Tgfa

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tgfa
Description: transforming growth factor alpha
Alias: wa-1, wa1, protransforming growth factor alpha
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Characterization of the mouse transforming growth factor alpha gene: its expression during eyelid development and in waved 1 tissues
    E A Berkowitz
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599 7295, USA
    Cell Growth Differ 7:1271-82. 1996
  2. ncbi Mice with a null mutation of the TGF alpha gene have abnormal skin architecture, wavy hair, and curly whiskers and often develop corneal inflammation
    G B Mann
    Melbourne Tumour Biology Branch, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Post Office Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
    Cell 73:249-61. 1993
  3. ncbi TGF alpha deficiency results in hair follicle and eye abnormalities in targeted and waved-1 mice
    N C Luetteke
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill 27599 7295
    Cell 73:263-78. 1993
  4. pmc Epiregulin is not essential for development of intestinal tumors but is required for protection from intestinal damage
    Daekee Lee
    Department of Genetics, CB 7264, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:8907-16. 2004
  5. ncbi Transforming growth factors beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 messenger RNA and protein expression in mouse uterus and vagina during estrogen-induced growth: a comparison to other estrogen-regulated genes
    T Takahashi
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Cell Growth Differ 5:919-35. 1994
  6. ncbi Chromosome mapping of Soa, a gene influencing gustatory sensitivity to sucrose octaacetate in mice
    C G Capeless
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306 1051
    Behav Genet 22:655-63. 1992
  7. ncbi Development of mammary hyperplasia and neoplasia in MMTV-TGF alpha transgenic mice
    Y Matsui
    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical School, Nashville, Tennessee
    Cell 61:1147-55. 1990
  8. ncbi The Ig kappa L chain allelic groups among the Ig kappa haplotypes and Ig kappa crossover populations suggest a gene order
    L A D'Hoostelaere
    Laboratory of Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Immunol 141:652-61. 1988
  9. ncbi Linkage of lactate dehydrogenase-2, Ldh-2, in the mouse
    J Peters
    Biochem Genet 23:217-25. 1985
  10. ncbi Inhibition of mammary gland involution is associated with transforming growth factor alpha but not c-myc-induced tumorigenesis in transgenic mice
    E P Sandgren
    Laboratory of Reproductive Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Cancer Res 55:3915-27. 1995

Research Grants

  1. GENETIC AND HORMONAL MECHANISMS OF BREAST CANCER
    Teresa Rose Hellekant; Fiscal Year: 2002
  2. FUNCTION OF A GROWTH INDUCED GENE IN LIVER REGENERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2003
  3. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA AND LUNG INJURY
    WILLIAM HARDIE; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. The Role and Regulation of TIMP-1 in Lung Inflammation
    DAVID MADTES; Fiscal Year: 2005
  5. Modulation of a breast cancer pathway by pregnancy
    Teresa Rose Hellekant; Fiscal Year: 2005
  6. Role of TGF-Alpha in Pulmonary Vascular Disease
    TIMOTHY LE CRAS; Fiscal Year: 2006
  7. Expression profiling of human islets
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
  8. Precancerous Mammary Transcriptome in Mice after Estrog*
    Teresa Rose Hellekant; Fiscal Year: 2006
  9. Development of C57BL/6 ES cell technology for high thoughput use.
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF THE BETA-CELL
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Characterization of the mouse transforming growth factor alpha gene: its expression during eyelid development and in waved 1 tissues
    E A Berkowitz
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599 7295, USA
    Cell Growth Differ 7:1271-82. 1996
    The spontaneous mouse waved 1 (wa1) mutation is allelic with the transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) gene and produces phenotypes similar to those of TGF-alpha knockout mice...
  2. ncbi Mice with a null mutation of the TGF alpha gene have abnormal skin architecture, wavy hair, and curly whiskers and often develop corneal inflammation
    G B Mann
    Melbourne Tumour Biology Branch, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Post Office Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
    Cell 73:249-61. 1993
    ..These observations suggest that TGF alpha plays a pivotal role in determining skin architecture and in regulating hair development...
  3. ncbi TGF alpha deficiency results in hair follicle and eye abnormalities in targeted and waved-1 mice
    N C Luetteke
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill 27599 7295
    Cell 73:263-78. 1993
    ..Crosses between wa-1 homozygotes and TGF alpha-targeted mice confirmed that wa-1 and TGF alpha are allelic...
  4. pmc Epiregulin is not essential for development of intestinal tumors but is required for protection from intestinal damage
    Daekee Lee
    Department of Genetics, CB 7264, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:8907-16. 2004
    ..However, Ereg null mice are highly susceptible to cancer-predisposing intestinal damage caused by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium...
  5. ncbi Transforming growth factors beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 messenger RNA and protein expression in mouse uterus and vagina during estrogen-induced growth: a comparison to other estrogen-regulated genes
    T Takahashi
    Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Cell Growth Differ 5:919-35. 1994
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words)..
