Gene Symbol: Tek
Description: TEK receptor tyrosine kinase
Alias: AA517024, Cd202b, Hyk, STK1, Tie-2, Tie2, angiopoietin-1 receptor, endothelial tyrosine kinase, endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, p140 TEK, tunica interna endothelial cell kinase, tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains-2, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor TEK, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor TIE-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Tek

Top Publications

  1. Yang J, Boerm M, McCarty M, Bucana C, Fidler I, Zhuang Y, et al. Mekk3 is essential for early embryonic cardiovascular development. Nat Genet. 2000;24:309-13 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Mekk3 is necessary for blood vessel development and may be a possible target for drugs that control angiogenesis. ..
  2. van Nes J, de Graaff W, Lebrin F, Gerhard M, Beck F, Deschamps J. The Cdx4 mutation affects axial development and reveals an essential role of Cdx genes in the ontogenesis of the placental labyrinth in mice. Development. 2006;133:419-28 pubmed
    ..Cdx genes thus operate in a redundant way during placentogenesis, as they do during embryonic axial elongation and patterning, and independently from the previously reported early Cdx2-specific role in the trophectoderm at implantation...
  3. Schlaeger T, Bartunkova S, Lawitts J, Teichmann G, Risau W, Deutsch U, et al. Uniform vascular-endothelial-cell-specific gene expression in both embryonic and adult transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3058-63 pubmed
    b>TIE2 is a vascular endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase essential for the regulation of vascular network formation and remodeling. Previously, we have shown that the 1...
  4. Drake C, Fleming P. Vasculogenesis in the day 6.5 to 9.5 mouse embryo. Blood. 2000;95:1671-9 pubmed
    ..proteins, TAL1, Flk1, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), CD34, VE-cadherin, and Tie2. The study establishes that: (1) TAL1 and Flk1 are coexpressed in isolated mesodermal cells that give rise to ..
  5. Zhu J, Motejlek K, Wang D, Zang K, Schmidt A, Reichardt L. beta8 integrins are required for vascular morphogenesis in mouse embryos. Development. 2002;129:2891-903 pubmed
    ..This study thus identifies a molecule crucial for vascular patterning in embryonic yolk sac and brain. ..
  6. Jeansson M, Gawlik A, Anderson G, Li C, Kerjaschki D, Henkelman M, et al. Angiopoietin-1 is essential in mouse vasculature during development and in response to injury. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2278-89 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin-1/Tek signaling is a critical regulator of blood vessel development, with conventional knockout of angiopoietin-1 or Tek in mice being embryonically lethal due to vascular defects...
  7. Mo F, Muntean A, Chen C, Stolz D, Watkins S, Lau L. CYR61 (CCN1) is essential for placental development and vascular integrity. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8709-20 pubmed
    ..The genetic and molecular basis of vessel bifurcation is presently unknown, and these findings provide new insight into this aspect of angiogenesis. ..
  8. Welford A, Biziato D, Coffelt S, Nucera S, Fisher M, Pucci F, et al. TIE2-expressing macrophages limit the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular-disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1969-73 pubmed publisher
    ..mammary tumors were accompanied by elevated tumor levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and infiltration by proangiogenic TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs)...
  9. Shaut C, Keene D, Sorensen L, Li D, Stadler H. HOXA13 Is essential for placental vascular patterning and labyrinth endothelial specification. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000073 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, pro-vascular genes, including Tie2 and Foxf1, exhibited reduced expression in the mutant endothelia, which also exhibited elevated expression of genes ..

More Information


  1. Dumont D, Gradwohl G, Fong G, Puri M, Gertsenstein M, Auerbach A, et al. Dominant-negative and targeted null mutations in the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase, tek, reveal a critical role in vasculogenesis of the embryo. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1897-909 pubmed
    ..Expression of the Tek RTK during mouse development is restricted primarily to endothelial cells and their progenitors, the angioblasts, ..
  2. van Meurs M, Kurniati N, Wulfert F, Asgeirsdottir S, de Graaf I, Satchell S, et al. Shock-induced stress induces loss of microvascular endothelial Tie2 in the kidney which is not associated with reduced glomerular barrier function. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that changes in Tie2, a vascular restricted receptor tyrosine kinase shown to control microvascular integrity and endothelial ..
