Gene Symbol: Tcf7l2
Description: transcription factor 7 like 2, T cell specific, HMG box
Alias: TCF4B, TCF4E, Tcf-4, Tcf4, transcription factor 7-like 2, HMG box transcription factor 4, HMG box transcription factor TCF7L2, T-cell-specific transcription factor 4
Species: mouse
Products:     Tcf7l2

Top Publications

  1. Glass D, Bialek P, Ahn J, Starbuck M, Patel M, Clevers H, et al. Canonical Wnt signaling in differentiated osteoblasts controls osteoclast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2005;8:751-64 pubmed
  2. Angus Hill M, Elbert K, Hidalgo J, Capecchi M. T-cell factor 4 functions as a tumor suppressor whose disruption modulates colon cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4914-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Misregulation of this pathway is thought to initiate colon adenoma formation. It is controversial whether Tcf4 (Tcf7L2) functions as an oncogene or tumor suppressor gene in colon carcinogenesis...
  3. Lee Y, Swencki B, Shoichet S, Shivdasani R. A possible role for the high mobility group box transcription factor Tcf-4 in vertebrate gut epithelial cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1566-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings point to a potentially important function for Tcf-4 in development of the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract. ..
  4. Wielenga V, Smits R, Korinek V, Smit L, Kielman M, Fodde R, et al. Expression of CD44 in Apc and Tcf mutant mice implies regulation by the WNT pathway. Am J Pathol. 1999;154:515-23 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that CD44 expression is part of a genetic program controlled by the beta-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling pathway and suggest a role for CD44 in the generation and turnover of epithelial cells. ..
  5. Savic D, Distler M, Sokoloff G, Shanahan N, Dulawa S, Palmer A, et al. Modulation ofTcf7l2 expression alters behavior in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26897 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of shared genetic burdens, TCF7L2, the strongest genetic determinant for T2D risk in the human population, has been recently implicated in ..
  6. Da Silva Xavier G, Loder M, McDonald A, Tarasov A, Carzaniga R, Kronenberger K, et al. TCF7L2 regulates late events in insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta-cells. Diabetes. 2009;58:894-905 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the human TCF7L2 gene are associated with reduced insulin secretion and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms by which TCF7L2 affect insulin secretion are still unclear...
  7. Bluske K, Kawakami Y, Koyano Nakagawa N, Nakagawa Y. Differential activity of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the embryonic mouse thalamus. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:3297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of mice with enhanced or reduced Shh signal showed that Axin2 expression is similar to controls. These results suggest that differential Wnt signaling may play a role in patterning the thalamus independent of Shh signaling. ..
  8. Savic D, Ye H, Aneas I, Park S, Bell G, Nobrega M. Alterations in TCF7L2 expression define its role as a key regulator of glucose metabolism. Genome Res. 2011;21:1417-25 pubmed publisher
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently implicated noncoding variation within the TCF7L2 locus with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk...
  9. Yang H, Li Q, Lee J, Shu Y. Reduction in Tcf7l2 expression decreases diabetic susceptibility in mice. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:791-801 pubmed publisher
    The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis...

More Information


  1. Ip W, Shao W, Chiang Y, Jin T. The Wnt signaling pathway effector TCF7L2 is upregulated by insulin and represses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E1166-76 pubmed publisher
    Certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) are strongly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes...
  2. Valenta T, Lukas J, Doubravska L, Fafilek B, Korinek V. HIC1 attenuates Wnt signaling by recruitment of TCF-4 and beta-catenin to the nuclear bodies. EMBO J. 2006;25:2326-37 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the intracellular amounts of HIC1 protein can modulate the level of the transcriptional stimulation of the genes regulated by canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. ..
  3. Roose J, Clevers H. TCF transcription factors: molecular switches in carcinogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1424:M23-37 pubmed
    ..We will discuss Tcf signaling upon interaction with different partners, resulting in activator and repressor roles of Tcf factors in the light of carcinogenic events. ..
