Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Tcrb
Description: T cell receptor beta chain
Alias: TCRbeta, Tib
- Park J, Adoro S, Lucas P, Sarafova S, Alag A, Doan L, et al. 'Coreceptor tuning': cytokine signals transcriptionally tailor CD8 coreceptor expression to the self-specificity of the TCR. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:1049-59 pubmed..This dynamic interplay induces individual CD8+ T cells to express CD8 in quantities appropriate for the self-specificity of their TCR, promoting the engagement of self ligands, yet avoiding autoreactivity. ..
- Gavin M, Rasmussen J, Fontenot J, Vasta V, Manganiello V, Beavo J, et al. Foxp3-dependent programme of regulatory T-cell differentiation. Nature. 2007;445:771-5 pubmed..This adaptation includes Foxp3-dependent repression of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B, affecting genes responsible for Tr cell homeostasis. ..
- Selin L, Santolucito P, Pinto A, Szomolanyi Tsuda E, Welsh R. Innate immunity to viruses: control of vaccinia virus infection by gamma delta T cells. J Immunol. 2001;166:6784-94 pubmed..Thus, gammadelta T cells can be mediators of innate immunity to viruses, having a significant impact on virus replication early in infection in the presence or absence of the adaptive immune response. ..
- Chung Y, Tanaka S, Chu F, Nurieva R, Martinez G, Rawal S, et al. Follicular regulatory T cells expressing Foxp3 and Bcl-6 suppress germinal center reactions. Nat Med. 2011;17:983-8 pubmed publisher..These results unveil a Bcl-6-CXCR5 axis in T(reg) cells that drives the development of follicular regulatory T (T(FR)) cells that function to inhibit the germinal center reactions. ..
- Hayes S, Love P. Stoichiometry of the murine gammadelta T cell receptor. J Exp Med. 2006;203:47-52 pubmed..Our results support a model of murine gammadeltaTCR stoichiometry in which there are two CD3gammaepsilon dimers for every TCRgammadelta heterodimer. ..
- Golovkina T, Shlomchik M, Hannum L, Chervonsky A. Organogenic role of B lymphocytes in mucosal immunity. Science. 1999;286:1965-8 pubmed..The lack of M cells abrogated infection with a milk-borne retrovirus. Thus, in addition to secretion of antibodies and presentation of antigens, B cells are important for organogenesis of the mucosal immune barriers. ..
- Lahn M, Kanehiro A, Takeda K, Joetham A, Schwarze J, Kohler G, et al. Negative regulation of airway responsiveness that is dependent on gammadelta T cells and independent of alphabeta T cells. Nat Med. 1999;5:1150-6 pubmed..This function of gammadelta T cells differs from previously described immune-dependent mechanisms and may reflect their interaction with innate systems of host defense. ..
- Veinotte L, Greenwood C, Mohammadi N, Parachoniak C, Takei F. Expression of rearranged TCRgamma genes in natural killer cells suggests a minor thymus-dependent pathway of lineage commitment. Blood. 2006;107:2673-9 pubmed..5% of neonatal and 1% of adult mouse splenic NK cells, and similar levels are detected in NK cells from TCRbeta,delta double-knockout mice, excluding the possibility of T-cell contamination...
- Girardi M, Lewis J, Glusac E, Filler R, Geng L, Hayday A, et al. Resident skin-specific gammadelta T cells provide local, nonredundant regulation of cutaneous inflammation. J Exp Med. 2002;195:855-67 pubmed
- Yoo J, Omori M, Gyarmati D, Zhou B, Aye T, Brewer A, et al. Spontaneous atopic dermatitis in mice expressing an inducible thymic stromal lymphopoietin transgene specifically in the skin. J Exp Med. 2005;202:541-9 pubmed..These transgenic mice demonstrate that TSLP can initiate a cascade of allergic inflammation in the skin and provide a valuable animal model for future study of this common disease. ..
- Kedzierska K, Turner S, Doherty P. Conserved T cell receptor usage in primary and recall responses to an immunodominant influenza virus nucleoprotein epitope. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4942-7 pubmed..Based on the length and amino acid sequences of the complementarity-determining region 3 of TCRbeta (CDR3beta) loop and associated Jbeta usage, the same dominant TCRbeta signatures were found in the blood, the ..