  3. Mammoto T, Parikh S, Mammoto A, Gallagher D, Chan B, Mostoslavsky G, et al. Angiopoietin-1 requires p190 RhoGAP to protect against vascular leakage in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23910-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide mechanistic evidence that targeting the endothelium through Tie-2 may offer specific therapeutic strategies in life-threatening endotoxemic conditions such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. ..
  4. Suri C, Jones P, Patan S, Bartunkova S, Maisonpierre P, Davis S, et al. Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis. Cell. 1996;87:1171-80 pubmed
    ..Only one other family of receptor tyrosine kinases, comprising TIE1 and TIE2, is largely endothelial cell specific. We have recently cloned a ligand for TIE2, termed Angiopoietin-1...
  5. Patan S. TIE1 and TIE2 receptor tyrosine kinases inversely regulate embryonic angiogenesis by the mechanism of intussusceptive microvascular growth. Microvasc Res. 1998;56:1-21 pubmed
    As shown previously, TIE1 and TIE2 receptor tyrosine kinases are specifically expressed in endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis...
  6. Li Z, Huang H, Boland P, Dominguez M, Burfeind P, Lai K, et al. Embryonic stem cell tumor model reveals role of vascular endothelial receptor tyrosine phosphatase in regulating Tie2 pathway in tumor angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this powerful and flexible system, the Angiopoietin/Tie2 system is shown to have a key role in the regulation of tumor vessel size...
  7. Dumont D, Yamaguchi T, Conlon R, Rossant J, Breitman M. tek, a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mouse chromosome 4, is expressed in endothelial cells and their presumptive precursors. Oncogene. 1992;7:1471-80 pubmed
    ..kinases expressed during murine cardiogenesis resulted in the isolation of a novel tyrosine kinase, designated tek, which maps to mouse chromosome 4 between the brown and pmv-23 loci...
  8. Arai F, Hirao A, Ohmura M, Sato H, Matsuoka S, Takubo K, et al. Tie2/angiopoietin-1 signaling regulates hematopoietic stem cell quiescence in the bone marrow niche. Cell. 2004;118:149-61 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that HSCs expressing the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 are quiescent and antiapoptotic, and comprise a side-population (SP) of HSCs, which adhere to osteoblasts (OBs) in ..
  9. Pucci F, Venneri M, Biziato D, Nonis A, Moi D, Sica A, et al. A distinguishing gene signature shared by tumor-infiltrating Tie2-expressing monocytes, blood "resident" monocytes, and embryonic macrophages suggests common functions and developmental relationships. Blood. 2009;114:901-14 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) have nonredundant proangiogenic activity in tumors...
  10. Mahlapuu M, Ormestad M, Enerback S, Carlsson P. The forkhead transcription factor Foxf1 is required for differentiation of extra-embryonic and lateral plate mesoderm. Development. 2001;128:155-66 pubmed
  11. Tang Y, Harrington A, Yang X, Friesel R, Liaw L. The contribution of the Tie2+ lineage to primitive and definitive hematopoietic cells. Genesis. 2010;48:563-7 pubmed publisher
    The regulatory elements of the Tie2/Tek promoter are commonly used in mouse models to direct transgene expression to endothelial cells...
  12. Davis S, Aldrich T, Jones P, Acheson A, Compton D, Jain V, et al. Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning. Cell. 1996;87:1161-9 pubmed
    b>TIE2 is a receptor-like tyrosine kinase expressed almost exclusively in endothelial cells and early hemopoietic cells and required for the normal development of vascular structures during embryogenesis...
  13. Maisonpierre P, Suri C, Jones P, Bartunkova S, Wiegand S, Radziejewski C, et al. Angiopoietin-2, a natural antagonist for Tie2 that disrupts in vivo angiogenesis. Science. 1997;277:55-60 pubmed
    ..Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is an angiogenic factor that signals through the endothelial cell-specific Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase...
  14. Sato T, Tozawa Y, Deutsch U, Wolburg Buchholz K, Fujiwara Y, Gendron Maguire M, et al. Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2 in blood vessel formation. Nature. 1995;376:70-4 pubmed
    ..Our in vivo analyses indicate that the structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2 have important but distinct roles in the formation of blood vessels. ..
