Gene Symbol: Tcrd
Description: T cell receptor delta chain
Alias: Tcrdelta, Tcr delta
Species: mouse
Products:     Tcrd

Top Publications

  1. Tramonti D, Andrew E, Rhodes K, Newton D, Carding S. Evidence for the opposing roles of different gamma delta T cell subsets in macrophage homeostasis. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:1729-38 pubmed
    ..gammadelta T cell adoptive transfer experiments showed that Vgamma4(+) T cells protected TCRdelta(-/-) mice against Listeria-induced liver injury and necrosis...
  2. Gavin M, Rasmussen J, Fontenot J, Vasta V, Manganiello V, Beavo J, et al. Foxp3-dependent programme of regulatory T-cell differentiation. Nature. 2007;445:771-5 pubmed
    ..This adaptation includes Foxp3-dependent repression of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B, affecting genes responsible for Tr cell homeostasis. ..
  3. Tam S, King D, Beaman B. Increase of gammadelta T lymphocytes in murine lungs occurs during recovery from pulmonary infection by Nocardia asteroides. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6165-71 pubmed the role of gammadelta T cells in nocardial interactions in the murine lung, C57BL/6J wild type and C57BL/6J-Tcrd (gammadelta T-cell knockout mice) were infected intranasally with log-phase cells of N. asteroides GUH-2...
  4. Moore T, Moore B, Newstead M, Standiford T. Gamma delta-T cells are critical for survival and early proinflammatory cytokine gene expression during murine Klebsiella pneumonia. J Immunol. 2000;165:2643-50 pubmed
  5. Jameson J, Cauvi G, Sharp L, Witherden D, Havran W. Gammadelta T cell-induced hyaluronan production by epithelial cells regulates inflammation. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1269-79 pubmed
    ..In turn, hyaluronan recruits macrophages to the site of damage. These results demonstrate a novel function for skin gammadelta T cells in inflammation and provide a new perspective on T cell regulation of ECM molecules. ..
  6. Fujihashi K, McGhee J, Kweon M, Cooper M, Tonegawa S, Takahashi I, et al. gamma/delta T cell-deficient mice have impaired mucosal immunoglobulin A responses. J Exp Med. 1996;183:1929-35 pubmed
    ..these cells remains unclear, we have compared mucosal immune responses in gamma/delta T cell receptor-deficient (TCRdelta-/-) mice versus control mice of the same genetic background...
  7. Roberts S, Smith A, West A, Wen L, Findly R, Owen M, et al. T-cell alpha beta + and gamma delta + deficient mice display abnormal but distinct phenotypes toward a natural, widespread infection of the intestinal epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11774-9 pubmed
    ..An immuno-downregulatory role during infection, and during autoimmune disease, may be a general one for gamma delta + cells. ..
  8. Lo Re S, Dumoutier L, Couillin I, Van Vyve C, Yakoub Y, Uwambayinema F, et al. IL-17A-producing gammadelta T and Th17 lymphocytes mediate lung inflammation but not fibrosis in experimental silicosis. J Immunol. 2010;184:6367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the acute alveolitis induced by silica is IL-17A dependent, this cytokine appears dispensable for the development of the late inflammatory and fibrotic lung responses to silica. ..
  9. Simonian P, Roark C, Wehrmann F, Lanham A, Diaz del Valle F, Born W, et al. Th17-polarized immune response in a murine model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. J Immunol. 2009;182:657-65 pubmed
    ..These data are the first to demonstrate an important role for Th17-polarized CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the immune response directed against S. rectivirgula in this murine model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis...

More Information


  1. Croxford A, Akilli Ozturk O, Rieux Laucat F, Forster I, Waisman A, Buch T. MHC-restricted T cell receptor signaling is required for alpha beta TCR replacement of the pre T cell receptor. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:391-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Taylor K, Costanzo A, Jameson J. Dysfunctional ?? T cells contribute to impaired keratinocyte homeostasis in mouse models of obesity. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2409-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, impaired keratinocyte homeostasis and epidermal barrier function through direct and indirect mechanisms result in susceptibility to skin complications, chronic wounds, and infection. ..
