Gene Symbol: Tbx3
Description: T-box 3
Alias: D5Ertd189e, T-box transcription factor TBX3, T-box protein 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Tbx3

Top Publications

  1. Cho K, Kim J, Song S, Farrell E, Eblaghie M, Kim H, et al. Molecular interactions between Tbx3 and Bmp4 and a model for dorsoventral positioning of mammary gland development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16788-93 pubmed
    ..Here we focus on Bmp4 and Tbx3, a gene associated with ulnar-mammary syndrome, and compare their expression along the DV axis in relation to ..
  2. Boogerd K, Wong L, Christoffels V, Klarenbeek M, Ruijter J, Moorman A, et al. Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;78:485-93 pubmed publisher
    T-box factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 play key roles in the development of the cardiac conduction system, atrioventricular canal, and outflow tract of the heart...
  3. Horsthuis T, Buermans H, Brons J, Verkerk A, Bakker M, Wakker V, et al. Gene expression profiling of the forming atrioventricular node using a novel tbx3-based node-specific transgenic reporter. Circ Res. 2009;105:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reporter, green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by a 160-kbp bacterial artificial chromosome with Tbx3 and flanking sequences...
  4. Mesbah K, Rana M, Francou A, van Duijvenboden K, Papaioannou V, Moorman A, et al. Identification of a Tbx1/Tbx2/Tbx3 genetic pathway governing pharyngeal and arterial pole morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1217-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The T-box family members Tbx2 and Tbx3 are individually required in regulating aspects of OFT and pharyngeal development...
  5. Pereira L, Wong M, Lim S, Sides A, Stanley E, Elefanty A. Brachyury and related Tbx proteins interact with the Mixl1 homeodomain protein and negatively regulate Mixl1 transcriptional activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28394 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the activity of Mixl1 can be modulated by protein-protein interactions and that T-box factors can function as negative regulators of Mixl1 activity. ..
  6. van den Boogaard M, Wong L, Tessadori F, Bakker M, Dreizehnter L, Wakker V, et al. Genetic variation in T-box binding element functionally affects SCN5A/SCN10A enhancer. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we assessed the genome-wide occupation of conduction system-regulating transcription factors TBX3, NKX2-5, and GATA4 and of enhancer-associated coactivator p300 in the mouse heart, uncovering cardiac enhancers ..
  7. Carlson H, Ota S, Song Y, Chen Y, Hurlin P. Tbx3 impinges on the p53 pathway to suppress apoptosis, facilitate cell transformation and block myogenic differentiation. Oncogene. 2002;21:3827-35 pubmed
    b>Tbx3 is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors...
  8. Tümpel S, Sanz Ezquerro J, Isaac A, Eblaghie M, Dobson J, Tickle C. Regulation of Tbx3 expression by anteroposterior signalling in vertebrate limb development. Dev Biol. 2002;250:251-62 pubmed
    b>Tbx3, a T-box gene family member related to the Drosophila gene optomotor blind (omb) and encoding a transcription factor, is expressed in anterior and posterior stripes in developing chick limb buds...
  9. Harrelson Z, Kelly R, Goldin S, Gibson Brown J, Bollag R, Silver L, et al. Tbx2 is essential for patterning the atrioventricular canal and for morphogenesis of the outflow tract during heart development. Development. 2004;131:5041-52 pubmed

More Information


  1. Eblaghie M, Song S, Kim J, Akita K, Tickle C, Jung H. Interactions between FGF and Wnt signals and Tbx3 gene expression in mammary gland initiation in mouse embryos. J Anat. 2004;205:1-13 pubmed
    ..Here we explore how these genes act together in mammary gland initiation. We compared expression of Tbx3, the gene associated with the human condition ulnar-mammary syndrome, expression of the gene encoding the dual-..
  2. Liu J, Esmailpour T, Shang X, Gulsen G, LIU A, Huang T. TBX3 over-expression causes mammary gland hyperplasia and increases mammary stem-like cells in an inducible transgenic mouse model. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:65 pubmed publisher
    The T-box transcription factor TBX3 is necessary for early embryonic development and for the normal development of the mammary gland...