  15. Felcht M, Luck R, Schering A, Seidel P, Srivastava K, Hu J, et al. Angiopoietin-2 differentially regulates angiogenesis through TIE2 and integrin signaling. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1991-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..ANG-2 binds the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (TIE2) and acts as a negative regulator of ANG-1/TIE2 signaling during angiogenesis, thereby controlling the ..
  16. Carmeliet P, Ferreira V, Breier G, Pollefeyt S, Kieckens L, Gertsenstein M, et al. Abnormal blood vessel development and lethality in embryos lacking a single VEGF allele. Nature. 1996;380:435-9 pubmed
  17. Yuan H, Venkatesha S, Chan B, Deutsch U, Mammoto T, Sukhatme V, et al. Activation of the orphan endothelial receptor Tie1 modifies Tie2-mediated intracellular signaling and cell survival. FASEB J. 2007;21:3171-83 pubmed
    ..We report here that Ang1 induces Tie1 phosphorylation in endothelial cells. Tie1 phosphorylation was, however, Tie2 dependent because 1) Ang1 failed to induce Tie1 phosphorylation when Tie2 was down-regulated in endothelial cells; ..
  18. Ema M, Yokomizo T, Wakamatsu A, Terunuma T, Yamamoto M, Takahashi S. Primitive erythropoiesis from mesodermal precursors expressing VE-cadherin, PECAM-1, Tie2, endoglin, and CD34 in the mouse embryo. Blood. 2006;108:4018-24 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin, PECAM-1 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, CD31), Tie2, CD34, and endoglin are established markers for adult and embryonic endothelial cells (ECs)...
  19. Schorpp Kistner M, Wang Z, Angel P, Wagner E. JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. EMBO J. 1999;18:934-48 pubmed
    ..Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system. ..
  20. Koblizek T, Runting A, Stacker S, Wilks A, Risau W, Deutsch U. Tie2 receptor expression and phosphorylation in cultured cells and mouse tissues. Eur J Biochem. 1997;244:774-9 pubmed
    ..two new rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to study the expression and phosphorylation of one such receptor, mouse Tie2 (tyrosine kinase that contains immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal-growth-factor-similar domains 2]), in ..
  21. de Lange W, Halabi C, Beyer A, Sigmund C. Germ line activation of the Tie2 and SMMHC promoters causes noncell-specific deletion of floxed alleles. Physiol Genomics. 2008;35:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We show herein that two promoters commonly used to generate endothelium-specific (Tie2) and smooth muscle-specific [smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Smmhc)] knockout mice exhibit activity in the female ..
  22. Fantin A, Vieira J, Gestri G, Denti L, Schwarz Q, Prykhozhij S, et al. Tissue macrophages act as cellular chaperones for vascular anastomosis downstream of VEGF-mediated endothelial tip cell induction. Blood. 2010;116:829-40 pubmed publisher
    ..and those that promote the angiogenic switch in cancer, including the expression of the cell-surface proteins TIE2 and NRP1...
  23. Baumer S, Keller L, Holtmann A, Funke R, August B, Gamp A, et al. Vascular endothelial cell-specific phosphotyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) activity is required for blood vessel development. Blood. 2006;107:4754-62 pubmed
    ..No signs for enhanced endothelial apoptosis or proliferation were observed. Thus, the activity of VE-PTP is not required for the initial formation of blood vessels, yet it is essential for their maintenance and remodeling. ..
  24. Gu H, Cui M, Bai Y, Chen F, Ma K, Zhou C, et al. Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 signaling pathway inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:178-82 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is a ligand for the endothelial-specific tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 and has been shown to play an essential role in embryonic vasculature development...
  25. Yokomizo T, Dzierzak E. Three-dimensional cartography of hematopoietic clusters in the vasculature of whole mouse embryos. Development. 2010;137:3651-61 pubmed publisher
  26. Mazzieri R, Pucci F, Moi D, Zonari E, Ranghetti A, Berti A, et al. Targeting the ANG2/TIE2 axis inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by impairing angiogenesis and disabling rebounds of proangiogenic myeloid cells. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:512-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that blocking angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), a TIE2 ligand and angiogenic factor expressed by activated endothelial cells (ECs), regresses the tumor vasculature and ..