  4. Shu L, Matveyenko A, Kerr Conte J, Cho J, McIntosh C, Maedler K. Decreased TCF7L2 protein levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus correlate with downregulation of GIP- and GLP-1 receptors and impaired beta-cell function. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2388-99 pubmed publisher
    Recent human genetics studies have revealed that common variants of the TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2, formerly known as TCF4) gene are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  5. Boj S, van Es J, Huch M, Li V, José A, Hatzis P, et al. Diabetes risk gene and Wnt effector Tcf7l2/TCF4 controls hepatic response to perinatal and adult metabolic demand. Cell. 2012;151:1595-607 pubmed publisher
    Most studies on TCF7L2 SNP variants in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) focus on a role of the encoded transcription factor TCF4 in β cells...
  6. Vacik T, Stubbs J, Lemke G. A novel mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of Wnt signaling in development. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1783-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, we identify an extraordinarily conserved intronic region within the gene encoding Tcf7l2, a key mediator of canonical Wnt signaling...
  7. Pettitt S, Liang Q, Rairdan X, Moran J, Prosser H, Beier D, et al. Agouti C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells for mouse genetic resources. Nat Methods. 2009;6:493-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells provide a robust foundation for large-scale mouse knockout programs that aim to provide a public resource of targeted mutations in the C57BL/6 genetic background. ..
  8. Gregorieff A, Grosschedl R, Clevers H. Hindgut defects and transformation of the gastro-intestinal tract in Tcf4(-/-)/Tcf1(-/-) embryos. EMBO J. 2004;23:1825-33 pubmed
    ..To gain new insight into the role of T-cell factors (or Tcf's) during development, we analysed Tcf4 and Tcf1 compound null embryos...
  9. Korinek V, Barker N, Willert K, Molenaar M, Roose J, Wagenaar G, et al. Two members of the Tcf family implicated in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling during embryogenesis in the mouse. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1248-56 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a direct link between Wnt stimulation and beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activation and imply a role for mTcf-3 and -4 in early Wnt-driven developmental decisions in the mouse embryo. ..
  10. Cho E, Dressler G. TCF-4 binds beta-catenin and is expressed in distinct regions of the embryonic brain and limbs. Mech Dev. 1998;77:9-18 pubmed
    ..In extended streak stage embryos (E7.5), Tcf4 expression was detected in anterior endoderm. E8...
  11. Fancy S, Baranzini S, Zhao C, Yuk D, Irvine K, Kaing S, et al. Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1571-85 pubmed publisher
    ..genes show dynamic expression during repair and that expression of the Wnt pathway mediator Tcf4 (aka Tcf7l2) within OLPs is specific to lesioned-but not normal-adult white matter...
  12. Murtaugh L, Law A, Dor Y, Melton D. Beta-catenin is essential for pancreatic acinar but not islet development. Development. 2005;132:4663-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data are consistent with a crucial role for canonical Wnt signals in acinar lineage specification and differentiation. ..
  13. Lee S, Lee C, Elias C, Elmquist J. Expression of the diabetes-associated gene TCF7L2 in adult mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:925-39 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of the gene TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2) are strongly associated with the development and progression of type 2 diabetes...
  14. Korinek V, Barker N, Moerer P, van Donselaar E, Huls G, Peters P, et al. Depletion of epithelial stem-cell compartments in the small intestine of mice lacking Tcf-4. Nat Genet. 1998;19:379-83 pubmed
    ..The constitutive activity of Tcf-4 in APC-deficient human epithelial cells may contribute to their malignant transformation by maintaining stem-cell characteristics. ..
  15. Shao W, Wang D, Chiang Y, Ip W, Zhu L, Xu F, et al. The Wnt signaling pathway effector TCF7L2 controls gut and brain proglucagon gene expression and glucose homeostasis. Diabetes. 2013;62:789-800 pubmed publisher
    The type 2 diabetes risk gene TCF7L2 is the effector of the Wnt signaling pathway...
