Kakeya T, Masui T, Takeuchi S, Takahashi S. Gene expression and the physiological role of transforming growth factor-alpha in the mouse pituitary. Zoolog Sci. 2003;20:83-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the TGF-alpha produced primarily in the somatotrophs mediates the stimulatory effects of estrogen on the DNA replication of pituitary cells in a paracrine or autocrine manner. ..
  36. Todaro G, Fryling C, De Larco J. Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:5258-62 pubmed
    ..The most anchorage-independent tumor cells released the most TGFs. EGF-related TGFs were not detectable in fluids from cultures of cells with high numbers of free EGF membrane receptors (normal human fibroblasts and human carcinomas). ..
  37. Bilger A, Sullivan R, Prunuske A, Clipson L, Drinkwater N, Dove W. Widespread hyperplasia induced by transgenic TGFalpha in ApcMin mice is associated with only regional effects on tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1825-30 pubmed publisher
  38. Pathak B, Gilbert D, Harrison C, Luetteke N, Chen X, Klagsbrun M, et al. Mouse chromosomal location of three EGF receptor ligands: amphiregulin (Areg), betacellulin (Btc), and heparin-binding EGF (Hegfl). Genomics. 1995;28:116-8 pubmed
    The products of five distinct loci, Egf, Tgfa, Areg, Btc, and Hegfl act as ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor...
  39. Xian C, Li L, Deng Y, Zhao S, Zhou X. Lack of effects of transforming growth factor-alpha gene knockout on peripheral nerve regeneration may result from compensatory mechanisms. Exp Neurol. 2001;172:182-8 pubmed
  40. Wagner M, Greten F, Weber C, Koschnick S, Mattfeldt T, Deppert W, et al. A murine tumor progression model for pancreatic cancer recapitulating the genetic alterations of the human disease. Genes Dev. 2001;15:286-93 pubmed
    ..We conclude that these genetic events are critical for pancreatic tumor formation in mice. This model recapitulates pathomorphological features and genetic alterations of the human disease. ..
  41. Bryant P, Clark G, Probst M, Abbott B. Effects of TCDD on Ah receptor, ARNT, EGF, and TGF-alpha expression in embryonic mouse urinary tract. Teratology. 1997;55:326-37 pubmed
    ..These proteins are involved in the regulation of embryonic cell proliferation during normal urinary tract development and are probably involved in the hyperplastic response to TCDD. ..
  42. Brandl K, Sun L, Neppl C, Siggs O, Le Gall S, Tomisato W, et al. MyD88 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells protects mice against induced colitis by regulating specific EGF receptor ligands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19967-72 pubmed publisher
    ..A TLR?MyD88?AREG/EREG?EGFR signaling pathway is represented in nonhematopoietic cells of the intestinal tract, responds to microbial stimuli once barriers are breached, and mediates protection against DSS-induced colitis. ..
  43. Weston C, Wong A, Hall J, Goad M, Flavell R, Davis R. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase is essential for epidermal growth factor expression during epidermal morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14114-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that JNK is necessary for epithelial morphogenesis and is an essential regulator of signal transduction by the EGF receptor in the epidermis. ..
  44. Getchell T, Narla R, Little S, Hyde J, Getchell M. Horizontal basal cell proliferation in the olfactory epithelium of transforming growth factor-alpha transgenic mice. Cell Tissue Res. 2000;299:185-92 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a role for the growth factor TGF-alpha in the in vivo regulation of cell cycle progression and proliferation in the mitotically active olfactory epithelium in these transgenic mice. ..
  45. Penkov L, Kondrakhina M, Mironova O, Platonov E. [Expression of imprinted Igf2 and Peg1/Mest genes in postimplantation parthenogenetic mouse embryos treated with transforming growth factor alpha in vitro]. Genetika. 2008;44:1148-52 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that exogenous TGFalpha can reactivate the expression of the two imprinted genes, modulating the effects of genomic imprinting in such a way that the PE development is improved and substantially prolonged. ..
  46. Sandgren E, Luetteke N, Palmiter R, Brinster R, Lee D. Overexpression of TGF alpha in transgenic mice: induction of epithelial hyperplasia, pancreatic metaplasia, and carcinoma of the breast. Cell. 1990;61:1121-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, TGF alpha displays characteristics of both a potent epithelial cell mitogen and an oncogenic protein in vivo. ..
  47. Torre C, Benhamouche S, Mitchell C, Godard C, Veber P, Letourneur F, et al. The transforming growth factor-? and cyclin D1 genes are direct targets of ?-catenin signaling in hepatocyte proliferation. J Hepatol. 2011;55:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This study constitutes a first step toward understanding the oncogenic properties of this prominent signaling pathway in the liver. ..