  27. Gale N, Yancopoulos G. Growth factors acting via endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases: VEGFs, angiopoietins, and ephrins in vascular development. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1055-66 pubmed
  28. Makinde T, Agrawal D. Increased expression of angiopoietins and Tie2 in the lungs of chronic asthmatic mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:384-93 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin (Ang)1 and Ang2 are ligands for Tie2 tyrosine kinase receptor (Tie2)...
  29. Hato T, Kimura Y, Morisada T, Koh G, Miyata K, Tabata M, et al. Angiopoietins contribute to lung development by regulating pulmonary vascular network formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:218-23 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin (Ang) signaling through the Tie2 receptor regulates vasculature. The role of Ang signaling in pulmonary hypertension is well investigated, but its role in lung development is not elucidated...
  30. Brindle N, Saharinen P, Alitalo K. Signaling and functions of angiopoietin-1 in vascular protection. Circ Res. 2006;98:1014-23 pubmed
    ..We also consider the data on Ang1 receptors and speculate on how to maximize therapeutic benefit by targeting the Tie receptors. ..
  31. Abbott B, Buckalew A. Placental defects in ARNT-knockout conceptus correlate with localized decreases in VEGF-R2, Ang-1, and Tie-2. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:526-38 pubmed
    ..pathway is required for embryonic survival and includes several receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, Tie2) and ligands (VEGF, Ang1, Ang2, neuropillin)...
  32. Lekas M, Lekas P, Mei S, Deng Y, Dumont D, Stewart D. Tie2-dependent neovascularization of the ischemic hindlimb is mediated by angiopoietin-2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43568 pubmed publisher
    The angiopoietins (ANGPT) are ligands for the endothelial cell (EC) receptor tyrosine kinase, Tie2. Angpt-1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular maturation and stabilization, whereas Angpt-2 is a partial agonist/antagonist involved in ..
  33. Sato T, Qin Y, Kozak C, Audus K. Tie-1 and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic vascular system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:9355-8 pubmed
  34. Shalaby F, Rossant J, Yamaguchi T, Gertsenstein M, Wu X, Breitman M, et al. Failure of blood-island formation and vasculogenesis in Flk-1-deficient mice. Nature. 1995;376:62-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Flk-1 is essential for yolk-sac blood-island formation and vasculogenesis in the mouse embryo. ..
  35. De Palma M, Naldini L. Angiopoietin-2 TIEs up macrophages in tumor angiogenesis. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:5226-32 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), a ligand of the TIE2 receptor, modulates endothelial cell biology and destabilizes blood vessels to facilitate angiogenesis...
  36. Giroux S, Tremblay M, Bernard D, Cardin Girard J, Aubry S, Larouche L, et al. Embryonic death of Mek1-deficient mice reveals a role for this kinase in angiogenesis in the labyrinthine region of the placenta. Curr Biol. 1999;9:369-72 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that mek1 function is required for normal response to angiogenic signals that might promote vascularization of the labyrinthine region of the placenta. ..
  37. Sarkar K, Rey S, Zhang X, Sebastian R, Marti G, Fox Talbot K, et al. Tie2-dependent knockout of HIF-1 impairs burn wound vascularization and homing of bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;93:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Cre recombinase was driven by the Tie2 gene promoter, which is expressed in ECs and bone marrow cells...
  38. Fachinger G, Deutsch U, Risau W. Functional interaction of vascular endothelial-protein-tyrosine phosphatase with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2. Oncogene. 1999;18:5948-53 pubmed
    ..Based on its potential role as a regulator of blood vessel morphogenesis and maintainance, VE-PTP is a candidate gene for inherited vascular malformations similar to the Tie-2 gene. ..
  39. Corada M, Nyqvist D, Orsenigo F, Caprini A, Giampietro C, Taketo M, et al. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway modulates vascular remodeling and specification by upregulating Dll4/Notch signaling. Dev Cell. 2010;18:938-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that early and sustained beta-catenin signaling prevents correct endothelial cell differentiation, altering vascular remodeling and arteriovenous specification. ..