  6. ncbi Chromosome mapping of Soa, a gene influencing gustatory sensitivity to sucrose octaacetate in mice
    C G Capeless
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306 1051
    Behav Genet 22:655-63. 1992
    ..The data are consistent with a position for the Soa locus on mouse chromosome 6, 62 cM from the centromere...
  7. ncbi Development of mammary hyperplasia and neoplasia in MMTV-TGF alpha transgenic mice
    Y Matsui
    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical School, Nashville, Tennessee
    Cell 61:1147-55. 1990
    ..TGF alpha can therefore act as an oncogene in vivo and appears to predispose mammary epithelium to neoplasia and carcinoma...
  8. ncbi The Ig kappa L chain allelic groups among the Ig kappa haplotypes and Ig kappa crossover populations suggest a gene order
    L A D'Hoostelaere
    Laboratory of Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Immunol 141:652-61. 1988
    ....
  9. ncbi Linkage of lactate dehydrogenase-2, Ldh-2, in the mouse
    J Peters
    Biochem Genet 23:217-25. 1985
    ..Gene order and recombination frequencies are estimated as Sig--36.0 +/- 4.8--Lc 21.0 +/- 4.1--Miwh--20.0 +/- 4.0--Ldh-2...
  10. ncbi Inhibition of mammary gland involution is associated with transforming growth factor alpha but not c-myc-induced tumorigenesis in transgenic mice
    E P Sandgren
    Laboratory of Reproductive Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Cancer Res 55:3915-27. 1995
    ..They also provide evidence of a potent tumorigenic collaboration between TGF-alpha and c-myc in mammary epithelium...
  11. ncbi Autocrine transforming growth factor alpha is dispensible for v-rasHa-induced epidermal neoplasia: potential involvement of alternate epidermal growth factor receptor ligands
    A A Dlugosz
    Laboratory of Cellular Carcinogenesis and Tumor Promotion, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Res 55:1883-93. 1995
    ....
  12. ncbi Different gene expression of mouse transforming growth factor alpha between pregnant mammary glands and mammary tumors in C3H/He mice
    T Harigaya
    Laboratory of Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kanagawa, Japan
    Zoolog Sci 11:625-7. 1994
    ..In tumors, various sizes of PCR products were detected in addition of a predicted size. This is unlikely the experimental artifact, but the polymorphic TGF alpha gene expression is induced in mammary tumors...
  13. ncbi Mapping of the taurine transporter gene to mouse chromosome 6 and to the short arm of human chromosome 3
    A Patel
    Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Genomics 25:314-7. 1995
    ..These data extend a conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 3p. Deletion of TAUT might contribute to some phenotypic features of the 3p- syndrome...
  14. ncbi Rapid development of hepatic tumors in transforming growth factor alpha transgenic mice associated with increased cell proliferation in precancerous hepatocellular lesions initiated by N-nitrosodiethylamine and promoted by phenobarbital
    S Tamano
    Veterinary and Tumor Pathology Section, Office of Laboratory Animal Science, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201
    Carcinogenesis 15:1791-8. 1994
    ....
  15. ncbi Linkage of the murine transforming growth factor alpha gene with Igk, Ly-2, and Fabp1 on chromosome 6
    K J Fowler
    Melbourne Tumor Biology Branch, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
    Genomics 16:782-4. 1993
    ..To explore the possibility that pre-existing mouse mutants might have concordance with the mouse TGF alpha locus (Tgfa) we sought to establish the chromosomal localization of the murine TGF alpha gene...
  16. ncbi Acceleration of mammary neoplasia in transforming growth factor alpha transgenic mice by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene
    R J Coffey
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232
    Cancer Res 54:1678-83. 1994
    ....
  17. ncbi Characterization of the synthesis and secretion of transforming growth factor-alpha from salivary glands and saliva
    M G Humphreys-Beher
    Department of Oral Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610
    Endocrinology 134:963-70. 1994
    ..Thus, salivary glands appear to be an exocrine source for a second member of the epidermal growth factor-like growth factor family in the oral cavity...
  18. ncbi Effects of retinol on the temporal expression of transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA in the embryonic mouse mandible
    J E Kronmiller
    Department of BioStructure and Function, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington 06032
    Arch Oral Biol 38:185-8. 1993
    ..This suggests that retinoids may act to control the proliferative pattern of the dental lamina through EGF expression and not TGF alpha expression, although mRNAs for both mitogens are present at the same time...
  19. ncbi Liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-alpha-targeted mice
    W E Russell
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Mol Carcinog 15:183-9. 1996
    ..These results indicate that TGF alpha is not required for early events in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis but suggest that it could be important in the progression from small preneoplastic foci to large tumors...
  20. ncbi Mice lacking transforming growth factor alpha have an increased susceptibility to dextran sulfate-induced colitis
    B Egger
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, USA
    Gastroenterology 113:825-32. 1997
    ..TGF-alpha knockout mice and TGF-alpha-deficient mice (wa-1) provide novel approaches to evaluate the role of TGF-alpha in preserving the integrity of the colon...
