Gene Symbol: Tcf4
Description: transcription factor 4
Alias: 5730422P05Rik, ASP-I2, E2-2, E2.2, ITF-2, ITF-2b, ITF2, ME2, MITF-2A, MITF-2B, SEF-2, SEF2, SEF2-1, TFE, Tcf-4, bHLHb19, transcription factor 4, MITF-2, SL3-3 enhancer factor 2, Transcription factor 4 (Immunoglobulin transcription factor 2) (ITF-2) (MITF-2) (SL3-3 enhancer factor 2) (SEF-2) (Class A helix-loop-helix transcription factor ME2), class A helix-loop-helix transcription factor ME2, immunoglobulin transcription factor-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Tcf4

Top Publications

  1. Esumi N, Kachi S, Campochiaro P, Zack D. VMD2 promoter requires two proximal E-box sites for its activity in vivo and is regulated by the MITF-TFE family. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1838-50 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we suggest that VMD2 is regulated by the MITF-TFE family through two E-boxes, with E-box 1 required for a direct interaction of MITF-TFE factors and E-box 2 for ..
  2. Nguyen H, Merrill B, Polak L, Nikolova M, Rendl M, Shaver T, et al. Tcf3 and Tcf4 are essential for long-term homeostasis of skin epithelia. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We have discovered that embryonic progenitor cells and postnatal hair follicle stem cells coexpress Tcf3 and Tcf4, which can act as transcriptional activators or repressors...
  3. Mahmoudi T, Boj S, Hatzis P, Li V, Taouatas N, Vries R, et al. The leukemia-associated Mllt10/Af10-Dot1l are Tcf4/?-catenin coactivators essential for intestinal homeostasis. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000539 pubmed publisher
    ..maintains the undifferentiated state of intestinal crypt progenitor cells by inducing the formation of nuclear TCF4/?-catenin complexes...
  4. CISSE B, Caton M, Lehner M, Maeda T, Scheu S, Locksley R, et al. Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. Cell. 2008;135:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (E protein) E2-2/Tcf4 is preferentially expressed in murine and human PDCs...
  5. Zhuang Y, Cheng P, Weintraub H. B-lymphocyte development is regulated by the combined dosage of three basic helix-loop-helix genes, E2A, E2-2, and HEB. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2898-905 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that B-cell development is dependent not only on an essential function provided by the E2A gene but also on a combined dosage set by E2A, E2-2, and HEB. ..
  6. Ghosh H, CISSE B, Bunin A, Lewis K, Reizis B. Continuous expression of the transcription factor e2-2 maintains the cell fate of mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunity. 2010;33:905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, E2-2 actively maintains the cell fate of mature pDCs and opposes the "default" cDC fate, in part through direct regulation of lineage-specific gene expression programs. ..
  7. Sobrado V, Moreno Bueno G, Cubillo E, Holt L, Nieto M, Portillo F, et al. The class I bHLH factors E2-2A and E2-2B regulate EMT. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the identification of class I bHLH factor E2-2 (TCF4/ITF2) as a new EMT regulator...
  8. Bergqvist I, Eriksson M, Saarikettu J, Eriksson B, Corneliussen B, Grundstrom T, et al. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E2-2 is involved in T lymphocyte development. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:2857-63 pubmed
    ..The block in T cell development appears to occur at an early stage in differentiation, since skewing in the mosaicism is observed already in CD4+8+ double-positive thymocytes. ..
  9. Korinek V, Barker N, Moerer P, van Donselaar E, Huls G, Peters P, et al. Depletion of epithelial stem-cell compartments in the small intestine of mice lacking Tcf-4. Nat Genet. 1998;19:379-83 pubmed
    ..The constitutive activity of Tcf-4 in APC-deficient human epithelial cells may contribute to their malignant transformation by maintaining stem-cell characteristics. ..