  40. Mammoto T, Chen J, Jiang E, Jiang A, Smith L, Ingber D, et al. LRP5 regulates development of lung microvessels and alveoli through the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41596 pubmed publisher
    ..angiogenesis and alveolar formation in the lung by modulating expression of the angiopoietin (Ang) receptor, Tie2, in vascular endothelial cells (ECs)...
  41. Liu Y, Wada R, Yamashita T, Mi Y, Deng C, Hobson J, et al. Edg-1, the G protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate, is essential for vascular maturation. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:951-61 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal Edg-1 to be the first G protein-coupled receptor required for blood vessel formation and show that sphingolipid signaling is essential during mammalian development. ..
  42. Kurniati N, Jongman R, Vom Hagen F, Spokes K, Moser J, Regan E, et al. The flow dependency of Tie2 expression in endotoxemia. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:1262-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Tie2 is predominantly expressed by endothelial cells and is involved in vascular integrity control during sepsis. Changes in Tie2 expression during sepsis development may contribute to microvascular dysfunction...
  43. Scott C, Walker D, Cwiklinski E, Tait C, Tee A, Land S. Control of HIF-1{alpha} and vascular signaling in fetal lung involves cross talk between mTORC1 and the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 airway branching periodicity clock. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L455-71 pubmed publisher
    ..in situ, and its hyperactivation by TSC1(-/-) knockout induced widespread VEGF expression and disaggregation of Tie2-positive vascular bundles...
  44. Kanemaru K, Noguchi E, Tokunaga T, Nagai K, Hiroyama T, Nakamura Y, et al. Tie2 Signaling Enhances Mast Cell Progenitor Adhesion to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 Integrin. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144436 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Tek, which encodes Tie2, was preferentially expressed in the MCs of both humans and mice...
  45. Marteau L, Pacary E, Valable S, Bernaudin M, Guillemot F, Petit E. Angiopoietin-2 regulates cortical neurogenesis in the developing telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:1695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results show for the first time that, in addition to its role during brain vasculature setup, Ang2 is also involved in embryonic cortical neurogenesis and especially in the radial migration of projection neurons. ..
  46. Kim M, Allen B, Korhonen E, Nitschké M, Yang H, Baluk P, et al. Opposing actions of angiopoietin-2 on Tie2 signaling and FOXO1 activation. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:3511-25 pubmed publisher
    ..ANG2) regulates blood vessel remodeling in many pathological conditions through differential effects on Tie2 signaling...
  47. Bai Y, Meng Z, Cui M, Zhang X, Chen F, Xiao J, et al. An Ang1-Tie2-PI3K axis in neural progenitor cells initiates survival responses against oxygen and glucose deprivation. Neuroscience. 2009;160:371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Ang1 significantly elevated tunica intima endothelial kinase 2 (Tie2) autophosphorylation level, suggesting the existence of functional Tie2 receptors on NPCs...
  48. Achen M, Clauss M, Schnurch H, Risau W. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Lyn is localised in the developing murine blood-brain barrier. Differentiation. 1995;59:15-24 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Lyn may be involved in transduction of growth and differentiation signals required for blood-brain-barrier development. ..
  49. Dumont D, Gradwohl G, Fong G, Auerbach R, Breitman M. The endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, tek, is a member of a new subfamily of receptors. Oncogene. 1993;8:1293-301 pubmed
    We have cloned a 4.2-kb murine cDNA encoding the Tek receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), which is expressed in endothelial cells and their progenitors...
  50. Baudino T, McKay C, Pendeville Samain H, Nilsson J, Maclean K, White E, et al. c-Myc is essential for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during development and tumor progression. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2530-43 pubmed
    ..These findings support the model wherein c-Myc promotes cell growth and transformation, as well as vascular and hematopoietic development, by functioning as a master regulator of angiogenic factors. ..
  51. Grimm J, Sachs M, Britsch S, Di Cesare S, Schwarz Romond T, Alitalo K, et al. Novel p62dok family members, dok-4 and dok-5, are substrates of the c-Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and mediate neuronal differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:345-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified a subclass of p62dok proteins that are putative links with downstream effectors of c-Ret in neuronal differentiation. ..
