Gene Symbol: Tbx18
Description: T-box18
Alias: 2810012F10Rik, 2810404D13Rik, T-box transcription factor TBX18, T-box protein 18
Species: mouse
Products:     Tbx18

Top Publications

  1. Christoffels V, Grieskamp T, Norden J, Mommersteeg M, Rudat C, Kispert A. Tbx18 and the fate of epicardial progenitors. Nature. 2009;458:E8-9; discussion E9-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Cai et al. suggest that Tbx18-expressing epicardium provides a substantial contribution to myocytes in the ventricular septum and the atrial and ..
  2. Brade T, Kumar S, Cunningham T, Chatzi C, Zhao X, Cavallero S, et al. Retinoic acid stimulates myocardial expansion by induction of hepatic erythropoietin which activates epicardial Igf2. Development. 2011;138:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This RA-EPO-IGF2 signaling axis coordinates liver hematopoiesis with heart development. ..
  3. Norden J, Grieskamp T, Lausch E, van Wijk B, van den Hoff M, Englert C, et al. Wt1 and retinoic acid signaling in the subcoelomic mesenchyme control the development of the pleuropericardial membranes and the sinus horns. Circ Res. 2010;106:1212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results provide novel insight into the genetic and cellular pathways regulating the posterior extension of the mammalian heart and the formation of its coelomic lining. ..
  4. Li P, Cavallero S, Gu Y, Chen T, Hughes J, Hassan A, et al. IGF signaling directs ventricular cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic heart development. Development. 2011;138:1795-805 pubmed publisher
    ..5, concurrent with the establishment of coronary circulation. Our results define IGF2 as a previously unexplored epicardial mitogen that is required for normal ventricular chamber development. ..
  5. Takahashi J, Ohbayashi A, Oginuma M, Saito D, Mochizuki A, Saga Y, et al. Analysis of Ripply1/2-deficient mouse embryos reveals a mechanism underlying the rostro-caudal patterning within a somite. Dev Biol. 2010;342:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the rostro-caudal pattern is established by dynamic interaction of Notch activity with two Mesp2 domains, which are defined in successive segmentation cycles by Notch, Tbx6 and Ripply1/2...
  6. Wiese C, Grieskamp T, Airik R, Mommersteeg M, Gardiwal A, de Gier de Vries C, et al. Formation of the sinus node head and differentiation of sinus node myocardium are independently regulated by Tbx18 and Tbx3. Circ Res. 2009;104:388-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Using genetic lineage analysis and explant assays, we identified T-box transcription factor Tbx18-expressing mesenchymal progenitors in the inflow tract region that differentiate into pacemaker myocardium to form ..
  7. Cai C, Martin J, Sun Y, Cui L, Wang L, Ouyang K, et al. A myocardial lineage derives from Tbx18 epicardial cells. Nature. 2008;454:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These progenitor cells, which express the T-box transcription factor Tbx18, migrate onto the outer cardiac surface to form the epicardium, and then make a substantial contribution to ..
  8. Cordes R, Schuster Gossler K, Serth K, Gossler A. Specification of vertebral identity is coupled to Notch signalling and the segmentation clock. Development. 2004;131:1221-33 pubmed
    ..Together, these results provide genetic evidence that precisely regulated levels of Notch activity as well as cyclic Lfng activity are critical for positional specification of the anteroposterior body axis in the paraxial mesoderm. ..
  9. Katz T, Singh M, Degenhardt K, RIVERA FELICIANO J, Johnson R, Epstein J, et al. Distinct compartments of the proepicardial organ give rise to coronary vascular endothelial cells. Dev Cell. 2012;22:639-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to previously fate-mapped Tbx18/WT-1-expressing cells that give rise to vascular smooth muscle, Scx- and Sema3D-expressing proepicardial cells ..