  3. Uezu K, Kawakami K, Miyagi K, Kinjo Y, Kinjo T, Ishikawa H, et al. Accumulation of gammadelta T cells in the lungs and their regulatory roles in Th1 response and host defense against pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol. 2004;172:7629-34 pubmed
  4. Golovkina T, Shlomchik M, Hannum L, Chervonsky A. Organogenic role of B lymphocytes in mucosal immunity. Science. 1999;286:1965-8 pubmed
    ..The lack of M cells abrogated infection with a milk-borne retrovirus. Thus, in addition to secretion of antibodies and presentation of antigens, B cells are important for organogenesis of the mucosal immune barriers. ..
  5. MacPherson A, Gatto D, Sainsbury E, Harriman G, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel R. A primitive T cell-independent mechanism of intestinal mucosal IgA responses to commensal bacteria. Science. 2000;288:2222-6 pubmed
  6. Simonian P, Wehrmann F, Roark C, Born W, O Brien R, Fontenot A. ?? T cells protect against lung fibrosis via IL-22. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2239-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the presence of protective ?? T cells and IL-22 diminished recruitment of CD4(+) T cells to lung. These data reveal a protective pathway that involves the inhibition of ?? T cells by regulatory IL-22-secreting ?? T cells. ..
  7. Liyanage M, Weaver Z, Barlow C, Coleman A, Pankratz D, Anderson S, et al. Abnormal rearrangement within the alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus in lymphomas from Atm-deficient mice. Blood. 2000;96:1940-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms that lead to tumorigenesis may be due to the involvement of ATM in monitoring double-stranded DNA breaks. (Blood. 2000;96:1940-1946) ..
  8. Haynes N, Allen C, Lesley R, Ansel K, Killeen N, Cyster J. Role of CXCR5 and CCR7 in follicular Th cell positioning and appearance of a programmed cell death gene-1high germinal center-associated subpopulation. J Immunol. 2007;179:5099-108 pubmed
  9. Ferlin W, von der Weid T, Cottrez F, Ferrick D, Coffman R, Howard M. The induction of a protective response in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice with anti-CD40 mAb. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:525-31 pubmed
    ..dependent, since it was not observed in C57BL/6 x 129 mice that were rendered T cell deficient (TCR beta-/- x TCR delta-/-) and L. major susceptible. Anti-CD40 mAb stimulation of L...
  10. Haas J, González F, Schmitz S, Chennupati V, Föhse L, Kremmer E, et al. CCR6 and NK1.1 distinguish between IL-17A and IFN-gamma-producing gammadelta effector T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..1+ counterparts. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that CCR6+ IL-17A-producing gammadelta T cells derive from less TCR-dependent selection events than IFN-gamma-producing NK1.1+ gammadelta T cells. ..
  11. Shiohara T, Moriya N, Hayakawa J, Itohara S, Ishikawa H. Resistance to cutaneous graft-vs.-host disease is not induced in T cell receptor delta gene-mutant mice. J Exp Med. 1996;183:1483-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that gamma/delta+ dEC are responsible for the site-restricted protection against cutaneous GVHD. ..
  12. Sheridan B, Romagnoli P, Pham Q, Fu H, Alonzo F, Schubert W, et al. ?? T cells exhibit multifunctional and protective memory in intestinal tissues. Immunity. 2013;39:184-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, memory ?? T cells were able to provide enhanced protection against infection. These findings illustrate that ?? T cells play a role with hallmarks of adaptive immunity in the intestinal mucosa. ..
  13. Matsubara S, Takeda K, Jin N, Okamoto M, Matsuda H, Shiraishi Y, et al. Vgamma1+ T cells and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;40:454-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that TNF-alpha and activation of Vgamma1+ gammadelta T cells are required for the development of AHR after O3 exposure. ..
  14. Girardi M, Lewis J, Glusac E, Filler R, Geng L, Hayday A, et al. Resident skin-specific gammadelta T cells provide local, nonredundant regulation of cutaneous inflammation. J Exp Med. 2002;195:855-67 pubmed
  15. Mahtani Patching J, Neves J, Pang D, Stoenchev K, Aguirre Blanco A, Silva Santos B, et al. PreTCR and TCRγδ signal initiation in thymocyte progenitors does not require domains implicated in receptor oligomerization. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra47 pubmed publisher
  16. Sciammas R, Kodukula P, Tang Q, Hendricks R, Bluestone J. T cell receptor-gamma/delta cells protect mice from herpes simplex virus type 1-induced lethal encephalitis. J Exp Med. 1997;185:1969-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study demonstrates that TCR-gamma/delta cells may play an important regulatory role in human HSV-1 infections. ..