  16. Oh K, Park J, Kim S, Oh H, Choi C, Koo S. TCF7L2 modulates glucose homeostasis by regulating CREB- and FoxO1-dependent transcriptional pathway in the liver. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002986 pubmed publisher
    Peripheral insulin resistance contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. TCF7L2 has been tightly associated with this disease, although the exact mechanism was largely elusive...
  17. Takamoto I, Kubota N, Nakaya K, Kumagai K, Hashimoto S, Kubota T, et al. TCF7L2 in mouse pancreatic beta cells plays a crucial role in glucose homeostasis by regulating beta cell mass. Diabetologia. 2014;57:542-53 pubmed publisher
    Common genetic variations of the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (encoded by TCF7L2), one of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor transcription factors for the converging wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt)/?-..
  18. Wu C, Hoffman J, Shy B, Ford E, Fuchs E, Nguyen H, et al. Function of Wnt/?-catenin in counteracting Tcf3 repression through the Tcf3-?-catenin interaction. Development. 2012;139:2118-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to ?-catenin-dependent functions described for Tcf1, Tcf4 and Lef1, the known embryonic functions for Tcf3 in mice, frogs and fish are consistent with ?-catenin-independent ..
  19. da Silva Xavier G, Mondragon A, Sun G, Chen L, McGinty J, French P, et al. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in pancreas-specific Tcf7l2-null mice. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2667-2676 pubmed publisher
    Individuals carrying type 2 diabetes risk alleles in TCF7L2 display decreased beta cell levels of T cell factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2) immunoreactivity, and impaired insulin secretion and beta cell sensitivity to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)..
  20. Song L, Li Y, Wang K, Wang Y, Molotkov A, Gao L, et al. Lrp6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling is required for lip formation and fusion. Development. 2009;136:3161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Lrp6-mediated Wnt signaling pathway is required for lip development by orchestrating two distinctively different morphogenetic movements. ..
  21. Galceran J, Miyashita Lin E, Devaney E, Rubenstein J, Grosschedl R. Hippocampus development and generation of dentate gyrus granule cells is regulated by LEF1. Development. 2000;127:469-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, LEF1 regulates the generation of dentate gyrus granule cells, and together with other LEF1/TCF proteins, the development of the hippocampus. ..
  22. Kennell J, O Leary E, Gummow B, Hammer G, MacDougald O. T-cell factor 4N (TCF-4N), a novel isoform of mouse TCF-4, synergizes with beta-catenin to coactivate C/EBPalpha and steroidogenic factor 1 transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5366-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that TCF-4N inhibits coactivation by beta-catenin of TCF/LEF transcription factors and potentiates the coactivation by beta-catenin of other transcription factors, such as SF-1 and C/EBPalpha. ..
  23. Kardon G, Harfe B, Tabin C. A Tcf4-positive mesodermal population provides a prepattern for vertebrate limb muscle patterning. Dev Cell. 2003;5:937-44 pubmed
    ..of lateral plate-derived limb mesodermal cells in both chick and mouse that expresses the transcription factor Tcf4 in a muscle-specific pattern independently of the muscle cells themselves...
  24. Loder M, Da Silva Xavier G, McDonald A, Rutter G. TCF7L2 controls insulin gene expression and insulin secretion in mature pancreatic beta-cells. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:357-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the gene encoding the Wnt signalling-associated transcription factor, TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2)...
  25. Nazwar T, Glassmann A, Schilling K. Expression and molecular diversity of Tcf7l2 in the developing murine cerebellum and brain. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1532-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we mapped the developmental expression of the Tcf7l2, which is key to the canonical Wingless signaling cascade, in the developing cerebellum...
  26. Douglas K, Brinkmeier M, Kennell J, Eswara P, Harrison T, Patrianakos A, et al. Identification of members of the Wnt signaling pathway in the embryonic pituitary gland. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:843-51 pubmed
    ..The frizzled2 receptor, Apc, beta-catenin, groucho, and a novel isoform of TCF4 (officially named Tcf7l2) were identified in developing pituitary libraries...