More Information


  1. Song L, Gelmann E. Silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and nuclear receptor corepressor attenuate transcriptional activation by the beta-catenin-TCF4 complex. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25988-99 pubmed publisher
    ..and the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) are negative regulators of transcription induced by the beta-catenin-TCF4 complex...
  2. Cervantes Barragan L, Lewis K, Firner S, Thiel V, Hugues S, Reith W, et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells control T-cell response to chronic viral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3012-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus pDCs provide an essential link between innate and adaptive immunity to chronic viral infection, likely through the secretion of IFN-I and other cytokines. ..
  3. Bar On L, Birnberg T, Lewis K, Edelson B, Bruder D, Hildner K, et al. CX3CR1+ CD8alpha+ dendritic cells are a steady-state population related to plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14745-50 pubmed publisher
  4. Gloury R, Zotos D, Zuidscherwoude M, Masson F, Liao Y, Hasbold J, et al. Dynamic changes in Id3 and E-protein activity orchestrate germinal center and plasma cell development. J Exp Med. 2016;213:1095-111 pubmed publisher
  5. Ramalho Santos M, Melton D, McMahon A. Hedgehog signals regulate multiple aspects of gastrointestinal development. Development. 2000;127:2763-72 pubmed
    ..These results show that Hedgehog signals are essential for organogenesis of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and suggest that mutations in members of this signaling pathway may be involved in human gastrointestinal malformations. ..
  6. Brzózka M, Rossner M. Deficits in trace fear memory in a mouse model of the schizophrenia risk gene TCF4. Behav Brain Res. 2013;237:348-56 pubmed publisher
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor TCF4 was confirmed in the combined analysis of several large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as one of the rare highly replicated significant schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility ..
  7. Zhao L, Zevallos S, Rizzoti K, Jeong Y, Lovell Badge R, Epstein D. Disruption of SoxB1-dependent Sonic hedgehog expression in the hypothalamus causes septo-optic dysplasia. Dev Cell. 2012;22:585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that reduced levels of Shh expression in the hypothalamus cause SOD. ..
  8. Lei Q, Jeong Y, Misra K, Li S, Zelman A, Epstein D, et al. Wnt signaling inhibitors regulate the transcriptional response to morphogenetic Shh-Gli signaling in the neural tube. Dev Cell. 2006;11:325-37 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the dorsal limit of Nkx2.2 is controlled by Tcf4-mediated transcriptional repression, and not by a direct requirement for high-level Shh-Gli signaling, arguing ..
  9. Liu X, Luo M, Xie W, Wells J, Goodheart M, Engelhardt J. Sox17 modulates Wnt3A/beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of the Lef-1 promoter. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L694-710 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, transcription of the Lef-1 gene is increased by Wnt-mediated TCF4/?-catenin activation on the Lef-1 promoter through mechanisms that remain poorly defined...
  10. Beildeck M, Islam M, Shah S, Welsh J, Byers S. Control of TCF-4 expression by VDR and vitamin D in the mouse mammary gland and colorectal cancer cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7872 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, we conclude that the 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR-mediated increase in TCF-4 may have a protective role in colon cancer as well as diabetes and Crohn's disease. ..
  11. Joo J, Taxter T, Munguba G, Kim Y, Dhaduvai K, Dunn N, et al. Pinin modulates expression of an intestinal homeobox gene, Cdx2, and plays an essential role for small intestinal morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;345:191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..observed upregulated Tcf/Lef reporter activity, as well as misregulated expression/distribution of beta-catenin and Tcf4. Since regulation of Cdx gene expression has been closely linked to Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activity, we ..
  12. Neuman T, Keen A, Knapik E, Shain D, Ross M, Nornes H, et al. ME1 and GE1: basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors expressed at high levels in the developing nervous system and in morphogenetically active regions. Eur J Neurosci. 1993;5:311-8 pubmed
    ..The cloned cDNAs (ME1, ME2, ME3, ME4, in the mouse and GE1, GE2 in the chick) have HLH coding regions highly homologous to other known class A ..