  17. Pantelyushin S, Haak S, Ingold B, Kulig P, Heppner F, Navarini A, et al. Ror?t+ innate lymphocytes and ?? T cells initiate psoriasiform plaque formation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our findings establish that ROR?t(+) innate lymphocytes and ?? T cells are necessary and sufficient for psoriatic plaque formation in an experimental disease model that closely resembles human psoriatic plaque formation. ..
  18. Witherden D, Verdino P, Rieder S, Garijo O, Mills R, Teyton L, et al. The junctional adhesion molecule JAML is a costimulatory receptor for epithelial gammadelta T cell activation. Science. 2010;329:1205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify JAML as a crucial component of epithelial gammadelta T cell biology and have broader implications for CAR and JAML in tissue homeostasis and repair. ..
  19. Livak F, Tourigny M, Schatz D, Petrie H. Characterization of TCR gene rearrangements during adult murine T cell development. J Immunol. 1999;162:2575-80 pubmed murine thymic precursors has been characterized, no similar information is available for the TCRgamma and TCRdelta loci...
  20. Peng S, Robert M, Hayday A, Craft J. A tumor-suppressor function for Fas (CD95) revealed in T cell-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996;184:1149-54 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Fas functions as a tumor suppressor, and identifies roles for both alpha beta T cells and gamma delta T cells in Fas-independent tumor regulation. ..
  21. Chen Y, Chou K, Fuchs E, Havran W, Boismenu R. Protection of the intestinal mucosa by intraepithelial gamma delta T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14338-43 pubmed
    ..gammadelta cell-deficient mice (TCRdelta(-/-)) and KGF-deficient mice (KGF(-/-)), but not alphabeta cell-deficient mice (TCRalpha(-/-)), were more prone ..
  22. Cai Y, Shen X, Ding C, Qi C, Li K, Li X, et al. Pivotal role of dermal IL-17-producing ?? T cells in skin inflammation. Immunity. 2011;35:596-610 pubmed publisher
    ..hyperplasia and inflammation induced by IL-23 were significantly decreased in T cell receptor ?-deficient (Tcrd(-/-)) and IL-17 receptor-deficient (Il17ra(-/-)) mice but occurred normally in Tcra(-/-) mice...
  23. Hara H, Kishihara K, Matsuzaki G, Takimoto H, Tsukiyama T, Tigelaar R, et al. Development of dendritic epidermal T cells with a skewed diversity of gamma delta TCRs in V delta 1-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2000;165:3695-705 pubmed
  24. Santos Lima E, Minoprio P. Chagas' disease is attenuated in mice lacking gamma delta T cells. Infect Immun. 1996;64:215-21 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that gamma delta T cells do not play a crucial role in parasite clearance during the acute phase of the disease but contribute to the mechanisms leading to tissue damage and pathology. ..
  25. Ismail A, Behrendt C, Hooper L. Reciprocal interactions between commensal bacteria and gamma delta intraepithelial lymphocytes during mucosal injury. J Immunol. 2009;182:3047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of TCRdelta-deficient mice indicated that gammadelta T cells are essential for controlling mucosal penetration of commensal ..
  26. Lahn M, Kanehiro A, Takeda K, Joetham A, Schwarze J, Kohler G, et al. Negative regulation of airway responsiveness that is dependent on gammadelta T cells and independent of alphabeta T cells. Nat Med. 1999;5:1150-6 pubmed
    ..This function of gammadelta T cells differs from previously described immune-dependent mechanisms and may reflect their interaction with innate systems of host defense. ..
  27. Gray E, Ramírez Valle F, Xu Y, Wu S, Wu Z, Karjalainen K, et al. Deficiency in IL-17-committed V?4(+) ?? T cells in a spontaneous Sox13-mutant CD45.1(+) congenic mouse substrain provides protection from dermatitis. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox13-mutant mice were protected from psoriasis-like skin changes, which identified a role for Sox13-dependent ??T17 cells in this inflammatory condition...