More Information


  1. Bruggeman B, Maier J, Mohiuddin Y, Powers R, Lo Y, Guimarães Camboa N, et al. Avian intervertebral disc arises from rostral sclerotome and lacks a nucleus pulposus: implications for evolution of the vertebrate disc. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A histological analysis of mammalian and nonmammalian organisms suggests that nuclei pulposi are only present in mammals. ..
  2. Zeng B, Ren X, Cao F, Zhou X, Zhang J. Developmental patterns and characteristics of epicardial cell markers Tbx18 and Wt1 in murine embryonic heart. J Biomed Sci. 2011;18:67 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study therefore aimed to examine the the expression of Tbx18 and Wt1 in embryonic heart and to identify whether Tbx18 and Wt1 themselves expressed in the cardiomyocyte...
  3. Grieskamp T, Rudat C, Lüdtke T, Norden J, Kispert A. Notch signaling regulates smooth muscle differentiation of epicardium-derived cells. Circ Res. 2011;108:813-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a Tbx18-based genetic lineage tracing system, we show that EPDCs give rise to fibroblasts and coronary smooth muscle cells ..
  4. Feller J, Schneider A, Schuster Gossler K, Gossler A. Noncyclic Notch activity in the presomitic mesoderm demonstrates uncoupling of somite compartmentalization and boundary formation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, segmentation and anterior-posterior somite patterning can be uncoupled, differential Notch signaling is not required to form segment borders, and Notch is unlikely to be the pacemaker of the segmentation clock...
  5. Olson L, Soriano P. Increased PDGFRalpha activation disrupts connective tissue development and drives systemic fibrosis. Dev Cell. 2009;16:303-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the role of PDGFRalpha in normal connective tissue development and homeostasis and demonstrate a pivotal role for PDGFRalpha signaling in systemic fibrosis diseases. ..
  6. Farin H, Bussen M, Schmidt M, Singh M, Schuster Gossler K, Kispert A. Transcriptional repression by the T-box proteins Tbx18 and Tbx15 depends on Groucho corepressors. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25748-59 pubmed
    Tbox18 (Tbx18) and Tbox15 (Tbx15) encode a closely related pair of vertebrate-specific T-box (Tbx) transcription factors...
  7. Christoffels V, Mommersteeg M, Trowe M, Prall O, de Gier de Vries C, Soufan A, et al. Formation of the venous pole of the heart from an Nkx2-5-negative precursor population requires Tbx18. Circ Res. 2006;98:1555-63 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the sinus horns express the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18. Mice deficient for Tbx18 fail to form sinus horns from the pericardial mesenchyme and have defective caval veins, ..
  8. Clavel C, Grisanti L, Zemla R, Rezza A, Barros R, Sennett R, et al. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning BMP signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Dev Cell. 2012;23:981-94 pubmed publisher
    ..How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear. Using Tbx18(Cre) to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting ..
  9. Merki E, Zamora M, Raya A, Kawakami Y, Wang J, Zhang X, et al. Epicardial retinoid X receptor alpha is required for myocardial growth and coronary artery formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18455-60 pubmed
  10. Acharya A, Baek S, Huang G, Eskiocak B, Goetsch S, Sung C, et al. The bHLH transcription factor Tcf21 is required for lineage-specific EMT of cardiac fibroblast progenitors. Development. 2012;139:2139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate a unique role for Tcf21 in multipotent epicardial progenitors, prior to the process of EMT that is essential for cardiac fibroblast development...
  11. Dunty W, Biris K, Chalamalasetty R, Taketo M, Lewandoski M, Yamaguchi T. Wnt3a/beta-catenin signaling controls posterior body development by coordinating mesoderm formation and segmentation. Development. 2008;135:85-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wnt3a regulates somitogenesis by activating a network of interacting target genes that promote mesodermal fates, activate the segmentation clock, and position boundary determination genes in the anterior PSM. ..