- Haynes N, Allen C, Lesley R, Ansel K, Killeen N, Cyster J. Role of CXCR5 and CCR7 in follicular Th cell positioning and appearance of a programmed cell death gene-1high germinal center-associated subpopulation. J Immunol. 2007;179:5099-108 pubmed
- Ciofani M, Schmitt T, Ciofani A, Michie A, Cuburu N, Aublin A, et al. Obligatory role for cooperative signaling by pre-TCR and Notch during thymocyte differentiation. J Immunol. 2004;172:5230-9 pubmed..Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential role for Notch receptor-ligand interactions in enabling the autonomous signaling capacity of the pre-TCR complex. ..
- Le Bon A, Thompson C, Kamphuis E, Durand V, Rossmann C, Kalinke U, et al. Cutting edge: enhancement of antibody responses through direct stimulation of B and T cells by type I IFN. J Immunol. 2006;176:2074-8 pubmed..These results indicate that IFN-alphabetaR signaling in both B and T cells plays an important role in the stimulation of Ab responses by IFN-alphabeta. ..
- Simonian P, Roark C, Wehrmann F, Lanham A, Diaz del Valle F, Born W, et al. Th17-polarized immune response in a murine model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. J Immunol. 2009;182:657-65 pubmed..In the absence of alphabeta T cells, TCRbeta(-/-) mice exposed to S...
- Khor B, Mahowald G, Khor K, Sleckman B. Functional overlap in the cis-acting regulation of the V(D)J recombination at the TCRbeta locus. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:321-6 pubmed publisher..In the TCRbeta locus, accessibility of the Dbeta1-Jbeta1 gene segment cluster relies on the function of an enhancer, Ebeta, and ..
- Tsuji M, Suzuki K, Kitamura H, Maruya M, Kinoshita K, Ivanov I, et al. Requirement for lymphoid tissue-inducer cells in isolated follicle formation and T cell-independent immunoglobulin A generation in the gut. Immunity. 2008;29:261-71 pubmed publisher..These findings provide insight into the crosstalk between bacteria, ROR gamma t(+)LTi cells, SCs, DCs, and B cells required for ILF formation and establish a critical role of ILFs in T cell-independent IgA synthesis in gut. ..
- Glusman G, Rowen L, Lee I, Boysen C, Roach J, Smit A, et al. Comparative genomics of the human and mouse T cell receptor loci. Immunity. 2001;15:337-49 pubmed..The genomic landscape of the TCR loci provides fundamental insights into TCR evolution as highly localized and tightly regulated gene families. ..
- Siegers G, Swamy M, Fernández Malavé E, Minguet S, Rathmann S, Guardo A, et al. Different composition of the human and the mouse gammadelta T cell receptor explains different phenotypes of CD3gamma and CD3delta immunodeficiencies. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2537-44 pubmed..Collectively, our results indicate that the different gammadelta T cell phenotypes between CD3gamma-deficient humans and mice can be explained by differences in their gammadelta TCR composition. ..
- Lentz V, Manser T. Cutting edge: germinal centers can be induced in the absence of T cells. J Immunol. 2001;167:15-20 pubmed..Therefore, T cells may be required for B cell differentiation processes associated with the intermediate and latter stages of the GC reaction, but they are dispensable for the induction and initial development of this response. ..
- MacPherson A, Gatto D, Sainsbury E, Harriman G, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel R. A primitive T cell-independent mechanism of intestinal mucosal IgA responses to commensal bacteria. Science. 2000;288:2222-6 pubmed
- Spain L, Liu P. TCRbeta transmembrane tyrosines are required for pre-TCR function. J Immunol. 2002;168:127-33 pubmedThe pre-TCR promotes thymocyte development in the alphabeta lineage. Productive rearrangement of the TCRbeta locus triggers the assembly of the pre-TCR, which includes the pTalpha chain and CD3 epsilongammadeltazeta subunits...
- Serreze D, Johnson E, Chapman H, Graser R, Marron M, DiLorenzo T, et al. Autoreactive diabetogenic T-cells in NOD mice can efficiently expand from a greatly reduced precursor pool. Diabetes. 2001;50:1992-2000 pubmed..This might allow diabetogenic T-cells in NOD mice to undergo an efficient expansion before encountering antigen, which would represent an important and previously unconsidered aspect of pathogenesis. ..
- Fontenot J, Rasmussen J, Williams L, Dooley J, Farr A, Rudensky A. Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. Immunity. 2005;22:329-41 pubmed..Analysis of Foxp3 expression during thymic development suggests that this mechanism is not hard-wired but is dependent on TCR/MHC ligand interactions. ..
- Cariappa A, Mazo I, Chase C, Shi H, Liu H, Li Q, et al. Perisinusoidal B cells in the bone marrow participate in T-independent responses to blood-borne microbes. Immunity. 2005;23:397-407 pubmed..The bone marrow represents a unique type of secondary lymphoid organ in which mature B cells are strategically positioned in the path of circulating microbes. ..
- Pennington D, Silva Santos B, Silberzahn T, Escorcio Correia M, Woodward M, Roberts S, et al. Early events in the thymus affect the balance of effector and regulatory T cells. Nature. 2006;444:1073-7 pubmed..Unexpectedly, we found that the propensity of early TCR-alphabeta+ progenitors to differentiate into Foxp3+ Tr cells is also regulated in trans by CD4+CD8+ T-cell progenitor cells, before agonist selection. ..
- Hao Z, Duncan G, Seagal J, Su Y, Hong C, Haight J, et al. Fas receptor expression in germinal-center B cells is essential for T and B lymphocyte homeostasis. Immunity. 2008;29:615-27 pubmed publisher..Thus, Fas-mediated selection of GC B cells and the resulting memory B cell compartment is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of both T and B lymphocytes. ..
- Nagatake T, Fukuyama S, Kim D, Goda K, Igarashi O, Sato S, et al. Id2-, RORgammat-, and LTbetaR-independent initiation of lymphoid organogenesis in ocular immunity. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2351-64 pubmed publisher..Thus, TALT shares immunological features with MALT but has a distinct tissue genesis mechanism and plays a key role in ocular immunity. ..
- Enzler T, Bonizzi G, Silverman G, Otero D, Widhopf G, Anzelon Mills A, et al. Alternative and classical NF-kappa B signaling retain autoreactive B cells in the splenic marginal zone and result in lupus-like disease. Immunity. 2006;25:403-15 pubmed..Thus, both classical and alternative NF-kappaB signaling are important for development of lupus-like disease associated with BAFF overproduction. The same mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of human SLE. ..
- Bergtold A, Desai D, Gavhane A, Clynes R. Cell surface recycling of internalized antigen permits dendritic cell priming of B cells. Immunity. 2005;23:503-14 pubmed..Thus dendritic cells are equipped with both non-degradative and degradative antigen uptake pathways to facilitate antigen presentation to both B and T cells. ..
- Astrakhan A, Omori M, Nguyen T, Becker Herman S, Iseki M, Aye T, et al. Local increase in thymic stromal lymphopoietin induces systemic alterations in B cell development. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:522-31 pubmed..These observations suggest that signals mediating localized TSLP expression may modulate systemic B cell development and promote humoral autoimmunity. ..
- Fournier S, Rathmell J, Goodnow C, Allison J. T cell-mediated elimination of B7.2 transgenic B cells. Immunity. 1997;6:327-39 pubmed..Our findings suggest that, in the absence of high affinity ligand for the TCR, the CD28-B7.2 system participates in the regulation of B cell homeostasis. ..
- Levelt C, Mombaerts P, Iglesias A, Tonegawa S, Eichmann K. Restoration of early thymocyte differentiation in T-cell receptor beta-chain-deficient mutant mice by transmembrane signaling through CD3 epsilon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:11401-5 pubmed..The data are consistent with the notion that in wild-type mice the DP stage is induced by transmembrane signaling through an immature CD3-TCR beta-chain complex, which can be bypassed by crosslinking of CD3 epsilon alone. ..
- Endres R, Alimzhanov M, Plitz T, Fütterer A, Kosco Vilbois M, Nedospasov S, et al. Mature follicular dendritic cell networks depend on expression of lymphotoxin beta receptor by radioresistant stromal cells and of lymphotoxin beta and tumor necrosis factor by B cells. J Exp Med. 1999;189:159-68 pubmed..Thus, development of splenic FDC networks depends on expression of LTbeta and TNF by B lymphocytes and LTbetaR by radioresistant stromal cells. ..
- Dave V, Cao Z, Browne C, Alarcon B, Fernandez Miguel G, Lafaille J, et al. CD3 delta deficiency arrests development of the alpha beta but not the gamma delta T cell lineage. EMBO J. 1997;16:1360-70 pubmed..Absence of CD3 delta specifically blocks the thymic selection processes that mediate the transition from the double-positive to single-positive stages of development. ..
- Murphy K, Heimberger A, Loh D. Induction by antigen of intrathymic apoptosis of CD4+CD8+TCRlo thymocytes in vivo. Science. 1990;250:1720-3 pubmed..Apoptosis of cortical thymocytes can be seen within 20 hours of treatment. These results provide direct evidence for the in vivo role of apoptosis in the development of antigen-induced tolerance. ..
- Mombaerts P, Clarke A, Rudnicki M, Iacomini J, Itohara S, Lafaille J, et al. Mutations in T-cell antigen receptor genes alpha and beta block thymocyte development at different stages. Nature. 1992;360:225-31 pubmed..TCR-alpha is irrelevant in these developmental processes. The development of gamma delta T cells does not depend on either TCR-alpha or TCR-beta. ..
- Arden B, Clark S, Kabelitz D, Mak T. Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families. Immunogenetics. 1995;42:501-30 pubmed..In the mouse, most V gene segments can be grouped into subfamilies of closely related genes with significantly less similarity between different subfamilies. ..
- Mombaerts P, Clarke A, Hooper M, Tonegawa S. Creation of a large genomic deletion at the T-cell antigen receptor beta-subunit locus in mouse embryonic stem cells by gene targeting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:3084-7 pubmed
- Senoo M, Shinkai Y. Regulation of Vbeta germline transcription in RAG-deficient mice by the CD3epsilon-mediated signals: implication of Vbeta transcriptional regulation in TCR beta allelic exclusion. Int Immunol. 1998;10:553-60 pubmed
- Saint Ruf C, Ungewiss K, Groettrup M, Bruno L, Fehling H, von Boehmer H. Analysis and expression of a cloned pre-T cell receptor gene. Science. 1994;266:1208-12 pubmed..Identification of the pT alpha gene represents an essential step in the structure-function analysis of the pre-TCR complex. ..
- Ferlin W, von der Weid T, Cottrez F, Ferrick D, Coffman R, Howard M. The induction of a protective response in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice with anti-CD40 mAb. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:525-31 pubmed..major infection and raises the possibility of utilizing this approach for vaccination strategies. ..
- Fu Y, Huang G, Wang Y, Chaplin D. B lymphocytes induce the formation of follicular dendritic cell clusters in a lymphotoxin alpha-dependent fashion. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1009-18 pubmed..Thus, B cells themselves provide an essential signal that induces and maintains the lymphoid microenvironment essential for GC formation and class-switched Ig responses. ..
- Livak F, Tourigny M, Schatz D, Petrie H. Characterization of TCR gene rearrangements during adult murine T cell development. J Immunol. 1999;162:2575-80 pubmed..Although the timing and sequence of rearrangements of the TCRalpha and TCRbeta loci in adult murine thymic precursors has been characterized, no similar information is available for the ..
- Pani G, Fischer K, Mlinaric Rascan I, Siminovitch K. Signaling capacity of the T cell antigen receptor is negatively regulated by the PTP1C tyrosine phosphatase. J Exp Med. 1996;184:839-52 pubmed
- Fehling H, von Boehmer H. Early alpha beta T cell development in the thymus of normal and genetically altered mice. Curr Opin Immunol. 1997;9:263-75 pubmed..Recent studies of pre-TCR function have led to a better understanding of the molecular events in early thymocyte development. ..
- Pircher H, Burki K, Lang R, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel R. Tolerance induction in double specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice varies with antigen. Nature. 1989;342:559-61 pubmed..Thus the same transgenic TCR-expressing T cells may be tolerized at different stages of their maturation and at different locations in the thymus depending on the antigen involved. ..
- Peng S, Robert M, Hayday A, Craft J. A tumor-suppressor function for Fas (CD95) revealed in T cell-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996;184:1149-54 pubmed..These data indicate that Fas functions as a tumor suppressor, and identifies roles for both alpha beta T cells and gamma delta T cells in Fas-independent tumor regulation. ..
- Ohteki T, MacDonald H. Stringent V beta requirement for the development of NK1.1+ T cell receptor-alpha/beta+ cells in mouse liver. J Exp Med. 1996;183:1277-82 pubmed..Collectively, our data indicate that liver NK1+T cells have a stringent requirement for expression of TCR-Vbeta8.2, Vbeta7, or Vbeta2 for their development. ..
- Ngo V, Korner H, Gunn M, Schmidt K, Riminton D, Cooper M, et al. Lymphotoxin alpha/beta and tumor necrosis factor are required for stromal cell expression of homing chemokines in B and T cell areas of the spleen. J Exp Med. 1999;189:403-12 pubmed..Together these findings indicate that LTalpha1beta2 and TNF are required for the development and function of B and T zone stromal cells that make chemokines necessary for lymphocyte compartmentalization in the spleen. ..
- Eberl G, Fehling H, von Boehmer H, MacDonald H. Absolute requirement for the pre-T cell receptor alpha chain during NK1.1+ TCRalphabeta cell development. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:1966-71 pubmed..Distinct developmental requirements for pre-TCR expression in the NKT and T cell lineages may reflect differences in the ability of the TCRalphabeta to substitute functionally for the pre-TCR in immature precursor cells. ..
- Haks M, Krimpenfort P, Borst J, Kruisbeek A. The CD3gamma chain is essential for development of both the TCRalphabeta and TCRgammadelta lineages. EMBO J. 1998;17:1871-82 pubmed..selectively lacking expression of CD3gamma, in which expression of CD3delta, CD3epsilon, CD3zeta, pTalpha and TCRbeta remained undisturbed. Thus, all components for composing a pre-TCR are available, with the exception of CD3gamma...
- Backstrom B, Milia E, Peter A, Jaureguiberry B, Baldari C, Palmer E. A motif within the T cell receptor alpha chain constant region connecting peptide domain controls antigen responsiveness. Immunity. 1996;5:437-47 pubmed..This conserved alpha chain connecting peptide motif might mediate the transfer of signals from the alphabeta heterodimer to the CD3/zeta complex. ..
- Bouvier G, Watrin F, Naspetti M, Verthuy C, Naquet P, Ferrier P. Deletion of the mouse T-cell receptor beta gene enhancer blocks alphabeta T-cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7877-81 pubmed..These data formally establish the critical role played by Ebeta in cis-activation of the TCR beta locus for V(D)J recombination during alphabeta T-cell development. ..
- Godfrey D, Kennedy J, Mombaerts P, Tonegawa S, Zlotnik A. Onset of TCR-beta gene rearrangement and role of TCR-beta expression during CD3-CD4-CD8- thymocyte differentiation. J Immunol. 1994;152:4783-92 pubmed
- Shinkai Y, Alt F. CD3 epsilon-mediated signals rescue the development of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes in RAG-2-/- mice in the absence of TCR beta chain expression. Int Immunol. 1994;6:995-1001 pubmed..Together, these data strongly indicate that TCR beta chain-mediated developmental signals are transduced by CD3 components and provide potential insights into mechanisms by which TCR beta chain expression may effect this process. ..
- Grubin C, Kovats S, deRoos P, Rudensky A. Deficient positive selection of CD4 T cells in mice displaying altered repertoires of MHC class II-bound self-peptides. Immunity. 1997;7:197-208 pubmed..In addition, the data suggest that T cell receptor repertoires selected in wild-type mice and in mice displaying limited spectra of self-peptides are distinct. ..
- Degermann S, Sollami G, Karjalainen K. T cell receptor beta chain lacking the large solvent-exposed Cbeta FG loop supports normal alpha/beta T cell development and function in transgenic mice. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1679-84 pubmed..However, functional analysis does not support the above notion, since transgene coding for TCR beta chain lacking the complete FG loop supports normal alpha/beta T cell development and function. ..
- Jacobs H, Ossendorp F, de Vries E, Ungewiss K, von Boehmer H, Borst J, et al. Oncogenic potential of a pre-T cell receptor lacking the TCR beta variable domain. Oncogene. 1996;12:2089-99 pubmedIn transgenic mice expressing a mutated T cell receptor (TCR) beta chain lacking the variable domain (DeltaV-TCRbeta) T cell differentiation is arrested at the CD4+ CD8+ thymocyte stage...
- Mombaerts P, Mizoguchi E, Ljunggren H, Iacomini J, Ishikawa H, Wang L, et al. Peripheral lymphoid development and function in TCR mutant mice. Int Immunol. 1994;6:1061-70 pubmed..Natural killer cell function is not impaired in any of the mutant mice. TCR mutant mice will prove useful in dissecting differential functions of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells in vivo. ..