  28. Huber S, Graveline D, Newell M, Born W, O Brien R. V gamma 1+ T cells suppress and V gamma 4+ T cells promote susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in mice. J Immunol. 2000;165:4174-81 pubmed
    ..Th subset analysis suggests that Vgamma1(+) cells biased the CD4(+) T cells to a dominant Th2 cell response, whereas Vgamma4(+) cells biased CD4(+) T cells toward a dominant Th1 cell response. ..
  29. Park K, He X, Lee H, Hua X, Li Y, WIEST D, et al. TCR-mediated ThPOK induction promotes development of mature (CD24-) gammadelta thymocytes. EMBO J. 2010;29:2329-41 pubmed publisher
  30. Guy Grand D, DiSanto J, Henchoz P, Malassis Seris M, Vassalli P. Small bowel enteropathy: role of intraepithelial lymphocytes and of cytokines (IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF) in the induction of epithelial cell death and renewal. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:730-44 pubmed
    ..This insures the rapid epithelial renewal of the villi, which in turn helps maintain the functional integrity of the barrier. ..
  31. Wohler J, Smith S, Zinn K, Bullard D, Barnum S. Gammadelta T cells in EAE: early trafficking events and cytokine requirements. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that gammadelta T cells are critical for the development of EAE and suggest a therapeutic target in demyelinating disease. ..
  32. Hikosaka Y, Nitta T, Ohigashi I, Yano K, Ishimaru N, Hayashi Y, et al. The cytokine RANKL produced by positively selected thymocytes fosters medullary thymic epithelial cells that express autoimmune regulator. Immunity. 2008;29:438-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that RANKL produced by positively selected thymocytes is responsible for fostering thymic medulla formation, thereby establishing central tolerance. ..
  33. Jameson J, Cauvi G, Witherden D, Havran W. A keratinocyte-responsive gamma delta TCR is necessary for dendritic epidermal T cell activation by damaged keratinocytes and maintenance in the epidermis. J Immunol. 2004;172:3573-9 pubmed DETC localization to the epidermis, maintenance in the skin, and activation in vivo, we analyzed DETC in the TCRdelta(-/-) mouse...
  34. Andrew E, Newton D, Dalton J, Egan C, Goodwin S, Tramonti D, et al. Delineation of the function of a major gamma delta T cell subset during infection. J Immunol. 2005;175:1741-50 pubmed
  35. Ramsburg E, Tigelaar R, Craft J, Hayday A. Age-dependent requirement for gammadelta T cells in the primary but not secondary protective immune response against an intestinal parasite. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1403-14 pubmed
    ..This notwithstanding, the development of effective, pathogen-specific immunity in young mice requires alphabeta T cells, just as it does in adult mice. ..
  36. Zeng X, Wei Y, Huang J, Newell E, Yu H, Kidd B, et al. ?? T cells recognize a microbial encoded B cell antigen to initiate a rapid antigen-specific interleukin-17 response. Immunity. 2012;37:524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the adaptability of lymphocyte antigen receptors and suggest an antigen-driven rapid response in protective immunity prior to the maturation of classical adaptive immunity. ..
  37. Enzler T, Bonizzi G, Silverman G, Otero D, Widhopf G, Anzelon Mills A, et al. Alternative and classical NF-kappa B signaling retain autoreactive B cells in the splenic marginal zone and result in lupus-like disease. Immunity. 2006;25:403-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, both classical and alternative NF-kappaB signaling are important for development of lupus-like disease associated with BAFF overproduction. The same mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of human SLE. ..
  38. Pociask D, Chen K, Choi S, Oury T, Steele C, Kolls J. ?? T cells attenuate bleomycin-induced fibrosis through the production of CXCL10. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, adoptive transfer of ?? T cells from CXCL10(-/-) mice failed to reverse the severe fibrosis in ?? KO mice. These results indicate that ?? T cells promote the resolution of fibrosis through the production of CXCL10. ..
  39. Edelblum K, Shen L, Weber C, Marchiando A, Clay B, Wang Y, et al. Dynamic migration of ?? intraepithelial lymphocytes requires occludin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7097-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of occludin as an essential factor in ?? IEL migration provides insight into the molecular regulation of ?? IEL/epithelial interactions. ..
  40. Sharp L, Jameson J, Cauvi G, Havran W. Dendritic epidermal T cells regulate skin homeostasis through local production of insulin-like growth factor 1. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:73-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, DETC-deficient mice had reduced IGF-1 receptor activation at wound sites. These findings indicate critical functions for DETC-mediated IGF-1 production in regulating skin homeostasis and repair. ..