  13. Kang X, Hou A, Wang R, Liu D, Xiang W, Xie Q, et al. Macrophage TCF-4 co-activates p65 to potentiate chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016;130:1257-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Transcription factor 4 (TCF-4) was recently identified as a candidate gene for the cause of type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated...
  14. Schuijers J, Mokry M, Hatzis P, Cuppen E, Clevers H. Wnt-induced transcriptional activation is exclusively mediated by TCF/LEF. EMBO J. 2014;33:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The first class represents the majority of the DNA-bound ?-catenin and co-localizes with TCF4, the prominent TCF/LEF family member in these cells...
  15. Wallmen B, Schrempp M, Hecht A. Intrinsic properties of Tcf1 and Tcf4 splice variants determine cell-type-specific Wnt/?-catenin target gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9455-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we show that induction of a subset of Wnt/?-catenin targets in embryonic stem cells depends on Tcf1 and Tcf4, whereas other co-expressed Tcf/Lef family members cannot induce these targets...
  16. Zhang L, Yu Y, Xia X, Ma Y, Chen X, Ni Z, et al. Transcription factor E2-2 inhibits the proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells by suppressing autophagy. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:1254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study revealed that E2-2 regulated EPC autophagy via mediating ATG7 expression. We conclude that E2-2 inhibited EPC proliferation via suppressing their autophagy, and E2-2 regulated EPC autophagy by mediating the expression of ATG7. ..
  17. Günther S, Mielcarek M, Kruger M, Braun T. VITO-1 is an essential cofactor of TEF1-dependent muscle-specific gene regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:791-802 pubmed
    ..We conclude that VITO-1 is a crucial new cofactor of the muscle regulatory programme. ..
  18. Singh R, Bhasin S, Braga M, Artaza J, Pervin S, Taylor W, et al. Regulation of myogenic differentiation by androgens: cross talk between androgen receptor/ beta-catenin and follistatin/transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest the involvement of AR, beta-catenin, and TCF-4 pathway during androgen action to activate a number of Wnt target genes, including Fst, and cross communication with the Smad signaling pathway. ..
  19. Skerjanc I, Truong J, Filion P, McBurney M. A splice variant of the ITF-2 transcript encodes a transcription factor that inhibits MyoD activity. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:3555-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, differentially spliced transcripts of mouse ITF-2 encode different proteins that appear to dimerize with MyoD and activate or repress transcription. ..
  20. Rannals M, Hamersky G, Page S, Campbell M, Briley A, Gallo R, et al. Psychiatric Risk Gene Transcription Factor 4 Regulates Intrinsic Excitability of Prefrontal Neurons via Repression of SCN10a and KCNQ1. Neuron. 2016;90:43-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Transcription Factor 4 (TCF4) is a clinically pleiotropic gene associated with schizophrenia and Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)...
  21. Sisirak V, Ganguly D, Lewis K, Couillault C, Tanaka L, Bolland S, et al. Genetic evidence for the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1969-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We addressed this question by reducing gene dosage of the pDC-specific transcription factor E2-2 (Tcf4), which causes a specific impairment of pDC function in otherwise normal animals...
  22. Daugherty R, Serebryannyy L, Yemelyanov A, Flozak A, Yu H, Kosak S, et al. ?-Catenin is an inhibitor of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:5260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that ?-cat may limit gene expression by affecting nuclear actin organization. ..
  23. Kardon G, Harfe B, Tabin C. A Tcf4-positive mesodermal population provides a prepattern for vertebrate limb muscle patterning. Dev Cell. 2003;5:937-44 pubmed
    ..of lateral plate-derived limb mesodermal cells in both chick and mouse that expresses the transcription factor Tcf4 in a muscle-specific pattern independently of the muscle cells themselves...