  27. Galceran J, Farinas I, Depew M, Clevers H, Grosschedl R. Wnt3a-/--like phenotype and limb deficiency in Lef1(-/-)Tcf1(-/-) mice. Genes Dev. 1999;13:709-17 pubmed
    ..However, targeted gene inactivations of Lef1, Tcf1, or Tcf4 in the mouse do not produce phenotypes that mimic any known Wnt mutation...
  28. Ye F, Chen Y, Hoang T, Montgomery R, Zhao X, Bu H, et al. HDAC1 and HDAC2 regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation by disrupting the beta-catenin-TCF interaction. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We further identified the oligodendrocyte-restricted transcription factor TCF7L2/TCF4 as a bipartite co-effector of beta-catenin for regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation...
  29. Zhou C, Pinson K, Pleasure S. Severe defects in dorsal thalamic development in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 mutants. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7632-9 pubmed
    ..This study provides compelling in vivo evidence that thalamic development requires normal activity of the LRP6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  30. Krutzfeldt J, Stoffel M. Regulation of wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT) signalling in pancreatic islets from wild-type and obese mice. Diabetologia. 2010;53:123-7 pubmed publisher
    b>TCF7L2 is a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene and downstream effector of canonical wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT) signalling...
  31. Tebar M, Destree O, de Vree W, Ten Have Opbroek A. Expression of Tcf/Lef and sFrp and localization of beta-catenin in the developing mouse lung. Mech Dev. 2001;109:437-40 pubmed
    ..5 onward), and adjacent mesenchyme. Tcf1, Lef1, Tcf3, Tcf4, sFrp1, sFrp2 and sFrp4 were also expressed in the PE, AE, and adjacent mesenchyme in specific spatio-temporal ..
  32. Weise A, Bruser K, Elfert S, Wallmen B, Wittel Y, Wöhrle S, et al. Alternative splicing of Tcf7l2 transcripts generates protein variants with differential promoter-binding and transcriptional activation properties at Wnt/beta-catenin targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1964-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse Tcf7l2 gene is subject to alternative splicing...
  33. Nagai K. Molecular evolution of Sry and Sox gene. Gene. 2001;270:161-9 pubmed
    ..This rapid evolution of Sry might agree with the fact that the Srys are present not on the pseudoautosomal region but on the distal region with no recombination of the Y chromosomal short arm. ..
  34. Ridanpaa M, Fodde R, Kielman M. Dynamic expression and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin during the development of hair follicle-derived structures. Mech Dev. 2001;109:173-81 pubmed
    ..These results further elucidate the role of the Wnt signal transduction pathway during hair follicle related development and tumorigenesis and illustrate the dynamic role of beta-catenin in signal transduction and cell-adhesion. ..
  35. Fujimori S, Novak H, Weissenböck M, Jussila M, Gonçalves A, Zeller R, et al. Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the dental mesenchyme regulates incisor development by regulating Bmp4. Dev Biol. 2010;348:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a mechanism whereby the number of incisors arising from one placode can be varied through local alterations of a mesenchymal signaling circuit involving ?-catenin, Lef1, Tcf1 and Bmp4. ..
  36. Sakakura E, Eiraku M, Takata N. Specification of embryonic stem cell-derived tissues into eye fields by Wnt signaling using rostral diencephalic tissue-inducing culture. Mech Dev. 2016;141:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide a new avenue for exploring the mechanisms of eye field specification in vitro. ..
  37. Mahmoudi T, Li V, Ng S, Taouatas N, Vries R, Mohammed S, et al. The kinase TNIK is an essential activator of Wnt target genes. EMBO J. 2009;28:3329-40 pubmed publisher
    Wnt signalling maintains the undifferentiated state of intestinal crypt/progenitor cells through the TCF4/beta-catenin-activating transcriptional complex...