  41. King D, Hyde D, Jackson K, Novosad D, Ellis T, Putney L, et al. Cutting edge: protective response to pulmonary injury requires gamma delta T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1999;162:5033-6 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that gamma delta intraepithelial lymphocytes can protect the host from pathogenic and nonpathogenic insults by targeting the inflammatory response to epithelial necrosis. ..
  42. Petermann F, Rothhammer V, Claussen M, Haas J, Blanco L, Heink S, et al. ?? T cells enhance autoimmunity by restraining regulatory T cell responses via an interleukin-23-dependent mechanism. Immunity. 2010;33:351-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IL-23, which by itself has no direct effect on Treg cells, is able to disarm Treg cell responses and promote antigen-specific effector T cell responses via activating ?? T cells. ..
  43. Yang H, Antony P, Wildhaber B, Teitelbaum D. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte gamma delta-T cell-derived keratinocyte growth factor modulates epithelial growth in the mouse. J Immunol. 2004;172:4151-8 pubmed
    ..These results show that KGF from IELs is an important factor for maintenance of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and villus growth. ..
  44. Girardi M, Oppenheim D, Steele C, Lewis J, Glusac E, Filler R, et al. Regulation of cutaneous malignancy by gammadelta T cells. Science. 2001;294:605-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, local T cells may use evolutionarily conserved proteins to negatively regulate malignancy. ..
  45. Buch T, Rieux Laucat F, Forster I, Rajewsky K. Failure of HY-specific thymocytes to escape negative selection by receptor editing. Immunity. 2002;16:707-18 pubmed
    ..exon of a male-specific TCR was inserted into the TCR alpha locus followed by Cre-loxP-mediated deletion of the TCR delta locus...
  46. Godinez I, Raffatellu M, Chu H, Paixao T, Haneda T, Santos R, et al. Interleukin-23 orchestrates mucosal responses to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the intestine. Infect Immun. 2009;77:387-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results point to IL-23 as an important player in initiating a T-cell-dependent amplification of inflammatory responses in the intestinal mucosa during serotype Typhimurium infection...
  47. Hayes S, Li L, Love P. TCR signal strength influences alphabeta/gammadelta lineage fate. Immunity. 2005;22:583-93 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which the strength of the TCR signal is a critical determinant in the lineage fate decision. ..
  48. Rangel Moreno J, Carragher D, de la Luz Garcia Hernandez M, Hwang J, Kusser K, Hartson L, et al. The development of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue depends on IL-17. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that IL-17-producing T cells are critical for the development of ectopic lymphoid tissues...
  49. Tsuji M, Suzuki K, Kitamura H, Maruya M, Kinoshita K, Ivanov I, et al. Requirement for lymphoid tissue-inducer cells in isolated follicle formation and T cell-independent immunoglobulin A generation in the gut. Immunity. 2008;29:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the crosstalk between bacteria, ROR gamma t(+)LTi cells, SCs, DCs, and B cells required for ILF formation and establish a critical role of ILFs in T cell-independent IgA synthesis in gut. ..
  50. Koch M, Tucker Heard G, Perdue N, Killebrew J, Urdahl K, Campbell D. The transcription factor T-bet controls regulatory T cell homeostasis and function during type 1 inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:595-602 pubmed publisher
  51. Gray E, Suzuki K, Cyster J. Cutting edge: Identification of a motile IL-17-producing gammadelta T cell population in the dermis. J Immunol. 2011;186:6091-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have characterized a major population of skin ?? T cells and propose that these cells are a key source of IL-17 in the early hours after skin infection...
  52. Jameson J, Ugarte K, Chen N, Yachi P, Fuchs E, Boismenu R, et al. A role for skin gammadelta T cells in wound repair. Science. 2002;296:747-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that DETCs recognize antigen expressed by injured keratinocytes and produce factors that directly affect wound repair. ..
  53. Fu Y, Huang G, Wang Y, Chaplin D. B lymphocytes induce the formation of follicular dendritic cell clusters in a lymphotoxin alpha-dependent fashion. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1009-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, B cells themselves provide an essential signal that induces and maintains the lymphoid microenvironment essential for GC formation and class-switched Ig responses. ..