  21. ncbi Increased incidence of apoptosis in transforming growth factor alpha-deficient mouse blastocysts
    D R Brison
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104 6018, USA
    Biol Reprod 59:136-44. 1998
    ..These results buttress our previous suggestion that TGFalpha functions as a cell survival factor in the preimplantation mouse embryo...
  22. ncbi Transforming growth factor-alpha deficiency reduces pulmonary fibrosis in transgenic mice
    D K Madtes
    Sections of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Pathology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 20:924-34. 1999
    ..These results show that TGF-alpha contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis after bleomycin-induced injury, and that compensatory increases in other EGF family members do not occur in TGF-alpha-deficient mice...
  23. ncbi Targeted inactivation of the EGF and amphiregulin genes reveals distinct roles for EGF receptor ligands in mouse mammary gland development
    N C Luetteke
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    Development 126:2739-50. 1999
    ..Finally, the additional loss of growth factors from pups nursed by triple null dams further worsened their survival and growth, establishing functions for both maternal- and neonatal-derived growth factors...
  24. ncbi Mice mutant for Egfr and Shp2 have defective cardiac semilunar valvulogenesis
    B Chen
    Cancer Biology Program, Hematology Oncology Division, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 24:296-9. 2000
    ....
  25. ncbi Identification of a Pax6-dependent epidermal growth factor family signaling source at the lateral edge of the embryonic cerebral cortex
    Stavroula Assimacopoulos
    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology, and Physiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 23:6399-403. 2003
    ..We find that the antihem is lost in mice homozygous for the Small eye (Pax6) mutation and suggest the loss of EGF signaling at least partially explains defects in cortical patterning and cell migration in Small eye mice...
  26. ncbi A gene for eyelids open at birth in the house mouse
    J H Bennett
    Nature 178:272-3. 1956
  27. ncbi Aging results in reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, diminished olfactory neurogenesis, and deficits in fine olfactory discrimination
    Emeka Enwere
    Genes and Development Research Group, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    J Neurosci 24:8354-65. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the impairment in fine olfactory discrimination with age may result from a reduction in EGF-dependent olfactory neurogenesis...
  28. pmc Excess biglycan causes eyelid malformation by perturbing muscle development and TGF-alpha signaling
    Yasuhito Hayashi
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0527, United States
    Dev Biol 277:222-34. 2005
    ....
  29. pmc Induction of uteroglobin-related protein 2 (Ugrp2) expression by EGF and TGFalpha
    Atsushi Yamada
    Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 37, Room 3112B, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    FEBS Lett 579:2221-5. 2005
    ..The EGF-induced increase of Ugrp2 occurred at the transcriptional level that required the EGF receptor and the activation of the ERK-MAPK and phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathways...
  30. pmc Mammary carcinogenesis is preceded by altered epithelial cell turnover in transforming growth factor-alpha and c-myc transgenic mice
    Teresa A Rose-Hellekant
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Am J Pathol 169:1821-32. 2006
    ..These observations support the evaluation of cell turnover as a biomarker of cancer risk and indicator of prevention/treatment efficacy in preclinical models and warrant validation in human breast cancer...
  31. ncbi Transforming growth factor alpha dependent cancer progression is modulated by Muc1
    Mamata R Pochampalli
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Cancer Res 67:6591-8. 2007
    ..Together, these data indicate that Muc1 is an important modulator of TGFalpha-dependent tumor progression...
  32. pmc Prolactin drives estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent ductal expansion and synergizes with transforming growth factor-alpha to induce mammary tumors in males
    Lisa M Arendt
    Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Am J Pathol 172:194-202. 2008
    ..Activation of ER-alpha is one mechanism by which PRL may contribute to breast cancer and points to other therapeutic strategies for male patients...
  33. pmc Amphiregulin-deficient mice develop spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia
    Ki Taek Nam
    Nashville Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0443, USA
    Gastroenterology 136:1288-96. 2009
    ..We previously determined that loss of amphiregulin (AR) promotes SPEM induced by acute oxyntic atrophy. We have now examined whether SPEM in the AR-/- mouse predisposes the stomach to gastric neoplasia...
  34. pmc Timing of cortical interneuron migration is influenced by the cortical hem
    Giuliana Caronia-Brown
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Cereb Cortex 21:748-55. 2011
    ....
  35. doi Transforming growth factor alpha controls the transition from hypertrophic cartilage to bone during endochondral bone growth
    Shirine E Usmani
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
    Bone 51:131-41. 2012
    ..We have recently identified transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) as a novel growth factor involved in the joint disease osteoarthritis. The role of TGFα in normal cartilage and bone physiology however, has not been well defined...