  48. Nemo R, Murcia N, Dell K. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and other targets of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) in murine polycystic kidney disease. Pediatr Res. 2005;57:732-7 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the therapeutic effect of WTACE2 could have been due to effects on several TACE targets, including TGF-alpha, AR, and ErbB4, as well as metalloproteinases other than TACE. ..
  49. Peters J, Andrews S. Linkage of lactate dehydrogenase-2, Ldh-2, in the mouse. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:217-25 pubmed
    ..Gene order and recombination frequencies are estimated as Sig--36.0 +/- 4.8--Lc 21.0 +/- 4.1--Miwh--20.0 +/- 4.0--Ldh-2. ..
  50. Lowden D, Lindemann G, Merlino G, Barash B, Calvet J, Gattone V. Renal cysts in transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-alpha. J Lab Clin Med. 1994;124:386-94 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that stimulation by an endogenous EGF-like protein can lead to renal enlargement, glomerular mesangial expansion, and renal cyst formation. ..
  51. Siveke J, Einwächter H, Sipos B, Lubeseder Martellato C, Kloppel G, Schmid R. Concomitant pancreatic activation of Kras(G12D) and Tgfa results in cystic papillary neoplasms reminiscent of human IPMN. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:266-79 pubmed
    Growth factors have been implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this study we analyzed the effect of Tgfa overexpression in addition to mutant Kras(G12D) by crossing Elastase-Tgfa mice with p48(+/Cre);Kras(+/LSL-G12D) mice...
  52. Dalton T, Kover K, Dey S, Andrews G. Analysis of the expression of growth factor, interleukin-1, and lactoferrin genes and the distribution of inflammatory leukocytes in the preimplantation mouse oviduct. Biol Reprod. 1994;51:597-606 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, unlike the uterus on Day 1, the oviduct does not exhibit an inflammatory response to mating. ..
  53. Lopez R, Garcia Silva S, Moore S, Bereshchenko O, Martinez Cruz A, Ermakova O, et al. C/EBPalpha and beta couple interfollicular keratinocyte proliferation arrest to commitment and terminal differentiation. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..C/EBPs, therefore, couple basal keratinocyte cell cycle exit to commitment to differentiation through E2F repression and DNA binding, respectively, and may act to restrict the epidermal stem cell compartment. ..
  54. Yoshio Y, Ishii K, Arase S, Hori Y, Nishikawa K, Soga N, et al. Effect of transforming growth factor ? overexpression on urogenital organ development in mouse. Differentiation. 2010;80:82-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that TGF? overexpression in mouse urogenital organs alone may not be responsible for tumor formation and epithelial hyperplasia, but is involved in bladder outlet obstruction. ..
  55. Machida J, Yoshiura K, Funkhauser C, Natsume N, Kawai T, Murray J. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA): genomic structure, boundary sequences, and mutation analysis in nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate and cleft palate only. Genomics. 1999;61:237-42 pubmed
    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA) has been proposed as a candidate gene in the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL/P) and of nonsyndromic cleft palate only (NS-CPO)...
  56. D Hoostelaere L, Huppi K, Mock B, Mallett C, Potter M. The Ig kappa L chain allelic groups among the Ig kappa haplotypes and Ig kappa crossover populations suggest a gene order. J Immunol. 1988;141:652-61 pubmed
  57. Laouari D, Burtin M, Phelep A, Martino C, Pillebout E, Montagutelli X, et al. TGF-alpha mediates genetic susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that variable TGF-? expression may explain, in part, the genetic susceptibility to CKD progression. EGFR inhibition may be a therapeutic strategy to counteract the genetic predisposition to CKD. ..
  58. Kiguchi K, Beltran L, DuBowski A, DiGiovanni J. Analysis of the ability of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to induce epidermal hyperplasia, transforming growth factor-alpha, and skin tumor promotion in wa-1 mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1997;108:784-91 pubmed
    ..The current data indicate that wa-1 mice are relatively resistant to TPA promotion. Possible mechanisms for this resistance are discussed. ..
  59. Yu Z, Bhandari A, Mannik J, Pham T, Xu X, Andersen B. Grainyhead-like factor Get1/Grhl3 regulates formation of the epidermal leading edge during eyelid closure. Dev Biol. 2008;319:56-67 pubmed publisher
  60. D Hoostelaere L, Huppi K, Mock B, Mallett C, Gibson D, Hilgers J, et al. The organization of the immunoglobulin kappa locus in mice. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1988;137:116-29 pubmed
  61. Bennett J, Gresham G. A gene for eyelids open at birth in the house mouse. Nature. 1956;178:272-3 pubmed
  62. Carney R, Cocas L, Hirata T, Mansfield K, Corbin J. Differential regulation of telencephalic pallial-subpallial boundary patterning by Pax6 and Gsh2. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to their well-characterized cross-repressive roles in dorsal/ventral patterning our analyses reveal important novel functions of Gsh2 and Pax6 in the regulation of PSB progenitor pool specification and patterning. ..