  52. Wang S, Liu Z, Qu J, Wang X. The activity of the Ang/Tie-2 system in the brain that suffered acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013;32:1038-47 pubmed publisher
  53. Puri M, Partanen J, Rossant J, Bernstein A. Interaction of the TEK and TIE receptor tyrosine kinases during cardiovascular development. Development. 1999;126:4569-80 pubmed
    TEK (TIE2) and TIE (TIE1) are structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases expressed in endothelial cells and their precursors...
  54. Mammoto T, Jiang E, Jiang A, Lu Y, Juan A, Chen J, et al. Twist1 controls lung vascular permeability and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema by altering Tie2 expression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73407 pubmed publisher
    ..The angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie2 pathway is known to control vascular permeability...
  55. Ruan G, Kazlauskas A. Lactate engages receptor tyrosine kinases Axl, Tie2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 to activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and promote angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21161-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Lactate engaged the PI3K/Akt pathway via ligand-mediated activation of the three receptor tyrosine kinases Axl, Tie2, and VEGF receptor 2...
  56. Carmeliet P, Lampugnani M, Moons L, Breviario F, Compernolle V, Bono F, et al. Targeted deficiency or cytosolic truncation of the VE-cadherin gene in mice impairs VEGF-mediated endothelial survival and angiogenesis. Cell. 1999;98:147-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, VE-cadherin/ beta-catenin signaling controls endothelial survival. ..
  57. Savant S, La Porta S, Budnik A, Busch K, Hu J, Tisch N, et al. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1761-73 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip ..
  58. Evans V, Hatzopoulos A, Aird W, Rayburn H, Rosenberg R, Kuivenhoven J. Targeting the Hprt locus in mice reveals differential regulation of Tie2 gene expression in the endothelium. Physiol Genomics. 2000;2:67-75 pubmed
    To study the in vivo expression of the murine Tie2 gene, we have targeted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt) gene locus to generate two single-copy transgenic mice: T1, containing the 2,100-bp Tie2 promoter upstream from ..
  59. Vondenhoff M, Desanti G, Cupedo T, Bertrand J, Cumano A, Kraal G, et al. Separation of splenic red and white pulp occurs before birth in a LTalphabeta-independent manner. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The postnatal development of the splenic white pulp, involving the influx of T cells, depends on LTalpha1beta2 expressed by B cells. ..
  60. Kuo C, Veselits M, Barton K, Lu M, Clendenin C, Leiden J. The LKLF transcription factor is required for normal tunica media formation and blood vessel stabilization during murine embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2996-3006 pubmed
    ..these defects, in situ hybridization demonstrated normal expression of platelet-derived growth factor B, Tie1, Tie2, transforming growth factor beta, and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor in the vasculature of the LKLF-/- ..
  61. Xia L, Ju T, Westmuckett A, An G, Ivanciu L, McDaniel J, et al. Defective angiogenesis and fatal embryonic hemorrhage in mice lacking core 1-derived O-glycans. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:451-9 pubmed
    ..These data reveal an unexpected requirement for core 1-derived O-glycans during angiogenesis. ..
  62. Kawakami Y, Ii M, Matsumoto T, Kuroda R, Kuroda T, Kwon S, et al. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in Tie2-lineage cells including endothelial progenitor cells contributes to bone fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway in Tie2-lineage cells (including EPCs) in bone formation...
  63. Hidai C, Kawana M, Habu K, Kazama H, Kawase Y, Iwata T, et al. Overexpression of the Del1 gene causes dendritic branching in the mouse mesentery. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005;287:1165-75 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of mice overexpressing Del1 suggests the existence of a tissue-specific mechanism for branching morphogenesis in the mesentery. ..
  64. Fathers K, Stone C, Minhas K, Marriott J, Greenwood J, Dumont D, et al. Heterogeneity of Tie2 expression in tumor microcirculation: influence of cancer type, implantation site, and response to therapy. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:1753-62 pubmed
    To evaluate the expression of the Tie2/Tek tyrosine kinase receptor in tumor blood vessels, we examined Tie2lacZ(+)/RAG1(-) mice...