  36. pmc Bone marrow-derived stromal cells are invasive and hyperproliferative and alter transforming growth factor-α-induced pulmonary fibrosis
    Satish K Madala
    1 Department of Pediatrics, Divisions of Pulmonary Medicine and
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 50:777-86. 2014
    ..In summary, fibrocytes are increased in the progressive, fibrotic lesions of TGF-α-transgenic mice and activate resident fibroblasts to cause severe lung disease. ..
  37. pmc Fibroblast growth factor receptor-Frs2α signaling is critical for nephron progenitors
    Valeria Di Giovanni
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15201, USA
    Dev Biol 400:82-93. 2015
    ..Thus, Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 have synergistic roles in maintaining nephron progenitors; furthermore, Fgfr signaling in nephron progenitors appears to be mediated predominantly by Frs2α. ..
  38. pmc Mechanisms of Lung Fibrosis Resolution
    Stephan W Glasser
    Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
    Am J Pathol 186:1066-77. 2016
    ....
  39. ncbi Keratinocyte growth factor is required for hair development but not for wound healing
    L Guo
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Genes Dev 10:165-75. 1996
    ..We suggest that the redundancy in epidermal growth and wound healing is likely to stem from the vitality of these functions to the organism, a feature that is not a consideration for the hair follicle...
  40. ncbi Effects of TCDD on Ah receptor, ARNT, EGF, and TGF-alpha expression in embryonic mouse urinary tract
    P L Bryant
    Department of Biology, North Carolina Central University, Durham 27707, USA
    Teratology 55:326-37. 1997
    ..These proteins are involved in the regulation of embryonic cell proliferation during normal urinary tract development and are probably involved in the hyperplastic response to TCDD...
  41. ncbi Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a influences mammary epithelial cell survival and tumorigenesis
    R C Humphreys
    Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology, National Institute of Digestive, Diabetes and Kidney Disease, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell Growth Differ 10:685-94. 1999
    ..We also suggest that Stat5a is one of the antecedent, locally acting molecules that initiate the process of epithelial regression and reorganization during involution...
  42. doi C/EBPalpha and beta couple interfollicular keratinocyte proliferation arrest to commitment and terminal differentiation
    Rodolphe G Lopez
    EMBL Mouse Biology Unit, Monterotondo, 00016 Italy
    Nat Cell Biol 11:1181-90. 2009
    ..C/EBPs, therefore, couple basal keratinocyte cell cycle exit to commitment to differentiation through E2F repression and DNA binding, respectively, and may act to restrict the epidermal stem cell compartment...
  43. ncbi Latent membrane protein 1-induced EGFR signalling is negatively regulated by TGF alpha prior to neoplasia
    Chrystalla T Charalambous
    Division of Molecular Genetics, Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NU, UK
    Carcinogenesis 28:1839-48. 2007
    ..It reveals what regulatory circuits are in place in a normal tissue, thus facilitating further prediction of causative events in carcinogenic progression...
  44. pmc TNF-α-converting enzyme/a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 mediates mechanotransduction in murine tracheal epithelial cells
    Tetsuya Shiomi
    Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 45:376-85. 2011
    ..Our data provide strong evidence that TACE plays a critical central role in the transduction of compressive stress...
  45. pmc Mammary tumor suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 transgene expression
    D F Pierce
    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2175, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:4254-8. 1995
    ..These data demonstrate that overexpression of TGF-beta 1 in vivo can markedly suppress mammary tumor development...
  46. pmc ATP differentially upregulates fibroblast growth factor 2 and transforming growth factor α in neonatal and adult mice: effect on neuroproliferation
    C Jia
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Neuroscience 177:335-46. 2011
    ..These data suggest that different mechanisms regulate neurogenesis in neonatal and adult OE, and FGF2 and TGFα may have different roles throughout development...
  47. ncbi Inherited ateliotic dwarfism in mice. Characteristics of the mutation, little, on chromosome 6
    E M Eicher
    J Hered 67:87-91. 1976
    ..Because the little mouse shares a number of similarities with the human ateliotic dwarfism, isolated growth hormones deficiency type I, it may be a useful animal model for this inherited human growth disorder...
  48. pmc Distinctive patterns of hyperplasia in transgenic mice with mouse mammary tumor virus transforming growth factor-alpha. Characterization of mammary gland and skin proliferations
    S A Halter
    Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2561
    Am J Pathol 140:1131-46. 1992
    ..Adenocarcinoma developed in 40% of multiparous mice and 30% of virgin mice by 16 months of age. These transgenic lines may provide useful models of mammary and sebaceous gland hyperplasia analogous to human disease...
  49. ncbi Nucleotide sequence and tissue distribution of mouse transforming growth factor-alpha
    T J Vaughan
    Department of Biochemistry, AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Babraham, Cambridge, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1132:322-4. 1992
    ..In the mouse, TGF alpha transcripts were detected in a variety of normal adult tissues including two previously unreported sites: the preputial glands and the bladder...