  54. Cariappa A, Mazo I, Chase C, Shi H, Liu H, Li Q, et al. Perisinusoidal B cells in the bone marrow participate in T-independent responses to blood-borne microbes. Immunity. 2005;23:397-407 pubmed
    ..The bone marrow represents a unique type of secondary lymphoid organ in which mature B cells are strategically positioned in the path of circulating microbes. ..
  55. Kirby A, Newton D, Carding S, Kaye P. Pulmonary dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages are regulated by gammadelta T cells during the resolution of S. pneumoniae-induced inflammation. J Pathol. 2007;212:29-37 pubmed
    ..Although inflammation eventually resolves in TCR delta(-/-) mice, elevated numbers of alveolar macrophages and pulmonary dendritic cells, and the appearance of well-..
  56. Selin L, Santolucito P, Pinto A, Szomolanyi Tsuda E, Welsh R. Innate immunity to viruses: control of vaccinia virus infection by gamma delta T cells. J Immunol. 2001;166:6784-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, gammadelta T cells can be mediators of innate immunity to viruses, having a significant impact on virus replication early in infection in the presence or absence of the adaptive immune response. ..
  57. Xiong N, Kang C, Raulet D. Redundant and unique roles of two enhancer elements in the TCRgamma locus in gene regulation and gammadelta T cell development. Immunity. 2002;16:453-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the two elements exhibit functional redundancy in thymocytes but also have unique functions in other settings. ..
  58. Le Bon A, Thompson C, Kamphuis E, Durand V, Rossmann C, Kalinke U, et al. Cutting edge: enhancement of antibody responses through direct stimulation of B and T cells by type I IFN. J Immunol. 2006;176:2074-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IFN-alphabetaR signaling in both B and T cells plays an important role in the stimulation of Ab responses by IFN-alphabeta. ..
  59. Cheng P, Liu T, Zhou W, Zhuang Y, Peng L, Zhang J, et al. Role of gamma-delta T cells in host response against Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia. BMC Immunol. 2012;13:38 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus infection is beneficial for bacteria clearance and also contributes to the tissue damage. These cells were the primary source of IL-17, which might influence the recruitment of neutrophils at the early stage of infection. ..
  60. Simonian P, Roark C, Wehrmann F, Lanham A, Born W, O Brien R, et al. IL-17A-expressing T cells are essential for bacterial clearance in a murine model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Immunol. 2009;182:6540-9 pubmed publisher
    ..T cells was seen in the absence of gammadelta T cells that resulted in similar levels of IL-17A in the lungs of TCRdelta(-/-) and wild-type C57BL/6 mice...
  61. Hamada S, Umemura M, Shiono T, Tanaka K, Yahagi A, Begum M, et al. IL-17A produced by gammadelta T cells plays a critical role in innate immunity against listeria monocytogenes infection in the liver. J Immunol. 2008;181:3456-63 pubmed
    ..All the results suggest that IL-17A is a newly discovered effector molecule produced by TCR gammadelta T cells, which is important in innate immunity in the liver. ..
  62. Strid J, Roberts S, Filler R, Lewis J, Kwong B, Schpero W, et al. Acute upregulation of an NKG2D ligand promotes rapid reorganization of a local immune compartment with pleiotropic effects on carcinogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide unique insight into the early phases of tissue immunosurveillance and indicate that acute changes in NKG2D ligands may alone initiate a rapid, multifaceted immunosurveillance response in vivo. ..
  63. Egan C, Dalton J, Andrew E, Smith J, Gubbels M, Striepen B, et al. A requirement for the Vgamma1+ subset of peripheral gammadelta T cells in the control of the systemic growth of Toxoplasma gondii and infection-induced pathology. J Immunol. 2005;175:8191-9 pubmed
  64. Nagatake T, Fukuyama S, Kim D, Goda K, Igarashi O, Sato S, et al. Id2-, RORgammat-, and LTbetaR-independent initiation of lymphoid organogenesis in ocular immunity. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2351-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TALT shares immunological features with MALT but has a distinct tissue genesis mechanism and plays a key role in ocular immunity. ..
  65. Do J, Visperas A, Dong C, Baldwin W, Min B. Cutting edge: Generation of colitogenic Th17 CD4 T cells is enhanced by IL-17+ ?? T cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:4546-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results provide a novel function of IL-17(+) ?? T cell subsets in supporting in vivo Th17 differentiation and possibly in fostering the development of intestinal inflammation. ..