  24. Wikström I, Forssell J, Goncalves M, Colucci F, Holmberg D. E2-2 regulates the expansion of pro-B cells and follicular versus marginal zone decisions. J Immunol. 2006;177:6723-9 pubmed
    ..Although E2A mRNA showed a similar tendency, the difference was not significant. Collectively, our findings indicate that E2-2 is required for optimal expansion of pro-B cells, and also influences the follicular vs MZ decision. ..
  25. Xu P, Grueter B, Britt J, McDaniel L, Huntington P, Hodge R, et al. Double deletion of melanocortin 4 receptors and SAPAP3 corrects compulsive behavior and obesity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of both compulsive behavior and eating disorders. ..
  26. Gu B, Sun P, Yuan Y, Moraes R, Li A, Teng A, et al. Pygo2 expands mammary progenitor cells by facilitating histone H3 K4 methylation. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:811-26 pubmed publisher
  27. Evans P, Chen X, Zhang W, Liu C. KLF4 interacts with beta-catenin/TCF4 and blocks p300/CBP recruitment by beta-catenin. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:372-81 pubmed publisher then free to enter the nucleus and activate transcription through its interaction with the transcription factor TCF4. Our laboratory recently found that KLF4, a transcription factor highly expressed in the adult intestine and ..
  28. Pscherer A, Dörflinger U, Kirfel J, Gawlas K, Ruschoff J, Buettner R, et al. The helix-loop-helix transcription factor SEF-2 regulates the activity of a novel initiator element in the promoter of the human somatostatin receptor II gene. EMBO J. 1996;15:6680-90 pubmed
    ..In summary, the SSTR2inr represents a novel type of initiator element that confers gene expression in the absence of a TATA-box or binding sites for other known initiator factors, like YY-1 or USF. ..
  29. Loveys D, Streiff M, Kato G. E2A basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors are negatively regulated by serum growth factors and by the Id3 protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2813-20 pubmed
    ..These observations extend the role of Id3 in the functional antagonism of E2A-class transcription factors, and suggest that E2A proteins may mediate growth inhibition. ..
  30. Tanaka A, Itoh F, Nishiyama K, Takezawa T, Kurihara H, Itoh S, et al. Inhibition of endothelial cell activation by bHLH protein E2-2 and its impairment of angiogenesis. Blood. 2010;115:4138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated that E2-2 can perturb VEGFR2 expression via inhibition of VEGFR2 promoter activity. This study suggests that E2-2 can maintain EC quiescence and that Id1 can counter this effect. ..
  31. Hollis Moffatt J, Hook S, Merriman T. Colocalization of mouse autoimmune diabetes loci Idd21.1 and Idd21.2 with IDDM6 (human) and Iddm3 (rat). Diabetes. 2005;54:2820-5 pubmed
    ..1-21.2 in mouse. Further genetic localization of Idd21.1 and Idd21.2 could expedite characterization of the human IDDM6 region. ..
  32. Darido C, Buchert M, Pannequin J, Bastide P, Zalzali H, Mantamadiotis T, et al. Defective claudin-7 regulation by Tcf-4 and Sox-9 disrupts the polarity and increases the tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4258-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This negative regulation seems to be defective in CRC, possibly due to decreased Sox-9 activity, and the resulting claudin-7 overexpression promotes a loss of tumor cell polarization and contributes to tumorigenesis. ..
  33. Zhuang Y, Soriano P, Weintraub H. The helix-loop-helix gene E2A is required for B cell formation. Cell. 1994;79:875-84 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, heterozygous embryos contain, on average, about half as many B cells as wild-type embryos, suggesting the existence of a counting mechanism that translates levels of E2A into numbers of B cells. ..
  34. Castano Betancourt M, Cailotto F, Kerkhof H, Cornelis F, Doherty S, Hart D, et al. Genome-wide association and functional studies identify the DOT1L gene to be involved in cartilage thickness and hip osteoarthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are a further step to better understand the role of Wnt-signaling during chondrogenesis and cartilage homeostasis. DOT1L may represent a therapeutic target for OA. ..