  50. ncbi Colocalization of transforming growth factor-alpha and a functional epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the inner cell mass and preferential localization of the EGFR on the basolateral surface of the trophectoderm in the mouse blastocyst
    A Dardik
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104
    Dev Biol 154:396-409. 1992
    ..The co-localization of TGF-alpha and functional EGFRs to the ICM and polar TE suggests potential autocrine, juxtacrine, and paracrine roles for TGF-alpha in blastocyst development...
  51. ncbi Overexpression of TGF alpha in transgenic mice: induction of epithelial hyperplasia, pancreatic metaplasia, and carcinoma of the breast
    E P Sandgren
    Laboratory of Reproductive Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104
    Cell 61:1121-35. 1990
    ..Thus, TGF alpha displays characteristics of both a potent epithelial cell mitogen and an oncogenic protein in vivo...
  52. ncbi TGF alpha overexpression in transgenic mice induces liver neoplasia and abnormal development of the mammary gland and pancreas
    C Jhappan
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Cell 61:1137-46. 1990
    ..TGF alpha therefore plays an important role in cellular proliferation, organogenesis, and neoplastic transformation...
  53. ncbi Human transforming growth factor-alpha: precursor structure and expression in E. coli
    R Derynck
    Cell 38:287-97. 1984
    ..The 50 amino acid mature TGF-alpha produced by expression of the appropriate coding sequence in E. coli binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor and induces the anchorage independence of normal mammalian cells in culture...
  54. pmc Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors
    G J Todaro
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77:5258-62. 1980
    ..The most anchorage-independent tumor cells released the most TGFs. EGF-related TGFs were not detectable in fluids from cultures of cells with high numbers of free EGF membrane receptors (normal human fibroblasts and human carcinomas)...
  55. ncbi Epidermal growth factor-like transforming growth factor. II. Interaction with epidermal growth factor receptors in human placenta membranes and A431 cells
    J Massague
    J Biol Chem 258:13614-20. 1983
    ..The data indicate that despite the limited sequence homology between eTGF and EGF, these two ligands exhibit a remarkably similar mode of interaction with a common eTGF/EGF membrane receptor type...
  56. pmc Transgenic mice in the study of cytokine function
    J Taverne
    University College London Medical School, Department of Immunology, UK
    Int J Exp Pathol 74:525-46. 1993
  57. ncbi Mouse chromosomal location of three EGF receptor ligands: amphiregulin (Areg), betacellulin (Btc), and heparin-binding EGF (Hegfl)
    B G Pathak
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, NCI Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    Genomics 28:116-8. 1995
    The products of five distinct loci, Egf, Tgfa, Areg, Btc, and Hegfl act as ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor...
  58. ncbi Striatal TGF-alpha: postnatal developmental expression and evidence for a role in the proliferation of subependymal cells
    C S Weickert
    Fishberg Research Center in Neurobiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 86:203-16. 1995
    ..EGF-R immunoreactive cells were found in the SEL of the adult mouse brain. Taken together, our data suggest that the TGF-alpha/EGF-R signaling pathway is involved in postnatal mitogenic events in the brain...
  59. ncbi Synergistic interaction of transforming growth factor alpha and c-myc in mouse mammary and salivary gland tumorigenesis
    L T Amundadottir
    Vincent T Lombardi Cancer Research Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Cell Growth Differ 6:737-48. 1995
    ..In summary, TGF alpha and c-Myc synergize in an extremely powerful way to cause breast and salivary gland tumorigenesis in males and virgin females without a requirement for pregnancies...
  60. ncbi Analysis of the expression of growth factor, interleukin-1, and lactoferrin genes and the distribution of inflammatory leukocytes in the preimplantation mouse oviduct
    T Dalton
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ralph L Smith Research Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160 7421
    Biol Reprod 51:597-606. 1994
    ..Furthermore, unlike the uterus on Day 1, the oviduct does not exhibit an inflammatory response to mating...
  61. ncbi Transforming growth factor alpha disrupts the normal program of cellular differentiation in the gastric mucosa of transgenic mice
    R Sharp
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Development 121:149-61. 1995
    ....
  62. ncbi Expression of epidermal growth factor family gene members in early mouse development
    S E Johnson
    Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104
    Dev Dyn 201:216-26. 1994
    ..Two Cripto transcripts were detected: one is confined to the early embryo and teratocarcinoma cells, and the other, first found in the fetus, is the major form detected in adult organs...
  63. ncbi Molecular characterization of a novel human gene, SEC13R, related to the yeast secretory pathway gene SEC13, and mapping to a conserved linkage group on human chromosome 3p24-p25 and mouse chromosome 6
    A Swaroop
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 0618
    Hum Mol Genet 3:1281-6. 1994
    ..The mouse Sec13r gene was mapped to the conserved linkage group on chromosome 6 that corresponds to human chromosome 3p24-p25...
  64. ncbi Mapping of two genes encoding members of a distinct subfamily of MAX interacting proteins: MAD to human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 6, and MXI1 to human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 19
    S Edelhoff
    Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    Oncogene 9:665-8. 1994
    ..Human chromosomes 2p13 and 10q25 have been involved in specific tumors where the role of Mad and Mxi1 can now be investigated...