  38. Singh R, Artaza J, Taylor W, Braga M, Yuan X, Gonzalez Cadavid N, et al. Testosterone inhibits adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells: nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors. Endocrinology. 2006;147:141-54 pubmed
    ..Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated association of beta-catenin with AR and T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) in the presence of androgens...
  39. Giles R, Lolkema M, Snijckers C, Belderbos M, van der Groep P, Mans D, et al. Interplay between VHL/HIF1alpha and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways during colorectal tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2006;25:3065-70 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that VHL expression is regulated by TCF4 and is restricted to the proliferative compartment at the bottom of intestinal crypts...
  40. Treekitkarnmongkol W, Katayama H, Kai K, Sasai K, Jones J, Wang J, et al. Aurora kinase-A overexpression in mouse mammary epithelium induces mammary adenocarcinomas harboring genetic alterations shared with human breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2016;37:1180-1189 pubmed
    ..analyses of transgenic mouse mammary adenocarcinomas revealed copy gain of Glp1r and losses of Ercc5, Pten and Tcf7l2 loci...
  41. Brinkmeier M, Potok M, Davis S, Camper S. TCF4 deficiency expands ventral diencephalon signaling and increases induction of pituitary progenitors. Dev Biol. 2007;311:396-407 pubmed
    ..of several members of this family during pituitary development and the functional role of one member, TCF4 (TCF7L2), in the induction of the pituitary primordium...
  42. Da Silva Xavier G, Mondragon A, Mourougavelou V, Cruciani Guglielmacci C, Denom J, Herrera P, et al. Pancreatic alpha cell-selective deletion of Tcf7l2 impairs glucagon secretion and counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycaemia in mice. Diabetologia. 2017;60:1043-1050 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor and downstream effector of the Wnt signalling pathway...
  43. Noda T, Oki S, Kitajima K, Harada T, Komune S, Meno C. Restriction of Wnt signaling in the dorsal otocyst determines semicircular canal formation in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2012;362:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our stage-specific functional analysis suggests that strict regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in the dorsal otocyst orchestrates the process of semicircular canal formation...
  44. Guimera J, Vogt Weisenhorn D, Echevarria D, Martinez S, Wurst W. Molecular characterization, structure and developmental expression of Megane bHLH factor. Gene. 2006;377:65-76 pubmed
    ..5 within the most rostral part of the cephalic flexure of the developing midbrain. Later, Mgn expression extends into other alar areas of the midbrain and forebrain, developmentally controlled in a regional specific pattern. ..
  45. Lürbke A, Hagemeier K, Cui Q, Metz I, Bruck W, Antel J, et al. Limited TCF7L2 expression in MS lesions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72822 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TCF7L2 is an oligodendroglial transcription factor regulating myelin gene expression during developmental myelination as ..
  46. Hu M, Rosenblum N. Smad1, beta-catenin and Tcf4 associate in a molecular complex with the Myc promoter in dysplastic renal tissue and cooperate to control Myc transcription. Development. 2005;132:215-25 pubmed
    ..Here, we report enhanced interactions between a molecular complex consisting of Smad1, beta-catenin and Tcf4 and adjacent Tcf- and Smad-binding regions located within the Myc promoter in TgAlk3QD dysplastic renal tissue, and ..
  47. Okubo T, Hogan B. Hyperactive Wnt signaling changes the developmental potential of embryonic lung endoderm. J Biol. 2004;3:11 pubmed
    ..We discuss the relevance of our findings to the poorly understood pathological condition of intestinal metaplasia in humans. ..
  48. Takahashi Yanaga F, Yoshihara T, Jingushi K, Igawa K, Tomooka K, Watanabe Y, et al. DIF-1 inhibits tumor growth in vivo reducing phosphorylation of GSK-3? and expressions of cyclin D1 and TCF7L2 in cancer model mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;89:340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of GSK-3? Ser(9) and the expression levels of early growth response-1 (Egr-1), transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and cyclin D1...