  63. Glasser S, Hagood J, Wong S, Taype C, Madala S, Hardie W. Mechanisms of Lung Fibrosis Resolution. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1066-77 pubmed publisher
  64. Fischer B, Rose Hellekant T, Sheffield L, Bertics P, Bavister B. Binding of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha in mammalian preimplantation embryos. Theriogenology. 1994;41:879-87 pubmed
    ..The binding affinities of EGF ranged from 12 to 233 pM in pig and cow embryos. The range of species and binding features indicate that the EGF family may play a significant role in mammalian preimplantation development. ..
  65. Rose Hellekant T, Gilchrist K, Sandgren E. Strain background alters mammary gland lesion phenotype in transforming growth factor-alpha transgenic mice. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1439-47 pubmed
  66. Stojanov T, O NEILL C. In vitro fertilization causes epigenetic modifications to the onset of gene expression from the zygotic genome in mice. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:696-705 pubmed
    ..Thus, IVF causes epigenetic modification in the normal pattern of expression of some but not all genes involved in normal embryo growth and survival. ..
  67. Klotzsche von Ameln A, Prade I, Grosser M, Kettelhake A, Rezaei M, Chavakis T, et al. PHD4 stimulates tumor angiogenesis in osteosarcoma cells via TGF-?. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:1337-48 pubmed publisher
    ..PHD4 influences tumor growth and vascularization through discrete mechanisms and molecular pathways that likely have therapeutic potential. ..
  68. Tamano S, Merlino G, Ward J. Rapid development of hepatic tumors in transforming growth factor alpha transgenic mice associated with increased cell proliferation in precancerous hepatocellular lesions initiated by N-nitrosodiethylamine and promoted by phenobarbital. Carcinogenesis. 1994;15:1791-8 pubmed
  69. Teissier A, Griveau A, Vigier L, Piolot T, Borello U, Pierani A. A novel transient glutamatergic population migrating from the pallial-subpallial boundary contributes to neocortical development. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10563-74 pubmed publisher
  70. Takagi H, Sharp R, Hammermeister C, Goodrow T, Bradley M, Fausto N, et al. Molecular and genetic analysis of liver oncogenesis in transforming growth factor alpha transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 1992;52:5171-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, other factors that may collaborate in TGF-alpha-induced hepatocarcinogenesis include c-myc, insulin-like growth factor II, sex hormones, and the genetic background upon which the transgene operates. ..
  71. Barrow L, Simin K, Jones J, Lee D, Meisler M. Conserved linkage of early growth response 4, annexin 4, and transforming growth factor alpha on mouse chromosome 6. Genomics. 1994;19:388-90 pubmed
    The mouse genes encoding early growth response 4 (Egr4), annexin IV (Anx4), and transforming growth factor alpha (Tgfa) have been mapped to a linkage group on mouse chromosome 6 that is conserved on human chromosome 2p11-p13...
  72. Jatoi A, Cleary M, Tee C, Nguyen P. Weight gain does not preclude increased ubiquitin conjugation in skeletal muscle: an exploratory study in tumor-bearing mice. Ann Nutr Metab. 2001;45:116-20 pubmed
    ..Such activation is not seen in the skeletal muscle on non-tumor-bearing mice. Further studies might focus of whether this observation is relevant to cancer-associated wasting of lean tissue. ..
  73. Berkowitz E, Seroogy K, Schroeder J, Russell W, Evans E, Riedel R, et al. Characterization of the mouse transforming growth factor alpha gene: its expression during eyelid development and in waved 1 tissues. Cell Growth Differ. 1996;7:1271-82 pubmed
    The spontaneous mouse waved 1 (wa1) mutation is allelic with the transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) gene and produces phenotypes similar to those of TGF-alpha knockout mice...
  74. Arendt L, Schuler L. Prolactin drives estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent ductal expansion and synergizes with transforming growth factor-alpha to induce mammary tumors in males. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:194-202 pubmed
    ..Activation of ER-alpha is one mechanism by which PRL may contribute to breast cancer and points to other therapeutic strategies for male patients. ..
  75. Breindl M, Doehmer J, Willecke K, Dausman J, Jaenisch R. Germ line integration of Moloney leukemia virus: identification of the chromosomal integration site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:1938-42 pubmed
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