  65. ncbi Growth factors and their receptors in development
    E D Adamson
    La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation, California 92037
    Dev Genet 14:159-64. 1993
  66. ncbi Cell proliferation and expression of EGF, TGF-alpha, and EGF receptor in the developing primary palate
    A Iamaroon
    Department of Clinical Dental Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    J Dent Res 75:1534-9. 1996
    ....
  67. ncbi Epidermal growth factor system is a physiological regulator of development of the mouse fetal submandibular gland and regulates expression of the alpha6-integrin subunit
    M Kashimata
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, City University of New York Medical School, New York, New York 10031, USA
    Dev Dyn 208:149-61. 1997
    ....
  68. ncbi Integration of HTLV-1 provirus into mouse transforming growth factor-alpha gene
    J Fang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 233:792-5. 1997
    ..This result provides for the first time molecular evidence that mice can be infected with HTLV-1...
  69. ncbi The mesenchymal winged helix transcription factor Fkh6 is required for the control of gastrointestinal proliferation and differentiation
    K H Kaestner
    Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104 6145, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1583-95. 1997
    ....
  70. ncbi Role of integrins in mouse eyelid development: studies in normal embryos and embryos in which there is a failure of eyelid fusion
    J M Carroll
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Mech Dev 78:37-45. 1998
    ..We speculate that selective and coordinated expression of the alpha5beta1 integrin and fibronectin in eyelid tip cells is required for eyelid fusion and may be under the control of growth factors that include TGF-alpha...
  71. pmc Localization of non-Mhc collagen-induced arthritis susceptibility loci in DBA/1j mice
    R A McIndoe
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:2210-4. 1999
    ..This locus (Cia4) was located on chromosome 2 and was linked to the same region as Cia2. Determining the identity of these loci may provide insights into the etiology of human rheumatoid arthritis...
  72. ncbi A null mutation in TGF-alpha leads to a reduction in midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra
    M Blum
    Fishberg Research Center for Neurobiology, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Nat Neurosci 1:374-7. 1998
    ..These studies indicate that TGF-alpha is required for the normal proliferation or differentiation of a select population of dopaminergic neurons within the SN...
  73. ncbi Submandibular gland morphogenesis: stage-specific expression of TGF-alpha/EGF, IGF, TGF-beta, TNF, and IL-6 signal transduction in normal embryonic mice and the phenotypic effects of TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and EGF-r null mutations
    T Jaskoll
    Laboratory for Developmental Genetics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 90089, USA
    Anat Rec 256:252-68. 1999
    ..These and other findings provide insight into the design of future functional studies...
  74. ncbi Formation of corneal endothelium is essential for anterior segment development - a transgenic mouse model of anterior segment dysgenesis
    L W Reneker
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    Development 127:533-42. 2000
    ..Our data suggest that formation of a corneal endothelium during early ocular morphogenesis is required to prevent attachment of the lens and iris to the corneal stroma, therefore permitting the normal formation of the anterior segment...
  75. ncbi Postnatal decrease in transforming growth factor alpha is associated with enlarged ventricles, deficient amygdaloid vasculature and performance deficits
    R C Burrows
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh 15261, USA
    Neuroscience 96:825-36. 2000
    ....
  76. ncbi Cooperative induction of mammary tumorigenesis by TGFalpha and Wnts
    J A Schroeder
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill 27599 7260, USA
    Oncogene 19:3193-9. 2000
    ..Collectively, these results reveal cooperative induction of mammary gland tumorigenesis by simultaneous deregulation of EGF-like (TGFalpha) and Wnt growth factors...
  77. ncbi In vivo evaluation of 5-[(18)F]fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine as tracer for positron emission tomography in a murine pancreatic cancer model
    U Seitz
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Ulm, Robert Koch Strasse 8, D 89081 Ulm
    Cancer Res 61:3853-7. 2001
    ..These results indicate the potential of our tumor model for the evaluation of PET tracers and suggest [(18)F]FdUrd as a tracer for the assessment of proliferation in vivo...
  78. ncbi Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking the expression of EGF and/or TGF-alpha
    P L Bryant
    Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Toxicol Sci 62:103-14. 2001
    ..Also, EGF and TGF-alpha are not required for the induction of hydronephrosis, but when either is absent the response of the fetal urinary tract to TCDD is enhanced...
  79. ncbi Involvement of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and its processing by metalloproteinases in early epithelial morphogenesis of the submandibular gland
    Y Umeda
    Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560 0043, Japan
    Dev Biol 237:202-11. 2001
    ..Our results provide the first evidence that HB-EGF is a crucial regulator of epithelial morphogenesis during organ development, highlighting the importance of its processing by metalloproteinases...