  35. Cai X, Zhang W, Hu J, Zhang L, Sultana N, Wu B, et al. Tbx20 acts upstream of Wnt signaling to regulate endocardial cushion formation and valve remodeling during mouse cardiogenesis. Development. 2013;140:3176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests a model in which Tbx20 regulates the Wnt pathway to direct endocardial cushion maturation and valve elongation, and provides new insights into the etiology of valve defects in humans. ..
  36. Wang H, He L, Ma F, Regan M, Balk S, Richardson A, et al. SOX9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) expression and Wnt/?-catenin activation in breast cancer. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..expression profiling strongly associated SOX9 with the expression of Wnt/?-catenin pathway components, LRP6 and TCF4. In cancer cell lines, SOX9 silencing reduced cell proliferation and invasion, LRP6 and TCF4 transcription, and ..
  37. Williamson C, Dutton E, Abbott C, Beechey C, Ball S, Peters J. Thirteen genes (Cebpb, E2f1, Tcf4, Cyp24, Pck1, Acra4, Edn3, Kcnb1, Mc3r, Ntsr, Cd40, Plcg1 and Rcad) that probably lie in the distal imprinting region of mouse chromosome 2 are not monoallelically expressed. Genet Res. 1995;65:83-93 pubmed
    ..These included 3 genes (Cebpb, E2f1 and Tcf4) that express transcription factors, 2 genes (Cyp24 and Pck1) that are involved in growth, 5 genes (Acra4, Edn3, ..
  38. Gougelet A, Torre C, Veber P, Sartor C, Bachelot L, Denechaud P, et al. T-cell factor 4 and ?-catenin chromatin occupancies pattern zonal liver metabolism in mice. Hepatology. 2014;59:2344-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we find the drug/bile metabolism pathway to be the one most heavily targeted by ?-catenin, partly through xenobiotic nuclear receptors...
  39. Schmidt Edelkraut U, Daniel G, Hoffmann A, Spengler D. Zac1 regulates cell cycle arrest in neuronal progenitors via Tcf4. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1020-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified the bHLH factor gene Tcf4 as a direct target gene of Zac1/Plagl1, a maternally imprinted transcriptional regulator, during early neurogenesis...
  40. Sage A, Murphy D, Maffia P, Masters L, Sabir S, Baker L, et al. MHC Class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives proatherogenic T cell immunity. Circulation. 2014;130:1363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective pDC deficiency in vivo was achieved using CD11c-Cre × Tcf4(-/flox) bone marrow transplanted into Ldlr(-/-) mice...
  41. Grajkowska L, Ceribelli M, Lau C, Warren M, Tiniakou I, Nakandakari Higa S, et al. Isoform-Specific Expression and Feedback Regulation of E Protein TCF4 Control Dendritic Cell Lineage Specification. Immunity. 2017;46:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and antigen-presenting classical DC (cDC) is controlled by the E protein transcription factor TCF4 (E2-2)...
  42. Yoon J, Moon R, Wold B. The bHLH class protein pMesogenin1 can specify paraxial mesoderm phenotypes. Dev Biol. 2000;222:376-91 pubmed
  43. Nagai K. Molecular evolution of Sry and Sox gene. Gene. 2001;270:161-9 pubmed
    ..This rapid evolution of Sry might agree with the fact that the Srys are present not on the pseudoautosomal region but on the distal region with no recombination of the Y chromosomal short arm. ..
  44. Kanamori M, Sandy P, Marzinotto S, Benetti R, Kai C, Hayashizaki Y, et al. The PDZ protein tax-interacting protein-1 inhibits beta-catenin transcriptional activity and growth of colorectal cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38758-64 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that TIP-1 may represent a novel regulatory element in the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  45. Chen B, Lim R. Physical and functional interactions between the transcriptional inhibitors Id3 and ITF-2b. Evidence toward a novel mechanism regulating muscle-specific gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2459-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this study reveals a more complex pattern of regulatory interactions involving the helix-loop-helix proteins than was previously anticipated. ..
  46. Kudo L, Karsten S, Chen J, Levitt P, Geschwind D. Genetic analysis of anterior posterior expression gradients in the developing mammalian forebrain. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2108-22 pubmed
    ..These data provide an important set of new candidates for studies of cortical patterning and maturation. ..
  47. Thaxton C, KLOTH A, Clark E, Moy S, Chitwood R, Philpot B. Common Pathophysiology in Multiple Mouse Models of Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome. J Neurosci. 2018;38:918-936 pubmed publisher
    Mutations or deletions of the transcription factor TCF4 are linked to Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) and schizophrenia, suggesting that the precise pathogenic mutations dictate cellular, synaptic, and behavioral consequences...
  48. Parr C, Mirzaei N, Christian M, Sastre M. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway represses the transcription of the β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1) via binding of T-cell factor-4 to BACE1 promoter. FASEB J. 2015;29:623-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, TCF4 knockdown reversed the effects of Wnt3a activation on BACE1 transcription...
  49. Merrell A, Ellis B, Fox Z, Lawson J, Weiss J, Kardon G. Muscle connective tissue controls development of the diaphragm and is a source of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Nat Genet. 2015;47:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the PPFs and muscle connective tissue are critical for diaphragm development, and mutations in PPF-derived fibroblasts are a source of CDH. ..
  50. Grill J, Herbst A, Brandl L, Kong L, Schneider M, Kirchner T, et al. Inactivation of Itf2 promotes intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;461:249-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that levels of ITF-2B, encoded by the β-catenin target gene ITF2 that is located on the tumor suppressor gene locus 18q21, are increased in colonic adenomas with deregulated β-..
  51. Kaaij L, van de Wetering M, Fang F, Decato B, Molaro A, van de Werken H, et al. DNA methylation dynamics during intestinal stem cell differentiation reveals enhancers driving gene expression in the villus. Genome Biol. 2013;14:R50 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that binding of the transcription factor Tcf4 correlates with hypo-methylation and demonstrate that Tcf4 is one of the factors contributing to formation of ..
  52. Li H, Yang C, Nallaparaju K, Zhang H, Liu Y, Goldrath A, et al. The signal transducers STAT5 and STAT3 control expression of Id2 and E2-2 during dendritic cell development. Blood. 2012;120:4363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, STAT3 stimulates Flt3L-responsive expression of the pDC regulator Tcf4 (E2-2)...
  53. Nielsen A, Clark M, Taylor B, Jorgensen P, Hjorth J. ALF1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, maps to mouse chromosome 9. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:244 pubmed
  54. Brown A, Salerno D, Sadras T, Engler G, Kok C, Wilkinson C, et al. The GM-CSF receptor utilizes ?-catenin and Tcf4 to specify macrophage lineage differentiation. Differentiation. 2012;83:47-59 pubmed publisher accompanied by enhanced macrophage differentiation and accumulation of ?-catenin together with activation of Tcf4 and other Wnt target genes. These include the known macrophage lineage inducer, Egr1...
  55. Nielsen A, Pallisgaard N, Pedersen F, Jørgensen P. Murine helix-loop-helix transcriptional activator proteins binding to the E-box motif of the Akv murine leukemia virus enhancer identified by cDNA cloning. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:3449-59 pubmed
    ..Expression in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts of GAL4-ALF1 chimeric protein stimulated expression from a minimal promoter linked to a GAL4 binding site, indicating the existence of a transcriptional activator domain in ALF1. ..
  56. Fehrenschild D, Galli U, Breiden B, Bloch W, Schettina P, Brodesser S, et al. TCF/Lef1-mediated control of lipid metabolism regulates skin barrier function. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that functional TCF/Lef1 signaling governs important aspects of epidermal differentiation and lipid metabolism, thereby regulating skin barrier function. ..
  57. Yan W, Young A, Soares V, Kelley R, Benezra R, Zhuang Y. High incidence of T-cell tumors in E2A-null mice and E2A/Id1 double-knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:7317-27 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that E2A may be essential for maintaining the homeostasis of T lymphocytes during their constant renewal in adult life. ..
  58. Hansen L, Schmidt Christensen A, Gupta S, Fransén Pettersson N, Hannibal T, Reizis B, et al. E2-2 Dependent Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Control Autoimmune Diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144090 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations demonstrate a disease-promoting role of E2-2 dependent pDCs in the pancreas during autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse. ..
  59. Slawny N, O Shea K. Dynamic changes in Wnt signaling are required for neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;48:205-16 pubmed publisher
    ..seemingly contradictory roles, we developed a mouse ESC (ESC) line that inducibly expresses a dominant negative Tcf4 (dnTcf4) protein to block canonical Wnt signaling...
  60. Mathew S, Hansen J, Merrell A, Murphy M, Lawson J, Hutcheson D, et al. Connective tissue fibroblasts and Tcf4 regulate myogenesis. Development. 2011;138:371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the transcription factor Tcf4 (transcription factor 7-like 2; Tcf7l2) is strongly expressed in connective tissue fibroblasts and that Tcf4(GFPCre)..
  61. Zhang Y, Liu C, Duan X, Ren F, Li S, Jin Z, et al. CREPT/RPRD1B, a recently identified novel protein highly expressed in tumors, enhances the ?-catenin·TCF4 transcriptional activity in response to Wnt signaling. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:22589-99 pubmed publisher
    ..CREPT participates in transcription of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling activated genes through the ?-catenin and the TCF4 complex...
  62. Roose J, Clevers H. TCF transcription factors: molecular switches in carcinogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1424:M23-37 pubmed
    ..We will discuss Tcf signaling upon interaction with different partners, resulting in activator and repressor roles of Tcf factors in the light of carcinogenic events. ..
  63. Valenta T, Lukas J, Doubravska L, Fafilek B, Korinek V. HIC1 attenuates Wnt signaling by recruitment of TCF-4 and beta-catenin to the nuclear bodies. EMBO J. 2006;25:2326-37 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the intracellular amounts of HIC1 protein can modulate the level of the transcriptional stimulation of the genes regulated by canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. ..
  64. Nateri A, Spencer Dene B, Behrens A. Interaction of phosphorylated c-Jun with TCF4 regulates intestinal cancer development. Nature. 2005;437:281-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that phosphorylated c-Jun interacts with the HMG-box transcription factor TCF4 to form a ternary complex containing c-Jun, TCF4 and beta-catenin...
  65. Witte F, Chan D, Economides A, Mundlos S, Stricker S. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) and Indian hedgehog regulate digit outgrowth mediated by the phalanx-forming region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14211-6 pubmed publisher
  66. Konig A, Gradl D, Kuhl M, Wedlich D. The HMG-box transcription factor XTcf-4 demarcates the forebrain-midbrain boundary. Mech Dev. 2000;93:211-4 pubmed
    ..The expression partially overlaps with a broad set of Xenopus Wnt family members in distinct patterns. XTcf-4 transcripts were also found partially co-localized with those of Xaxin, an intracellular antagonist of Wnt-1/Wg signaling. ..
  67. Alldredge A, Fuhrmann S. Loss of Axin2 Causes Ocular Defects During Mouse Eye Development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:5253-5262 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a critical role for Axin2 during ocular development, likely by restricting the activity of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. ..
  68. Murakami M, Kataoka K, Tominaga J, Nakagawa O, Kurihara H. Differential cooperation between dHAND and three different E-proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:168-74 pubmed
    ..dHAND as bait, which led to identification of several dHAND-binding proteins, including three E-proteins: E2A, ME2, and ALF1...
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