  12. Bohnenpoll T, Bettenhausen E, Weiss A, Foik A, Trowe M, Blank P, et al. Tbx18 expression demarcates multipotent precursor populations in the developing urogenital system but is exclusively required within the ureteric mesenchymal lineage to suppress a renal stromal fate. Dev Biol. 2013;380:25-36 pubmed publisher
    ..to delineate sub-regions within the developing urogenital system that express the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18. We show that Tbx18 is transiently expressed in the epithelial lining and the subjacent mesenchyme of the ..
  13. Mommersteeg M, Domínguez J, Wiese C, Norden J, de Gier de Vries C, Burch J, et al. The sinus venosus progenitors separate and diversify from the first and second heart fields early in development. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..However, after the establishment of the heart tube, Tbx18(+) progenitors were proposed to form the Tbx18(+)/Nkx2-5(-) sinus venosus and proepicardium...
  14. Greulich F, Farin H, Schuster Gossler K, Kispert A. Tbx18 function in epicardial development. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;96:476-83 pubmed publisher
    ..the functional significance of the conserved epicardial expression of the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18 using transgenic technology in the mouse...
  15. Martin E, Caubit X, Airik R, Vola C, Fatmi A, Kispert A, et al. TSHZ3 and SOX9 regulate the timing of smooth muscle cell differentiation in the ureter by reducing myocardin activity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63721 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the dynamic expression of Sox9 and the interaction between TSHZ3, SOX9 and MYOCD provide a mechanism that regulates the pace of progression of the myogenic program in the ureter. ..
  16. Trowe M, Maier H, Schweizer M, Kispert A. Deafness in mice lacking the T-box transcription factor Tbx18 in otic fibrocytes. Development. 2008;135:1725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that differentiation of otic fibrocytes requires the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18. Tbx18 expression during inner ear development is restricted to the sub-region of otic mesenchyme that is fated to ..
  17. Grisanti L, Clavel C, Cai X, Rezza A, Tsai S, Sennett R, et al. Tbx18 targets dermal condensates for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation during embryonic hair follicle formation. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that T-box transcription factor Tbx18 specifically marks dermal papilla (DP) precursor cells during embryonic hair follicle morphogenesis...
  18. Bussen M, Petry M, Schuster Gossler K, Leitges M, Gossler A, Kispert A. The T-box transcription factor Tbx18 maintains the separation of anterior and posterior somite compartments. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1209-21 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that maintenance of AP-somite polarity is mediated by the T-box transcription factor Tbx18. Mice deficient for Tbx18 show expansion of pedicles with transverse processes and proximal ribs, elements derived ..
  19. Wu B, Zhang Z, Lui W, Chen X, Wang Y, Chamberlain A, et al. Endocardial cells form the coronary arteries by angiogenesis through myocardial-endocardial VEGF signaling. Cell. 2012;151:1083-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This information may help develop better cell therapies for coronary artery disease...
  20. Airik R, Bussen M, Singh M, Petry M, Kispert A. Tbx18 regulates the development of the ureteral mesenchyme. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:663-74 pubmed
    ..The gene encoding the T-box transcription factor Tbx18 was expressed in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells surrounding the distal ureter stalk...
  21. Zhou B, von Gise A, Ma Q, RIVERA FELICIANO J, Pu W. Nkx2-5- and Isl1-expressing cardiac progenitors contribute to proepicardium. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:450-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Nkx2-5- and Isl1-expressing progenitors contributed to the proepicardium and expressed Wt1 and Tbx18, markers of proepicardial progenitor cells...
  22. Nie X, Sun J, Gordon R, Cai C, Xu P. SIX1 acts synergistically with TBX18 in mediating ureteral smooth muscle formation. Development. 2010;137:755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Six1 and Tbx18 genetically interact to synergistically regulate SMC development and ureter function and that their gene products ..
  23. Kraus F, Haenig B, Kispert A. Cloning and expression analysis of the mouse T-box gene Tbx18. Mech Dev. 2001;100:83-6 pubmed
    ..In this report, we describe the cloning and expression analysis of the novel mouse T-box gene Tbx18. During development expression is most prominent in the proepicardial organ and in the epicardium of the heart...