  66. Leduc I, Hempel W, Mathieu N, Verthuy C, Bouvier G, Watrin F, et al. T cell development in TCR beta enhancer-deleted mice: implications for alpha beta T cell lineage commitment and differentiation. J Immunol. 2000;165:1364-73 pubmed
    ..TCR-, CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) thymocytes depends essentially on the cell-autonomous expression of TCR delta-chains and, most likely, TCR gamma-chains...
  67. Fontenot J, Rasmussen J, Williams L, Dooley J, Farr A, Rudensky A. Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. Immunity. 2005;22:329-41 pubmed
    ..Analysis of Foxp3 expression during thymic development suggests that this mechanism is not hard-wired but is dependent on TCR/MHC ligand interactions. ..
  68. Gardner T, Chen Q, Jin Y, Ajuebor M. Characterization of the role of TCR gammadelta in NK cell accumulation during viral liver inflammation. Exp Mol Pathol. 2009;86:32-5 pubmed publisher
  69. Monroe R, Sleckman B, Monroe B, Khor B, Claypool S, Ferrini R, et al. Developmental regulation of TCR delta locus accessibility and expression by the TCR delta enhancer. Immunity. 1999;10:503-13 pubmed
    We have used gene-targeted mutation to assess the role of the T cell receptor delta (TCR delta) enhancer (E delta) in alphabeta and gammadelta T cell development...
  70. Svensson L, Lilliehöök B, Larsson R, Bucht A. gammadelta T cells contribute to the systemic immunoglobulin E response and local B-cell reactivity in allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. Immunology. 2003;108:98-108 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that gammadelta T cells contribute to allergic airway inflammation by pathways separate from classical Th2 immune activation. ..
  71. Shafiani S, Dinh C, Ertelt J, Moguche A, Siddiqui I, Smigiel K, et al. Pathogen-specific Treg cells expand early during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection but are later eliminated in response to Interleukin-12. Immunity. 2013;38:1261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and other chronic diseases in which antigen-specific Treg cells restrict immunity...
  72. Matsuda S, Kudoh S, Katayama S. Enhanced formation of azoxymethane-induced colorectal adenocarcinoma in gammadelta T lymphocyte-deficient mice. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2001;92:880-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, TCRalphabeta and TCRgammadelta-positive T lymphocyte-deficient mice (homozygous TCRa and TCRd-gene knockout mice) and the background wild-type mice were administered azoxymethane, and the formation of ..
  73. Lockhart E, Green A, Flynn J. IL-17 production is dominated by gammadelta T cells rather than CD4 T cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2006;177:4662-9 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis-infected dendritic cells. IL-23 is present in the lungs early in infection and the IL-17-producing cells, such as gammadelta T cells, may represent a central innate protective response to pulmonary infection. ..
  74. Sutton C, Lalor S, Sweeney C, Brereton C, Lavelle E, Mills K. Interleukin-1 and IL-23 induce innate IL-17 production from gammadelta T cells, amplifying Th17 responses and autoimmunity. Immunity. 2009;31:331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that gammadelta T cells activated by IL-1beta and IL-23 are an important source of innate IL-17 and IL-21 and provide an alternative mechanism whereby IL-1 and IL-23 may mediate autoimmune inflammation. ..
  75. Ke Y, Pearce K, Lake J, Ziegler H, Kapp J. Gamma delta T lymphocytes regulate the induction and maintenance of oral tolerance. J Immunol. 1997;158:3610-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gamma delta T cells play a critical, active role in tolerance induced by orally administered Ag. ..
  76. Gray E, Friend S, Suzuki K, Phan T, Cyster J. Subcapsular sinus macrophage fragmentation and CD169+ bleb acquisition by closely associated IL-17-committed innate-like lymphocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38258 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest an intimate crosstalk between SSMs and IL-17 committed innate-like lymphocytes that may help provide early protection of the lymph node against lymph-borne invaders. ..
  77. Kiss E, Vonarbourg C, Kopfmann S, Hobeika E, Finke D, Esser C, et al. Natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands control organogenesis of intestinal lymphoid follicles. Science. 2011;334:1561-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish a molecular link between nutrients and the formation of immune system components required to maintain intestinal homeostasis and resistance to infections...