  3. Mommersteeg M, Hoogaars W, Prall O, de Gier de Vries C, Wiese C, Clout D, et al. Molecular pathway for the localized formation of the sinoatrial node. Circ Res. 2007;100:354-62 pubmed
    ..of the heart tube matures, Nkx2-5 suppresses pacemaker channel gene Hcn4 and T-box transcription factor gene Tbx3, thereby enforcing a progressive confinement of their expression to the forming Nkx2-5-negative sinoatrial node and ..
  4. Ribeiro I, Kawakami Y, Buscher D, Raya A, Rodriguez Leon J, Morita M, et al. Tbx2 and Tbx3 regulate the dynamics of cell proliferation during heart remodeling. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e398 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we characterize the heart phenotype of a novel Tbx3 mutation in mice and show that both the control of cell proliferation and the repression of chamber-specific ..
  5. Hoogaars W, Barnett P, Rodriguez M, Clout D, Moorman A, Goding C, et al. TBX3 and its splice variant TBX3 + exon 2a are functionally similar. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2008;21:379-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Tbx3, a member of the conserved family of T-box developmental transcription factors, is a transcriptional repressor required during cardiogenesis for the formation and specification of the sinoatrial node, the pacemaker of the heart...
  6. Howard B, Panchal H, McCarthy A, Ashworth A. Identification of the scaramanga gene implicates Neuregulin3 in mammary gland specification. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2078-90 pubmed
  7. Cai C, Zhou W, Yang L, Bu L, Qyang Y, Zhang X, et al. T-box genes coordinate regional rates of proliferation and regional specification during cardiogenesis. Development. 2005;132:2475-87 pubmed
  8. Douglas N, Papaioannou V. The T-box transcription factors TBX2 and TBX3 in mammary gland development and breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2013;18:143-7 pubmed publisher
    TBX2 and TBX3, closely related members of the T-box family of transcription factor genes, are expressed in mammary tissue in both humans and mice...
  9. Wang J, Klysik E, Sood S, Johnson R, Wehrens X, Martin J. Pitx2 prevents susceptibility to atrial arrhythmias by inhibiting left-sided pacemaker specification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9753-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate Pitx2 and Pitx2-mediated LRA-signaling pathways in prevention of atrial arrhythmias. ..
  10. Lu R, Yang A, Jin Y. Dual functions of T-box 3 (Tbx3) in the control of self-renewal and extraembryonic endoderm differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the essential role of Tbx3, a pluripotency-related transcription factor of the T-box gene family, for both the maintenance of self-renewal of ..
  11. Chapman D, Garvey N, Hancock S, Alexiou M, Agulnik S, Gibson Brown J, et al. Expression of the T-box family genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, during early mouse development. Dev Dyn. 1996;206:379-90 pubmed
    ..b>Tbx3 is expressed earliest, in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst...
  12. Bakker M, Boukens B, Mommersteeg M, Brons J, Wakker V, Moorman A, et al. Transcription factor Tbx3 is required for the specification of the atrioventricular conduction system. Circ Res. 2008;102:1340-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The conduction system expresses the transcriptional repressor Tbx3, which is required for vertebrate development and controls the formation of the sinus node...
  13. Mesbah K, Harrelson Z, Théveniau Ruissy M, Papaioannou V, Kelly R. Tbx3 is required for outflow tract development. Circ Res. 2008;103:743-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tbx3 encodes a T-box-containing transcription factor expressed in the developing conduction system of the heart...
  14. Lüdtke T, Christoffels V, Petry M, Kispert A. Tbx3 promotes liver bud expansion during mouse development by suppression of cholangiocyte differentiation. Hepatology. 2009;49:969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that in the mouse the transcriptional repressor Tbx3, a member of the T-box protein family, is required for the transition from a hepatic diverticulum with a pseudo-..
  15. Mommersteeg M, Domínguez J, Wiese C, Norden J, de Gier de Vries C, Burch J, et al. The sinus venosus progenitors separate and diversify from the first and second heart fields early in development. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..After patterning of the cardiogenic mesoderm, this progenitor population remains spatially separated and genetically distinctive from the second heart field subpopulation. ..
  16. Behesti H, Holt J, Sowden J. The level of BMP4 signaling is critical for the regulation of distinct T-box gene expression domains and growth along the dorso-ventral axis of the optic cup. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:62 pubmed
    ..It is not known whether the Tbx5 related genes, Tbx2 and Tbx3, are BMP4 targets in the mammalian retina and whether BMP4 acts at a distance from its site of expression...
  17. Lee J, Kim J, Cho K, Lee M, Cho S, Zhang Y, et al. Modulation of cell proliferation during palatogenesis by the interplay between Tbx3 and Bmp4. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:285-92 pubmed
    ..In particular, the expression patterns of Tbx3 and Bmp4, which are colocalized at embryonic day 13.5 (E13...
  18. Bamshad M, Lin R, Law D, Watkins W, Krakowiak P, Moore M, et al. Mutations in human TBX3 alter limb, apocrine and genital development in ulnar-mammary syndrome. Nat Genet. 1997;16:311-5 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that mutations in human TBX3, a member of the T-box gene family, cause ulnar-mammary syndrome in two families...
  19. Sowden J, Holt J, Meins M, Smith H, Bhattacharya S. Expression of Drosophila omb-related T-box genes in the developing human and mouse neural retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:3095-102 pubmed
    ..Mouse Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx5 and human TBX2 cDNAs were isolated from retinal cDNA libraries by hybridization to the Drosophila omb ..
  20. Brummelkamp T, Kortlever R, Lingbeek M, Trettel F, MacDonald M, Van Lohuizen M, et al. TBX-3, the gene mutated in Ulnar-Mammary Syndrome, is a negative regulator of p19ARF and inhibits senescence. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6567-72 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the hypoproliferative features of this genetic disorder may be caused, at least in part, by deregulated expression of p14(ARF). ..
  21. Naiche L, Papaioannou V. Loss of Tbx4 blocks hindlimb development and affects vascularization and fusion of the allantois. Development. 2003;130:2681-93 pubmed
  22. Jerome Majewska L, Jenkins G, Ernstoff E, Zindy F, Sherr C, Papaioannou V. Tbx3, the ulnar-mammary syndrome gene, and Tbx2 interact in mammary gland development through a p19Arf/p53-independent pathway. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:922-33 pubmed
    The closely related T-box genes Tbx2 and Tbx3 are both expressed in the developing mammary glands of mouse embryos and both have been implicated in mammary carcinogenesis. Tbx3 is essential for induction of the mammary placodes in mice...
  23. Yang L, Cai C, Lin L, Qyang Y, Chung C, Monteiro R, et al. Isl1Cre reveals a common Bmp pathway in heart and limb development. Development. 2006;133:1575-85 pubmed
    ..Bmp signaling in Isl1-expressing progenitors is required for expression of T-box transcription factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 in heart and limb. Tbx3 is required for heart and limb formation, and is mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome...
  24. Nowotschin S, Liao J, Gage P, Epstein J, Campione M, Morrow B. Tbx1 affects asymmetric cardiac morphogenesis by regulating Pitx2 in the secondary heart field. Development. 2006;133:1565-73 pubmed
    ..5. The results presented in this study unravel a novel Tbx1-Pitx2 pathway linking Tbx1 to asymmetric cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  25. Hoogaars W, Tessari A, Moorman A, de Boer P, Hagoort J, Soufan A, et al. The transcriptional repressor Tbx3 delineates the developing central conduction system of the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;62:489-99 pubmed
    ..We studied the developmental expression pattern and functional aspects of the T-box transcription factor Tbx3, a novel marker for the murine central conduction system (CCS)...
  26. Suzuki T, Takeuchi J, Koshiba Takeuchi K, Ogura T. Tbx Genes Specify Posterior Digit Identity through Shh and BMP Signaling. Dev Cell. 2004;6:43-53 pubmed
    ..Using the four-digit chick leg as a model, we report here that Tbx2 and Tbx3 specify the digit identities of digits IV and III, respectively...
  27. Frank D, Carter K, Thomas K, Burr R, Bakker M, Coetzee W, et al. Lethal arrhythmias in Tbx3-deficient mice reveal extreme dosage sensitivity of cardiac conduction system function and homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E154-63 pubmed publisher
    b>TBX3 is critical for human development: mutations in TBX3 cause congenital anomalies in patients with ulnar-mammary syndrome...
  28. Davenport T, Jerome Majewska L, Papaioannou V. Mammary gland, limb and yolk sac defects in mice lacking Tbx3, the gene mutated in human ulnar mammary syndrome. Development. 2003;130:2263-73 pubmed
    Spontanteous mutations in the T-box gene TBX3, result in the human ulnar-mammary syndrome, a dominant developmental disorder characterized by abnormal forelimb and apocrine gland development...
  29. Platonova N, Scotti M, Babich P, Bertoli G, Mento E, Meneghini V, et al. TBX3, the gene mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome, promotes growth of mammary epithelial cells via repression of p19ARF, independently of p53. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;328:301-16 pubmed
    b>TBX3, the gene mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS), is involved in the production of a transcription factor of the T-box family, known to inhibit transcription from the p14ARF (p19ARF in mouse) promoter in fibroblasts and to ..
  30. Han J, Yuan P, Yang H, Zhang J, Soh B, Li P, et al. Tbx3 improves the germ-line competency of induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature. 2010;463:1096-100 pubmed publisher
    ..roles in pluripotency and fusion-mediated somatic cell reprogramming, here we show that the transcription factor Tbx3 significantly improves the quality of iPS cells...
  31. Eriksson K, Mignot E. T-box 3 is expressed in the adult mouse hypothalamus and medulla. Brain Res. 2009;1302:233-9 pubmed publisher
    Using microarray analysis, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, we found that the transcription factor TBX3 is produced in three discrete neuronal populations of the adult mouse brain, the arcuate nucleus (including in NPY but ..
  32. Chapman D, Agulnik I, Hancock S, Silver L, Papaioannou V. Tbx6, a mouse T-Box gene implicated in paraxial mesoderm formation at gastrulation. Dev Biol. 1996;180:534-42 pubmed
    ..5 days postcoitus, indicating that the continued expression of Tbx6 is directly or indirectly dependent upon Brachyury expression. ..
  33. Weidgang C, Russell R, Tata P, Kühl S, Illing A, Muller M, et al. TBX3 Directs Cell-Fate Decision toward Mesendoderm. Stem Cell Reports. 2013;1:248-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The T-box transcription factor TBX3 has been implicated in regulating embryonic stem cell self-renewal and cardiogenesis...
  34. Agulnik S, Garvey N, Hancock S, Ruvinsky I, Chapman D, Agulnik I, et al. Evolution of mouse T-box genes by tandem duplication and cluster dispersion. Genetics. 1996;144:249-54 pubmed
    ..This analysis suggests that Tbx4 and Tbx5 are cognate genes that diverged apart from a common ancestral gene during early vertebrate evolution. ..
  35. Kartikasari A, Zhou J, Kanji M, Chan D, Sinha A, Grapin Botton A, et al. The histone demethylase Jmjd3 sequentially associates with the transcription factors Tbx3 and Eomes to drive endoderm differentiation. EMBO J. 2013;32:1393-408 pubmed publisher
    ..During early differentiation steps, the ES cell factor Tbx3 associates with the histone demethylase Jmjd3 at the enhancer element of the Eomes locus to allow enhancer-promoter ..
  36. Frank D, Emechebe U, Thomas K, Moon A. Mouse TBX3 mutants suggest novel molecular mechanisms for Ulnar-mammary syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67841 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor TBX3 plays critical roles in development and TBX3 mutations in humans cause Ulnar-mammary syndrome...
  37. Tessari A, Pietrobon M, Notte A, Cifelli G, Gage P, Schneider M, et al. Myocardial Pitx2 differentially regulates the left atrial identity and ventricular asymmetric remodeling programs. Circ Res. 2008;102:813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence for distinct Pitx2 action in mediating L/R atrial identity and asymmetrical ventricular remodeling. ..
  38. Zhu J, Nakamura E, Nguyen M, Bao X, Akiyama H, Mackem S. Uncoupling Sonic hedgehog control of pattern and expansion of the developing limb bud. Dev Cell. 2008;14:624-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The progressive loss of digits upon successively earlier Shh removal mirrors this alternating sequence and highlights Shh's role in cell expansion to produce the normal digit complement. ..
  39. Davis S, Castinetti F, Carvalho L, Ellsworth B, Potok M, Lyons R, et al. Molecular mechanisms of pituitary organogenesis: In search of novel regulatory genes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;323:4-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified numerous transcription factors that are members of gene families with roles in syndromic or non-syndromic pituitary hormone deficiency. This collection is a rich source for future basic and clinical studies. ..
  40. Wiese C, Grieskamp T, Airik R, Mommersteeg M, Gardiwal A, de Gier de Vries C, et al. Formation of the sinus node head and differentiation of sinus node myocardium are independently regulated by Tbx18 and Tbx3. Circ Res. 2009;104:388-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Tbx3-deficient embryos formed a morphologically normal SAN, which, however, aberrantly expressed Cx40 and other atrial ..
  41. Waghray A, Saiz N, Jayaprakash A, Freire A, Papatsenko D, Pereira C, et al. Tbx3 Controls Dppa3 Levels and Exit from Pluripotency toward Mesoderm. Stem Cell Reports. 2015;5:97-110 pubmed publisher
    b>Tbx3, a member of the T-box family, plays important roles in development, stem cells, nuclear reprogramming, and cancer. Loss of Tbx3 induces differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
  42. Chandramouli A, Hatsell S, PINDERHUGHES A, Koetz L, Cowin P. Gli activity is critical at multiple stages of embryonic mammary and nipple development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79845 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that this early loss of Gli3 results in abnormal patterning of two critical regulators: Bmp4 and Tbx3, within the presumptive mammary rudiment (MR) #3 zone...
  43. Bollag R, Siegfried Z, Cebra Thomas J, Garvey N, Davison E, Silver L. An ancient family of embryonically expressed mouse genes sharing a conserved protein motif with the T locus. Nat Genet. 1994;7:383-9 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis suggests that at least three T-box genes were present in the common ancestor to vertebrates and invertebrates. Thus, members of the T-box family could have played a role in the evolution of all metazoan organisms. ..
  44. Namba T, Sugimoto Y, Hirata M, Hayashi Y, Honda A, Watabe A, et al. Mouse thromboxane A2 receptor: cDNA cloning, expression and northern blot analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;184:1197-203 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis demonstrated that thromboxane A2 receptor mRNA is expressed abundantly in thymus, spleen and lung. ..
  45. DeLaurier A, Schweitzer R, Logan M. Pitx1 determines the morphology of muscle, tendon, and bones of the hindlimb. Dev Biol. 2006;299:22-34 pubmed
    ..In contrast, misexpression of Tbx4 in the forelimb does not result in a transformation of limb-type morphology. These results demonstrate that Pitx1, but not Tbx4, determines the morphological identity of hindlimb tissues...
  46. Begum S, Papaioannou V. Dynamic expression of Tbx2 and Tbx3 in developing mouse pancreas. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:476-83 pubmed publisher
    Tbx2 and Tbx3 are closely related members of the T-box family of transcription factors that are important regulators during normal development as well as major contributors to human developmental syndromes when mutated...
  47. Kumar P P, Emechebe U, Smith R, Franklin S, Moore B, Yandell M, et al. Coordinated control of senescence by lncRNA and a novel T-box3 co-repressor complex. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    Cellular senescence is a crucial tumor suppressor mechanism. We discovered a CAPER?/TBX3 repressor complex required to prevent senescence in primary cells and mouse embryos...
  48. Liang X, Wang G, Lin L, Lowe J, Zhang Q, Bu L, et al. HCN4 dynamically marks the first heart field and conduction system precursors. Circ Res. 2013;113:399-407 pubmed publisher
  49. Govoni K, Linares G, Chen S, Pourteymoor S, Mohan S. T-box 3 negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation by inhibiting expression of osterix and runx2. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:482-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the knowledge that mutation of the Tbx3 gene results in limb malformation, Tbx3 regulates osteoblast proliferation and its expression increases during ..
  50. Boogerd C, Wong L, van den Boogaard M, Bakker M, Tessadori F, Bakkers J, et al. Sox4 mediates Tbx3 transcriptional regulation of the gap junction protein Cx43. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:3949-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Tbx3, a T-box transcription factor, regulates key steps in development of the heart and other organ systems. Here, we identify Sox4 as an interacting partner of Tbx3...
  51. Hadsell D, Hadsell L, Olea W, Rijnkels M, Creighton C, Smyth I, et al. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci. Mamm Genome. 2015;26:57-79 pubmed publisher
    ..5 containing the genes Tbx3 and Tbx5. Intersection of linked SNP (r(2) > 0...
  52. Langer L, Taranova O, Sulik K, Pevny L. SOX2 hypomorphism disrupts development of the prechordal floor and optic cup. Mech Dev. 2012;129:1-12 pubmed publisher
  53. Aanhaanen W, Boukens B, Sizarov A, Wakker V, de Gier de Vries C, van Ginneken A, et al. Defective Tbx2-dependent patterning of the atrioventricular canal myocardium causes accessory pathway formation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:534-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that malformation of the annulus fibrosus and preexcitation arise from the disturbed development of the atrioventricular myocardium. ..
  54. Liu H, Chen C, Espinoza Lewis R, Jiao Z, Sheu I, Hu X, et al. Functional redundancy between human SHOX and mouse Shox2 genes in the regulation of sinoatrial node formation and pacemaking function. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17029-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The SHOX/Shox2 dose appears to be critical for normal pacemaking function. ..
  55. Yonei Tamura S, Tamura K, Tsukui T, Izpisua Belmonte J. Spatially and temporally-restricted expression of two T-box genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1999;80:219-21 pubmed
    ..We have identified two members of the T-box gene family from the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zf-tbr1 and zf-tbx3 share high amino acid identity with human, murine, chick and Xenopus orthologs and are expressed in specific ..
  56. Takaki S, Watts J, Forbush K, Nguyen N, Hayashi J, Alberola Ila J, et al. Characterization of Lnk. An adaptor protein expressed in lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:14562-70 pubmed
    ..Together these studies suggest that Lnk participates in signaling from receptors other than antigen receptors in lymphocytes. ..
  57. Fagman H, Amendola E, Parrillo L, Zoppoli P, Marotta P, Scarfò M, et al. Gene expression profiling at early organogenesis reveals both common and diverse mechanisms in foregut patterning. Dev Biol. 2011;359:163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..As an initial step in this direction we describe a regulatory pathway involving the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 that controls cell survival in early thyroid development. ..
  58. Ye W, Wang J, Song Y, Yu D, Sun C, Liu C, et al. A common Shox2-Nkx2-5 antagonistic mechanism primes the pacemaker cell fate in the pulmonary vein myocardium and sinoatrial node. Development. 2015;142:2521-32 pubmed publisher
  59. Liang X, Zhang Q, Cattaneo P, Zhuang S, Gong X, Spann N, et al. Transcription factor ISL1 is essential for pacemaker development and function. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3256-68 pubmed publisher
    ..several genes required for normal pacemaker function, including subunits of the L-type calcium channel, Ank2, and Tbx3. Other genes implicated in abnormal heart rhythm in humans were also direct ISL1 targets...
  60. Voss A, Vanyai H, Collin C, Dixon M, McLennan T, Sheikh B, et al. MOZ regulates the Tbx1 locus, and Moz mutation partially phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome. Dev Cell. 2012;23:652-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a molecular mechanism for a specific chromatin modification of the Tbx1 locus intersecting with an environmental determinant, modeling variability in DiGeorge syndrome. ..
  61. Tian Y, Yuan L, Goss A, Wang T, Yang J, Lepore J, et al. Characterization and in vivo pharmacological rescue of a Wnt2-Gata6 pathway required for cardiac inflow tract development. Dev Cell. 2010;18:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a molecular pathway regulating the posterior cardiac mesoderm and demonstrate that cardiovascular defects caused by loss of Wnt signaling can be rescued pharmacologically in vivo. ..
  62. Bakker M, Boink G, Boukens B, Verkerk A, van den Boogaard M, den Haan A, et al. T-box transcription factor TBX3 reprogrammes mature cardiac myocytes into pacemaker-like cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In the developing heart, transcription factor TBX3 is required for pacemaker and conduction system development...
  63. Sun C, Yu D, Ye W, Liu C, Gu S, Sinsheimer N, et al. The short stature homeobox 2 (Shox2)-bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway regulates dorsal mesenchymal protrusion development and its temporary function as a pacemaker during cardiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:2007-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, this Shox2-expressing domain possesses a pacemaker-specific genetic profile including Hcn4 and Tbx3. This genetic profile leads to nodal-like electrophysiological properties, which is gradually silenced as the AV ..