  80. ncbi The effects of aromatase overexpression on mammary growth and gene expression in the aromatase x transforming growth factor alpha double transgenic mice
    N Kirma
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Winship Cancer Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 4217 WMB, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322 4710, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 78:419-26. 2001
    ....
  81. ncbi Development of anterior gustatory epithelia in the palate and tongue requires epidermal growth factor receptor
    Hanshi Sun
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 3127 Natural Science Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    Dev Biol 242:31-43. 2002
    ..In contrast, in young egfr(-/-) mice the abundance of axons innervating fungiform papillae and the normal numbers of geniculate ganglion neurons implicate gustatory epithelial defects rather than neural defects...
  82. ncbi Pathogenomic mechanisms for particulate matter induction of acute lung injury and inflammation in mice
    G D Leikauf
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, OH 45267 0056, USA
    Res Rep Health Eff Inst . 2001
    ..Future assessment of these susceptibility genes (including evaluations of human synteny and function) could provide valuable insights into individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of particulate matter...
  83. ncbi TGF-alpha overexpression induces astrocytic hypertrophy after cortical stab wound injury
    Mitsuo Isono
    Department of Neurosurgery, Oita Medical University, 1 1, Idaigaoka, Hasamamachi, Oita, Japan 879 5593
    Neurol Res 25:546-50. 2003
    ..Moreover, overexpression of TGF-alpha induced obvious expression of IL-6 around the lesion. This fact might indicate possible role of TGF-alpha in affecting neuronal function...
  84. ncbi Immunohistochemical study of genesis of the mouse oral vestibule
    Shunji Kumabe
    Department of Oral Anatomy, Osaka Dental University, 8 1, Kuzuhahanazono cho, Hirakata shi, Osaka 573 1121, Japan
    Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn 80:93-102. 2003
    ....
  85. ncbi Aminopeptidase A is a functional target in angiogenic blood vessels
    Serena Marchio
    The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cancer Cell 5:151-62. 2004
    ..Finally, we successfully treated tumor-bearing mice with APA binding peptides or anti-APA blocking monoclonal antibodies. These data show that APA is a regulator of blood vessel formation, and can serve as a functional vascular target...
  86. ncbi Wa5 is a novel ENU-induced antimorphic allele of the epidermal growth factor receptor
    Daekee Lee
    Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB 7264, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599, USA
    Mamm Genome 15:525-36. 2004
    ..in a screen for dominant, visible mutations, exhibit a wavy coat similar to mice homozygous for the recessive Tgfa wa1 or Egfr wa2 alleles...
  87. pmc Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and other targets of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) in murine polycystic kidney disease
    Raghad Nemo
    Rainbow Center for Childhood PKD, Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children s Hospital and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Pediatr Res 57:732-7. 2005
    ..We speculate that the therapeutic effect of WTACE2 could have been due to effects on several TACE targets, including TGF-alpha, AR, and ErbB4, as well as metalloproteinases other than TACE...
  88. ncbi Evidence for repatterning of the gastric fundic epithelium associated with Ménétrier's disease and TGFalpha overexpression
    Sachiyo Nomura
    Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2733, USA
    Gastroenterology 128:1292-305. 2005
    ....
  89. ncbi A dual role of FGF10 in proliferation and coordinated migration of epithelial leading edge cells during mouse eyelid development
    Hirotaka Tao
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2 1 Minami Jyosanjima, Tokushima 770 8506, Japan
    Development 132:3217-30. 2005
    ..The expression of activin/inhibin betaB (ActbetaB/Inhbb) and transforming growth factor alpha (Tgfa), previously reported to be crucial for eyelid development, is down-regulated in the mutant leading edge, while the ..
  90. ncbi Characterization of a human rhomboid homolog, p100hRho/RHBDF1, which interacts with TGF-alpha family ligands
    Takatoshi Nakagawa
    Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, Program in Cell Biology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0512, USA
    Dev Dyn 233:1315-31. 2005
    ..The characterization of this protein extends our understanding of the rhomboid family of regulatory proteins...
  91. ncbi TGFalpha reactivates imprinted Igf2 in the parthenogenetic mice embryos and placenta
    J Rostam Zadehl
    Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
    Genetika 41:1387-91. 2005
    ..In vitro TGFalpha treatment of mouse PE reactivated paternally expressed Igf2 gene in the PE and PP. In the PE and PP both Igf2 and H19 were expressed. It seems that TGFalpha can play an important role as modulator of the Igf2/H19 locus...
  92. pmc HIF-2alpha regulates Oct-4: effects of hypoxia on stem cell function, embryonic development, and tumor growth
    Kelly L Covello
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Genes Dev 20:557-70. 2006
    ....
  93. pmc Prolactin potentiates transforming growth factor alpha induction of mammary neoplasia in transgenic mice
    Lisa M Arendt
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Am J Pathol 168:1365-74. 2006
    ....
  94. ncbi Binding of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha in mammalian preimplantation embryos
    B Fischer
    Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Theriogenology 41:879-87. 1994
    ..The binding affinities of EGF ranged from 12 to 233 pM in pig and cow embryos. The range of species and binding features indicate that the EGF family may play a significant role in mammalian preimplantation development...
  95. ncbi Transforming growth factor-alpha mediates nuclear factor kappaB activation in strained arteries
    Catherine A Lemarié
    INSERM U689, Centre de Recherche Cardiovasculaire Inserm Lariboisiere, 41, boulevard de la Chapelle, 75010 Paris, France
    Circ Res 99:434-41. 2006
    ..Hence, our data identify TGF-alpha as a potential specific target to modulate mechanosensitive NF-kappaB activation and associated vascular remodeling...
  96. ncbi Expression of Tgfalpha in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of nocturnal and diurnal rodents
    B B Tournier
    Department of Neurobiology of Rhythms, Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, CNRS, UMR 7168 LC2, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
    Neuroscience 145:1138-43. 2007
    ..In conclusion, this study shows that, contrary to what is observed in mice, Tgfalpha mRNA levels in the SCN of Arvicanthis do not match timing of locomotor activity and are modulated by light...
  97. pmc Estrogen receptor-positive mammary tumorigenesis in TGFalpha transgenic mice progresses with progesterone receptor loss
    T A Rose-Hellekant
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA
    Oncogene 26:5238-46. 2007
    ..Resulting tumors resemble a clinical phenotype of ER+/PR-, and when combined with a heterozygous p53 genotype, ER-/PR-...
  98. ncbi Potentiation of oxyntic atrophy-induced gastric metaplasia in amphiregulin-deficient mice
    Ki Taek Nam
    Nashville Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2733, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:1804-19. 2007
    ..We sought to determine whether specific EGFR ligands regulate the metaplastic response to oxyntic atrophy...
  99. ncbi Concomitant pancreatic activation of Kras(G12D) and Tgfa results in cystic papillary neoplasms reminiscent of human IPMN
    Jens T Siveke
    Department of Internal Medicine, Technical University of Munich, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Cancer Cell 12:266-79. 2007
    Growth factors have been implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this study we analyzed the effect of Tgfa overexpression in addition to mutant Kras(G12D) by crossing Elastase-Tgfa mice with p48(+/Cre);Kras(+/LSL-G12D) mice...
  100. pmc Grainyhead-like factor Get1/Grhl3 regulates formation of the epidermal leading edge during eyelid closure
    Zhengquan Yu
    Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4030, USA
    Dev Biol 319:56-67. 2008
    ....
  101. pmc MyD88 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells protects mice against induced colitis by regulating specific EGF receptor ligands
    Katharina Brandl
    Department of Genetics, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19967-72. 2010
    ..A TLR→MyD88→AREG/EREG→EGFR signaling pathway is represented in nonhematopoietic cells of the intestinal tract, responds to microbial stimuli once barriers are breached, and mediates protection against DSS-induced colitis...

Research Grants12

  1. GENETIC AND HORMONAL MECHANISMS OF BREAST CANCER
    Teresa Rose Hellekant; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..models using two genes that activate distinct signal transduction pathways, transforming growth factor alpha (TGFa) and c-myc...
  2. FUNCTION OF A GROWTH INDUCED GENE IN LIVER REGENERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  3. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA AND LUNG INJURY
    WILLIAM HARDIE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The experiments proposed will permit the P.I. to develop an independent line of research in a division dedicated to understanding the basic pathobiology of various lung diseases. ..
  4. The Role and Regulation of TIMP-1 in Lung Inflammation
    DAVID MADTES; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Studies are proposed to define if CD4O induces TIMP-1 translation by usage of alternative 5' transcription start sites, increased transcript translocation or increased translational efficiency. ..
  5. Modulation of a breast cancer pathway by pregnancy
    Teresa Rose Hellekant; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To accomplish these goals, we will establish transgenic mice with following characteristics: (1) timing of onset of TGFa expression is regulatable, (2) TGFa expression is activated irreversibly in a controllable fraction of mammary ..
  6. Role of TGF-Alpha in Pulmonary Vascular Disease
    TIMOTHY LE CRAS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This information will serve as a basis for developing therapeutic strategies aimed at improving lung growth and preventing pulmonary hypertension in premature babies and adults. ..
  7. Expression profiling of human islets
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  8. Precancerous Mammary Transcriptome in Mice after Estrog*
    Teresa Rose Hellekant; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Knowing more about cancer molecules will bring more preventive agents quickly to clinical trials. ..
  9. Development of C57BL/6 ES cell technology for high thoughput use.
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF THE BETA-CELL
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The new resources generated through this project will be made available to the NIDDK-funded biotechnology centers and the diabetes research community at large. ..
  11. Liver Biology, Development and Disease
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. Local Delivery of Breast Cancer Chemopreventives Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    Teresa Rose Hellekant; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..For this purpose, we will utilize transgenic mice engineered to overexpress the growth factor, TGFa (transforming growth factor alpha), in the mammary gland...