  24. Serth K, Schuster Gossler K, Cordes R, Gossler A. Transcriptional oscillation of lunatic fringe is essential for somitogenesis. Genes Dev. 2003;17:912-25 pubmed
  25. Tessari A, Pietrobon M, Notte A, Cifelli G, Gage P, Schneider M, et al. Myocardial Pitx2 differentially regulates the left atrial identity and ventricular asymmetric remodeling programs. Circ Res. 2008;102:813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence for distinct Pitx2 action in mediating L/R atrial identity and asymmetrical ventricular remodeling. ..
  26. Red Horse K, Ueno H, Weissman I, Krasnow M. Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells. Nature. 2010;464:549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding this new reprogramming process and identifying the endogenous signals should suggest more natural ways of engineering coronary bypass grafts and revascularizing the heart. ..
  27. Norden J, Grieskamp T, Christoffels V, Moorman A, Kispert A. Partial absence of pleuropericardial membranes in Tbx18- and Wt1-deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45100 pubmed publisher
    ..We found by histological analyses that both in Tbx18- and Wt1-deficient mice the pleural and pericardial cavities communicate due to a partial absence of the ..
  28. Xu J, Nie X, Cai X, Cai C, Xu P. Tbx18 is essential for normal development of vasculature network and glomerular mesangium in the mammalian kidney. Dev Biol. 2014;391:17-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Tbx18 has been shown to be essential for ureteral development. However, it remains unclear whether it plays a direct role in kidney development...
  29. Rudat C, Norden J, Taketo M, Kispert A. Epicardial function of canonical Wnt-, Hedgehog-, Fgfr1/2-, and Pdgfra-signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a T-box 18 (Tbx18)(cre)-mediated conditional approach to delete and to stabilize, respectively, the downstream mediator of canonical ..
  30. Sasaki N, Kiso M, Kitagawa M, Saga Y. The repression of Notch signaling occurs via the destabilization of mastermind-like 1 by Mesp2 and is essential for somitogenesis. Development. 2011;138:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, this function of Mesp2 is found to be independent of its function as a transcription factor. Together, these data demonstrate that Mesp2 is a novel component involved in the suppression of Notch target genes...
  31. Biris K, Yamaguchi T. Two-color in situ hybridization of whole-mount mouse embryos. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1092:17-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this protocol, we describe a reliable method for two-color in situ hybridization that can be used to accurately assess the expression of multiple genes with contrasting or overlapping expression patterns in whole mouse embryos. ..
  32. Casanova J, Travisano S, de la Pompa J. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epicardium is independent of Snail1. Genesis. 2013;51:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the function of Snail1 in epicardial EMT, we deleted Snail1 in the epicardium using Wt1- and Tbx18-Cre drivers...
  33. Jing X, Gao Y, Xiao S, Qin Q, Wei X, Yan Y, et al. Hypoxia induced the differentiation of Tbx18-positive epicardial cells to CoSMCs. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30468 pubmed publisher
    ..The early cardiovascular system is formed in a hypoxic microenvironment, and Tbx18-positive epicardial cells are a source of CoSMCs...
  34. Guimarães Camboa N, Cattaneo P, Sun Y, Moore Morris T, Gu Y, Dalton N, et al. Pericytes of Multiple Organs Do Not Behave as Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vivo. Cell Stem Cell. 2017;20:345-359.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the transcription factor Tbx18 selectively marks pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in multiple organs of adult mouse...
  35. Kokubu C, Heinzmann U, Kokubu T, Sakai N, Kubota T, Kawai M, et al. Skeletal defects in ringelschwanz mutant mice reveal that Lrp6 is required for proper somitogenesis and osteogenesis. Development. 2004;131:5469-80 pubmed
    ..Together, we propose that Lrp6 is one of the key genetic components for the pathogenesis of vertebral segmentation defects and of osteoporosis in humans. ..
  36. Braitsch C, Combs M, Quaggin S, Yutzey K. Pod1/Tcf21 is regulated by retinoic acid signaling and inhibits differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into smooth muscle in the developing heart. Dev Biol. 2012;368:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..of the epicardium and EPDCs in chicken and mouse embryonic hearts, and the transcription factors WT1, NFATC1, and Tbx18 are expressed in overlapping and distinct subsets of Pod1-expressing cells...
  37. Tian Y, Yuan L, Goss A, Wang T, Yang J, Lepore J, et al. Characterization and in vivo pharmacological rescue of a Wnt2-Gata6 pathway required for cardiac inflow tract development. Dev Cell. 2010;18:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a molecular pathway regulating the posterior cardiac mesoderm and demonstrate that cardiovascular defects caused by loss of Wnt signaling can be rescued pharmacologically in vivo. ..
  38. Stafford D, Brunet L, Khokha M, Economides A, Harland R. Cooperative activity of noggin and gremlin 1 in axial skeleton development. Development. 2011;138:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Nog and Grem1 cooperate to maintain a BMP signaling-free zone that is a crucial prerequisite for Hh-mediated sclerotome induction...
  39. Seo K, Wang Y, Kokubo H, Kettlewell J, Zarkower D, Johnson R. Targeted disruption of the DM domain containing transcription factor Dmrt2 reveals an essential role in somite patterning. Dev Biol. 2006;290:200-10 pubmed
  40. Greulich F, Trowe M, Leffler A, Stoetzer C, Farin H, Kispert A. Misexpression of Tbx18 in cardiac chambers of fetal mice interferes with chamber-specific developmental programs but does not induce a pacemaker-like gene signature. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;97:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18 is expressed in the SAN myocardium and is required for formation of a large portion of the pacemaker...
  41. Kirk E, Sunde M, Costa M, Rankin S, Wolstein O, Castro M, et al. Mutations in cardiac T-box factor gene TBX20 are associated with diverse cardiac pathologies, including defects of septation and valvulogenesis and cardiomyopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:280-91 pubmed
    ..They provide insights into how mutation of different genes in an interactive regulatory circuit lead to diverse clinical phenotypes, with implications for diagnosis, genetic screening, and patient follow-up. ..
  42. Haraguchi R, Matsumaru D, Nakagata N, Miyagawa S, Suzuki K, Kitazawa S, et al. The hedgehog signal induced modulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling: an essential signaling relay for urinary tract morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42245 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that Hh-responsive mesenchymal Bmp signaling maintains the population of peri-cloacal mesenchyme cells, which is essential for the development of the ureter and the upper urinary tract. ..
  43. Mamo T, Wittern A, Kleppa M, Bohnenpoll T, Weiss A, Kispert A. BMP4 uses several different effector pathways to regulate proliferation and differentiation in the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the developing mouse ureter. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:3553-3563 pubmed publisher
  44. Greulich F, Rudat C, Farin H, Christoffels V, Kispert A. Lack of Genetic Interaction between Tbx18 and Tbx2/Tbx20 in Mouse Epicardial Development. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156787 pubmed publisher
    ..The T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18 is specifically expressed in the epicardium of vertebrate embryos...
  45. Yamaguchi Y, Cavallero S, Patterson M, Shen H, Xu J, Kumar S, et al. Adipogenesis and epicardial adipose tissue: a novel fate of the epicardium induced by mesenchymal transformation and PPARγ activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:2070-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Human embryonic ventricular epicardial cells natively express PPARγ, which explains the abundant presence of fat seen in human hearts at birth and throughout life. ..
  46. Farin H, Mansouri A, Petry M, Kispert A. T-box protein Tbx18 interacts with the paired box protein Pax3 in the development of the paraxial mesoderm. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and Tbx18, acting in the posterior and anterior somite compartment, respectively...
  47. Facucho Oliveira J, Bento M, