Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Tfap2c
Description: transcription factor AP-2, gamma
Alias: AA409384, AP2gamma, Ap-2.2, Stra2, Tcfap2c, transcription factor AP-2 gamma, AP2-gamma, activating enhancer-binding protein 2 gamma, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 2
- Winger Q, Huang J, Auman H, Lewandoski M, Williams T. Analysis of transcription factor AP-2 expression and function during mouse preimplantation development. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:324-33 pubmed..Four AP-2 genes are differentially expressed during the preimplantation period,Tcfap2a, Tcfap2b, Tcfap2c, and Tcfap2e...
- Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Ohinata Y, Shigeta M, Yamanaka K, Saitou M. Complex genome-wide transcription dynamics orchestrated by Blimp1 for the specification of the germ cell lineage in mice. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1617-35 pubmed publisher..Thus, Blimp1 is not a single initiator but a dominant coordinator of the transcriptional program for the establishment of the germ cell fate in mice. ..
- Weber S, Eckert D, Nettersheim D, Gillis A, Schäfer S, Kuckenberg P, et al. Critical function of AP-2 gamma/TCFAP2C in mouse embryonic germ cell maintenance. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:214-23 pubmed publisher..Here we report on the expression pattern of the transcription factor Tcfap2c, a putative downstream target of Prdm1, during normal mouse embryogenesis and the consequences of its specific ..
- Zhao F, Lufkin T, Gelb B. Expression of Tfap2d, the gene encoding the transcription factor Ap-2 delta, during mouse embryogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:213-7 pubmed..Based on Tfap2d's unique expression pattern and functional features, we believe that Ap-2 delta plays a role during mammalian development that is non-overlapping with those of the other Ap-2 transcription factors. ..
- Guttormsen J, Koster M, Stevens J, Roop D, Williams T, Winger Q. Disruption of epidermal specific gene expression and delayed skin development in AP-2 gamma mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2008;317:187-95 pubmed publisher..These results document an important role for AP-2 gamma in skin development, and reveal the existence of regulatory factors that can compensate for AP-2 gamma in its absence. ..
- Feng W, Williams T. Cloning and characterization of the mouse AP-2 epsilon gene: a novel family member expressed in the developing olfactory bulb. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;24:460-75 pubmed..A comparison of AP-2 gene family expression in the olfactory system suggests both distinct and overlapping functions for these transcription factors in forebrain development. ..
- Kidder B, Palmer S. Examination of transcriptional networks reveals an important role for TCFAP2C, SMARCA4, and EOMES in trophoblast stem cell maintenance. Genome Res. 2010;20:458-72 pubmed publisher..immunoprecipitation with DNA microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) analysis to investigate targets of the TFs-TCFAP2C, EOMES, ETS2, and GATA3-and a chromatin remodeling factor, SMARCA4...
- Werling U, Schorle H. Transcription factor gene AP-2 gamma essential for early murine development. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3149-56 pubmed..Therefore, AP-2 gamma seems to be required in early embryonic development because it regulates the genetic programs controlling proliferation and differentiation of extraembryonic trophectodermal cells. ..
- Auman H, Nottoli T, Lakiza O, Winger Q, Donaldson S, Williams T. Transcription factor AP-2gamma is essential in the extra-embryonic lineages for early postimplantation development. Development. 2002;129:2733-47 pubmed..AP-2gamma (Tcfap2c - Mouse Genome Informatics) is a retinoic acid-responsive gene implicated in placental development and the ..
- Williamson J, Bosher J, Skinner A, Sheer D, Williams T, Hurst H. Chromosomal mapping of the human and mouse homologues of two new members of the AP-2 family of transcription factors. Genomics. 1996;35:262-4 pubmed..Tcfap2b and Tcfap2c map to mouse chromosomes 1A2-4 and 2H3-4, respectively, while TFAP2B and TFAP2C map to human chromosomes 6p12 and ..
- Chazaud C, Oulad Abdelghani M, Bouillet P, Decimo D, Chambon P, Dolle P. AP-2.2, a novel gene related to AP-2, is expressed in the forebrain, limbs and face during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1996;54:83-94 pubmed..Thus, the AP-2.2 gene is expressed in several embryonic areas whose development can be affected by retinoids, such as the forebrain, face and limb buds. ..
- Jäger R, Werling U, Rimpf S, Jacob A, Schorle H. Transcription factor AP-2gamma stimulates proliferation and apoptosis and impairs differentiation in a transgenic model. Mol Cancer Res. 2003;1:921-9 pubmed..Our results suggest a role of AP-2 transcription factors in the maintenance of a proliferative and undifferentiated state of cells, characteristics not only important during embryonic development but also in tumorigenesis. ..
- Jäger R, Schäfer S, Hau Liersch M, Schorle H. Loss of transcription factor AP-2gamma/TFAP2C impairs branching morphogenesis of the murine mammary gland. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1027-33 pubmed publisher..Therefore, AP-2gamma is functionally involved in branching morphogenesis of the mammary epithelium, possibly by controlling genetic processes downstream of ovarian hormones. ..
- Thewes V, Orso F, Jäger R, Eckert D, Schäfer S, Kirfel G, et al. Interference with activator protein-2 transcription factors leads to induction of apoptosis and an increase in chemo- and radiation-sensitivity in breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:192 pubmed publisher..Therefore, interference with AP-2 function could increase the sensitivity of tumor cells towards therapeutic intervention. ..
- Jäger R, Friedrichs N, Heim I, Buttner R, Schorle H. Dual role of AP-2gamma in ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;90:273-80 pubmed..Therefore, AP-2gamma while reducing the incidence of mammary tumors is promoting tumor progression. ..
- Kuckenberg P, Buhl S, Woynecki T, van Fürden B, Tolkunova E, Seiffe F, et al. The transcription factor TCFAP2C/AP-2gamma cooperates with CDX2 to maintain trophectoderm formation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3310-20 pubmed publisher..Here, we report that the transcription factor Tcfap2c is expressed at a high level in the trophectoderm and is able to induce trophoblast fate in embryonic stem cells...
- Oulad Abdelghani M, Bouillet P, Chazaud C, Dolle P, Chambon P. AP-2.2: a novel AP-2-related transcription factor induced by retinoic acid during differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 1996;225:338-47 pubmed..The pattern of AP-2.2 expression in adult tissues, which is distinct from that of AP-2alpha, is essentially restricted to male and female gonads, to most if not all the squamous epithelia, and to several exocrine glands. ..
- Hou M, Stukenborg J, Nurmio M, Andersson M, Toppari J, Soder O, et al. Ontogenesis of Ap-2? expression in rat testes. Sex Dev. 2011;5:188-96 pubmed publisher..Our study demonstrated clearly that nuclear expression of Ap-2? is a useful marker for identifying undifferentiated male germ cells, although its functional role is yet to be fully explored. ..
- West Mays J, Zhang J, Nottoli T, Hagopian Donaldson S, Libby D, Strissel K, et al. AP-2alpha transcription factor is required for early morphogenesis of the lens vesicle. Dev Biol. 1999;206:46-62 pubmed..Together these findings demonstrate a requirement for AP-2alpha in early morphogenesis of the eye. ..
- Li M, Kellems R. Sp1 and Sp3 Are important regulators of AP-2gamma gene transcription. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1220-30 pubmed
- Shi D, Kellems R. Transcription factor AP-2gamma regulates murine adenosine deaminase gene expression during placental development. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27331-8 pubmed..In situ hybridization analysis revealed that AP-2gamma expression was enriched in the trophoblast lineage throughout development, suggesting that AP-2gamma may be critical for trophoblast development and differentiation. ..
- Ohtaka Maruyama C, Hanaoka F, Chepelinsky A. A novel alternative spliced variant of the transcription factor AP2alpha is expressed in the murine ocular lens. Dev Biol. 1998;202:125-35 pubmed..This is the first molecular characterization of AP2alpha gene expression in the lens. Our results indicate that two activator and two repressor AP2alpha isoforms may play a role in regulating gene expression in the lens. ..
- Magnusdottir E, Dietmann S, Murakami K, Günesdogan U, Tang F, Bao S, et al. A tripartite transcription factor network regulates primordial germ cell specification in mice. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:905-15 pubmed publisher..We also demonstrate that, in principle, BLIMP1, AP2? and PRDM14 are sufficient for PGC specification, and the unprecedented resetting of the epigenome towards a basal state. ..
- Bouillet P, Oulad Abdelghani M, Vicaire S, Garnier J, Schuhbaur B, Dolle P, et al. Efficient cloning of cDNAs of retinoic acid-responsive genes in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and characterization of a novel mouse gene, Stra1 (mouse LERK-2/Eplg2). Dev Biol. 1995;170:420-33 pubmed..We also report the sequence and expression pattern in mouse embryos and adult tissues of one of these novel RA-inducible genes, Stra1, and show that it corresponds to the mouse ligand for the Cek5 receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. ..
- Tsujimura T, Klein F, Langenfeld K, Glaser J, Huber W, Spitz F. A discrete transition zone organizes the topological and regulatory autonomy of the adjacent tfap2c and bmp7 genes. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004897 pubmed publisher..Here, we investigate the cis-regulatory organization of the locus containing the Tfap2c and Bmp7 genes in vivo, using a series of engineered chromosomal rearrangements...
- Gao L, Kim Y, Kim B, Lofgren S, Schultz Norton J, Nardulli A, et al. Two regions within the proximal steroidogenic factor 1 promoter drive somatic cell-specific activity in developing gonads of the female mouse. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:422-34 pubmed publisher..Together, we show that transient transfection experiments performed within developing testes and ovaries are a powerful tool to uncover elements within the Sf1 promoter that contribute to sex-specific expression...
- Cao Z, Carey T, Ganguly A, Wilson C, Paul S, Knott J. Transcription factor AP-2Î³ induces early Cdx2 expression and represses HIPPO signaling to specify the trophectoderm lineage. Development. 2015;142:1606-15 pubmed publisher..Here we report that transcription factor AP-2Î³ (TFAP2C) functions as a novel upstream regulator of Cdx2 expression and position-dependent HIPPO signaling in mice...
- Choi I, Carey T, Wilson C, Knott J. Transcription factor AP-2? is a core regulator of tight junction biogenesis and cavity formation during mouse early embryogenesis. Development. 2012;139:4623-32 pubmed publisher..Here, we report that transcription factor AP-2? (Tcfap2c) is a core regulator of blastocyst formation in mice...
- Grabole N, Tischler J, Hackett J, Kim S, Tang F, Leitch H, et al. Prdm14 promotes germline fate and naive pluripotency by repressing FGF signalling and DNA methylation. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:629-37 pubmed publisher..This indicates a critical role for Prdm14 in programming PGCs and promoting pluripotency in ES cells. ..
- Cyr A, Kulak M, Park J, Bogachek M, Spanheimer P, Woodfield G, et al. TFAP2C governs the luminal epithelial phenotype in mammary development and carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2015;34:436-44 pubmed publisher..Conditional knockout of the mouse homolog of TFAP2C, Tcfap2c, in mouse mammary epithelium driven by MMTV-Cre promoted aberrant growth of the mammary tree leading to a ..
- Choi I, Carey T, Wilson C, Knott J. Evidence that transcription factor AP-2? is not required for Oct4 repression in mouse blastocysts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65771 pubmed publisher..For instance, the mouse Oct4 distal enhancer contains an AP-2? (Tcfap2c) binding motif that is absent in the bovine and human Oct4 distal enhancer...
- Keitges E, Rivest M, Siniscalco M, Gartler S. X-linkage of steroid sulphatase in the mouse is evidence for a functional Y-linked allele. Nature. 1985;315:226-7 pubmed
- Tu S, Narendra V, Yamaji M, Vidal S, Rojas L, Wang X, et al. Co-repressor CBFA2T2 regulates pluripotency and germline development. Nature. 2016;534:387-90 pubmed publisher..Thus, in contrast to the traditional 'passenger' role of a co-repressor, CBFA2T2 functions synergistically with transcription factors at the crossroads of the fundamental developmental plasticity between uni- and pluripotency. ..
- Park J, Wu T, Cyr A, Woodfield G, de Andrade J, Spanheimer P, et al. The role of Tcfap2c in tumorigenesis and cancer growth in an activated Neu model of mammary carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2015;34:6105-14 pubmed publisher..we examined mammary tumorigenesis in MMTV-Neu transgenic female mice with or without conditional knockout (KO) of Tcfap2c, the mouse homolog of TFAP2C...
- Kaiser S, Koch Y, KÃ¼hnel E, Sharma N, Gellhaus A, Kuckenberg P, et al. Reduced Gene Dosage of Tfap2c Impairs Trophoblast Lineage Differentiation and Alters Maternal Blood Spaces in the Mouse Placenta. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:31 pubmed publisherb>Tfap2c is required for placental development and trophoblast stem cell maintenance. Deletion of Tfap2c results in early embryonic loss because of failure in placental development...
- Chazaud C, Bouillet P, Oulad Abdelghani M, Dolle P. Restricted expression of a novel retinoic acid responsive gene during limb bud dorsoventral patterning and endochondral ossification. Dev Genet. 1996;19:66-73 pubmed..We suggest that Stra6 may play a role in early dorsoventral limb patterning and later in the control of endochondral ossification. ..
- Ben Zimra M, Koler M, Orly J. Transcription of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 in the placenta: activating protein-2 assumes the role of steroidogenic factor-1 by binding to an overlapping promoter element. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1864-80 pubmed..Collectively, these studies suggest that expression of placental P450scc is governed by AP-2 factors that bind to a cis-element that largely overlaps the sequence required for recognition of SF-1 in other steroidogenic tissues. ..
- Holl D, Kuckenberg P, Woynecki T, Egert A, Becker A, Huss S, et al. Transgenic overexpression of Tcfap2c/AP-2gamma results in liver failure and intestinal dysplasia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22034 pubmed publisherThe transcription factor Tcfap2c has been demonstrated to be essential for various processes during mammalian development. It has been found to be upregulated in various undifferentiated tumors and is implicated with poor prognosis...
- Holm P, Mader M, Haubst N, Wizenmann A, Sigvardsson M, Gotz M. Loss- and gain-of-function analyses reveal targets of Pax6 in the developing mouse telencephalon. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;34:99-119 pubmed..Most intriguingly, this analysis revealed time- and region-specific differences in Pax6-mediated transcription, explaining the specific function of Pax6 at early and later stages of neurogenesis. ..
- Maconochie M, Krishnamurthy R, Nonchev S, Meier P, Manzanares M, Mitchell P, et al. Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. Development. 1999;126:1483-94 pubmed..Our findings have identified the cis-components that allow Hoxa2 to be regulated independently in rhombomeres and cranial neural crest cells. ..
- Haack H, Hynes R. Integrin receptors are required for cell survival and proliferation during development of the peripheral glial lineage. Dev Biol. 2001;233:38-55 pubmed..We conclude that integrins can complement growth factors in the control of glial cell numbers. ..
- Werling U, Schorle H. Conditional inactivation of transcription factor AP-2gamma by using the Cre/loxP recombination system. Genesis. 2002;32:127-9 pubmed
- Yamaji M, Tanaka T, Shigeta M, Chuma S, Saga Y, Saitou M. Functional reconstruction of NANOS3 expression in the germ cell lineage by a novel transgenic reporter reveals distinct subcellular localizations of NANOS3. Reproduction. 2010;139:381-93 pubmed publisher..These findings unveil the presence of distinct posttranscriptional regulations in PGCs soon after their specification, for which RNA-binding proteins such as NANOS3 and TIAL1 would play critical functions. ..
- Yamashiro C, Hirota T, Kurimoto K, Nakamura T, Yabuta Y, Nagaoka S, et al. Persistent Requirement and Alteration of the Key Targets of PRDM1 During Primordial Germ Cell Development in Mice. Biol Reprod. 2016;94:7 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide critical insight into the mechanism for maintaining the transcriptional integrity of PGCs. ..
- Bamforth S, Braganca J, Eloranta J, Murdoch J, Marques F, Kranc K, et al. Cardiac malformations, adrenal agenesis, neural crest defects and exencephaly in mice lacking Cited2, a new Tfap2 co-activator. Nat Genet. 2001;29:469-74 pubmed..As certain Tfap2 isoforms are essential in neural crest, neural tube and cardiac development, we propose that abnormal embryogenesis in mice lacking Cited2 results, at least in part, from its role as a Tfap2 co-activator. ..
- Peng L, Payne A. AP-2 gamma and the homeodomain protein distal-less 3 are required for placental-specific expression of the murine 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase VI gene, Hsd3b6. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7945-54 pubmed
- Sharma N, Kubaczka C, Kaiser S, Nettersheim D, Mughal S, Riesenberg S, et al. Tpbpa-Cre-mediated deletion of TFAP2C leads to deregulation of Cdkn1a, Akt1 and the ERK pathway, causing placental growth arrest. Development. 2016;143:787-98 pubmed publisherLoss of TFAP2C in mouse leads to developmental defects in the extra-embryonic compartment with lethality at embryonic day (E)7.5...
- Schemmer J, AraÃºzo Bravo M, Haas N, SchÃ¤fer S, Weber S, Becker A, et al. Transcription factor TFAP2C regulates major programs required for murine fetal germ cell maintenance and haploinsufficiency predisposes to teratomas in male mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71113 pubmed publisher..Transcription factor TFAP2C has been described to be essential for primordial germ cell maintenance and to be upregulated in several human ..
- Watanabe S, Sanuki R, Sugita Y, Imai W, Yamazaki R, Kozuka T, et al. Prdm13 regulates subtype specification of retinal amacrine interneurons and modulates visual sensitivity. J Neurosci. 2015;35:8004-20 pubmed publisher..Our current study provides new insights into mechanisms of the diversification of amacrine cells and their function in vision. ..
- Lim L, Fang L, Swendeman S, Sheffery M. Characterization of the molecularly cloned murine alpha-globin transcription factor CP2. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:18008-17 pubmed..These results define the CP2 factor binding site in more detail and help characterize the activities of the factor in vivo. ..
- Haushalter C, Asselin L, Fraulob V, Dolle P, Rhinn M. Retinoic acid controls early neurogenesis in the developing mouse cerebral cortex. Dev Biol. 2017;430:129-141 pubmed publisher..5 and affects the cell cycle exit of progenitor cells during corticogenesis, altogether leading to a deficit in projection neurons and to microcephaly. ..
- Pirouz M, Pilarski S, Kessel M. A critical function of Mad2l2 in primordial germ cell development of mice. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003712 pubmed publisher..Together, these results demonstrate the potential of Mad2l2 in the regulation of both cell cycle and the epigenetic status. The function of Mad2l2 is essential in PGCs, and thus of high relevance for fertility. ..
- Kuckenberg P, Kubaczka C, Schorle H. The role of transcription factor Tcfap2c/TFAP2C in trophectoderm development. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;25:12-20 pubmed publisher..It also presents a model integrating Tcfap2c into the framework of trophoblast development and highlights the requirement of Tcfap2c to maintain trophoblast ..
- Bamforth S, Braganca J, Farthing C, Schneider J, Broadbent C, Michell A, et al. Cited2 controls left-right patterning and heart development through a Nodal-Pitx2c pathway. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1189-96 pubmed..We propose that an abnormal Nodal-Pitx2c pathway represents a unifying mechanism for the cardiovascular malformations observed in Cited2(-/-) mice, and that such malformations may be the sole manifestation of a laterality defect. ..
- Zhou J, Kochhar D. Regulation of AP-2 and apoptosis in developing eye in a vitamin A-deficiency model. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2003;67:41-53 pubmed..Both an inhibition of expression of AP-2 and an enhancement of cell death contribute to AGN-induced ocular defects. ..
- Stewart H, Brennan A, Rahman M, Zoidl G, Mitchell P, Jessen K, et al. Developmental regulation and overexpression of the transcription factor AP-2, a potential regulator of the timing of Schwann cell generation. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:363-72 pubmed..Moreover, Schwann cell generation was delayed if this downregulation was prevented by enforced expression of AP-2 alpha in precursors. These studies suggest that AP-2 is involved in the control of the timing of Schwann cell development. ..
- Sapin V, Bouillet P, Oulad Abdelghani M, Dastugue B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Differential expression of retinoic acid-inducible (Stra) genes during mouse placentation. Mech Dev. 2000;92:295-9 pubmed..Three other Stra genes, including the AP-2-related gene AP-2gamma, are differentially expressed in the trophoblastic cell lineage. Thus, retinoids may regulate various signaling pathways in specific placental cell-types. ..
- Bassett E, Pontoriero G, Feng W, Marquardt T, Fini M, Williams T, et al. Conditional deletion of activating protein 2alpha (AP-2alpha) in the developing retina demonstrates non-cell-autonomous roles for AP-2alpha in optic cup development. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7497-510 pubmed..Additional expression analyses showed that multiple AP-2 proteins are present in the developing retina, which will be important to future studies. ..
- Yahata T, Takedatsu H, Dunwoodie S, Braganca J, Swingler T, Withington S, et al. Cloning of mouse Cited4, a member of the CITED family p300/CBP-binding transcriptional coactivators: induced expression in mammary epithelial cells. Genomics. 2002;80:601-13 pubmed..These results implied possible roles for Cited4 in regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation of blood cells, endothelial cells, and mammary epithelial cells. ..