  49. Kutchuk L, Laitala A, Soueid Bomgarten S, Shentzer P, Rosendahl A, Eilot S, et al. Muscle composition is regulated by a Lox-TGFβ feedback loop. Development. 2015;142:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results allow a better understanding of diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, in which LOX and TGFβ signaling have been implicated and the balance between muscle constituents is disturbed. ..
  50. Ouyang D, Xu L, Zhang L, Guo D, Tan X, Yu X, et al. MiR-181a-5p regulates 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis by targeting Smad7 and Tcf7l2. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016;48:1034-1041 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, by using the luciferase assay, Smad7 and Tcf7l2, two important members of transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) and Wnt signaling pathway, were proven to be the ..
  51. Nguyen H, Merrill B, Polak L, Nikolova M, Rendl M, Shaver T, et al. Tcf3 and Tcf4 are essential for long-term homeostasis of skin epithelia. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We have discovered that embryonic progenitor cells and postnatal hair follicle stem cells coexpress Tcf3 and Tcf4, which can act as transcriptional activators or repressors...
  52. Vendrell V, Summerhurst K, Sharpe J, Davidson D, Murphy P. Gene expression analysis of canonical Wnt pathway transcriptional regulators during early morphogenesis of the facial region in the mouse embryo. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..the precise distribution of gene expression of canonical Wnt pathway transcriptional regulators, Tcf1, Lef1, Tcf3, Tcf4 and beta-catenin between embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 11.5...
  53. Brugmann S, Goodnough L, Gregorieff A, Leucht P, ten Berge D, Fuerer C, et al. Wnt signaling mediates regional specification in the vertebrate face. Development. 2007;134:3283-95 pubmed
    ..Mice carrying compound null mutations in the nuclear mediators Lef1 and Tcf4 exhibited radically altered facial features that culminated in a hyperteloric appearance and a foreshortened ..
  54. Ogawa S, Goto W, Orimo A, Hosoi T, Ouchi Y, Muramatsu M, et al. Molecular cloning of a novel RING finger-B box-coiled coil (RBCC) protein, terf, expressed in the testis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;251:515-9 pubmed
    ..Structural similarity raises the possibilities that the terf gene might be also involved in carcinogenesis or cell transformation. ..
  55. Saj A, Chatterjee S, Zhu B, Cukuroglu E, Gocha T, Zhang X, et al. Disrupting Interactions Between β-Catenin and Activating TCFs Reconstitutes Ground State Pluripotency in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1924-1933 pubmed publisher
    ..However, accumulating evidence suggest that β-catenin's association with activating TCFs (TCF7 and TCF7L2) can induce expression of several lineage-specific prodifferentiation genes...
  56. van Es J, Haegebarth A, Kujala P, Itzkovitz S, Koo B, Boj S, et al. A critical role for the Wnt effector Tcf4 in adult intestinal homeostatic self-renewal. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1918-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA-binding proteins of the T-cell factor family, Tcf1/Tcf7, Lef, Tcf3/Tcf7l1, and Tcf4/Tcf7l2, constitute the downstream effectors of the Wnt signaling pathway...
  57. Lukas J, Mazna P, Valenta T, Doubravska L, Pospichalova V, Vojtechova M, et al. Dazap2 modulates transcription driven by the Wnt effector TCF-4. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:3007-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies indicate that Dazap2 modulates the affinity of TCF-4 for its DNA-recognition motif. ..
  58. Joo J, Kim Y, Dunn N, Sugrue S. Disruption of mouse corneal epithelial differentiation by conditional inactivation of pnn. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1927-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of Pnn mutant corneal epithelium closely correlated with significantly elevated beta-catenin activity and Tcf4 level...
  59. Witte F, Chan D, Economides A, Mundlos S, Stricker S. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) and Indian hedgehog regulate digit outgrowth mediated by the phalanx-forming region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14211-6 pubmed publisher
  60. Cohen E, Wang Z, Lepore J, Lu M, Taketo M, Epstein D, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes expansion of Isl-1-positive cardiac progenitor cells through regulation of FGF signaling. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1794-804 pubmed
    ..These data reveal what we believe to be a novel Wnt-FGF signaling axis required for expansion of Isl-1-positive AHF progenitors and suggest future therapies to increase the number and function of these cells for cardiac regeneration. ..
  61. Umar S, Wang Y, Morris A, Sellin J. Dual alterations in casein kinase I-epsilon and GSK-3beta modulate beta-catenin stability in hyperproliferating colonic epithelia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G599-607 pubmed
  62. Tian L, Song Z, Shao W, Du W, Zhao L, Zeng K, et al. Curcumin represses mouse 3T3-L1 cell adipogenic differentiation via inhibiting miR-17-5p and stimulating the Wnt signalling pathway effector Tcf7l2. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2559 pubmed publisher
    ..The Tcf7l2 gene encodes a key Wnt signalling pathway effector, and its human homologue TCF7L2 is a highly regarded diabetes ..
  63. Brinkmeier M, Potok M, Cha K, Gridley T, Stifani S, Meeldijk J, et al. TCF and Groucho-related genes influence pituitary growth and development. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2152-61 pubmed
    ..In the absence of TCF4 (Tcf7L2), Prop1 levels are elevated, pituitary hyperplasia ensues and palate closure is abnormal...
  64. Dai Z, Sun S, Wang C, Huang H, Hu X, Zhang Z, et al. Stage-specific regulation of oligodendrocyte development by Wnt/?-catenin signaling. J Neurosci. 2014;34:8467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of ?-catenin signaling instead leads to a significant delay of oligodendrocyte maturation. These findings suggest that Wnt/?-catenin pathway regulates oligodendrocyte development in a stage-dependent manner. ..
  65. Mitchell R, Mondragon A, Chen L, McGinty J, French P, Ferrer J, et al. Selective disruption of Tcf7l2 in the pancreatic β cell impairs secretory function and lowers β cell mass. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:1390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the T-cell factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene, associated with T2D by genome-wide association studies, lead to impaired β cell function...
  66. Navarro Garberi M, Bueno C, Martinez S. Wnt1 signal determines the patterning of the diencephalic dorso-ventral axis. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:3693-708 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrated that Bmp4 signal induces Wnt1 expression in the diencephalon, unraveling a new molecular regulatory code downstream of primary dorsalizing signals to control ventral regionalization in the diencephalon. ..
  67. Paek H, Antoine M, Diaz F, Hebert J. Increased ?-catenin activity in the anterior neural plate induces ectopic mid-hindbrain characteristics. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:242-6 pubmed publisher
  68. Nagalski A, Irimia M, Szewczyk L, Ferran J, Misztal K, Kuznicki J, et al. Postnatal isoform switch and protein localization of LEF1 and TCF7L2 transcription factors in cortical, thalamic, and mesencephalic regions of the adult mouse brain. Brain Struct Funct. 2013;218:1531-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected LEF1 and TCF7L2 proteins in neurons of the thalamus and dorsal midbrain, i.e...
  69. Suda Y, Hossain Z, Kobayashi C, Hatano O, Yoshida M, Matsuo I, et al. Emx2 directs the development of diencephalon in cooperation with Otx2. Development. 2001;128:2433-50 pubmed
    ..Consequently, development of the dorsal and ventral thalamus and anterior pretectum requires cooperation between Emx2 and Otx2, whereas Emx2 expression is incompatible with development of the commissural region of the pretectum. ..
  70. Joo J, Taxter T, Munguba G, Kim Y, Dhaduvai K, Dunn N, et al. Pinin modulates expression of an intestinal homeobox gene, Cdx2, and plays an essential role for small intestinal morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;345:191-203 pubmed publisher
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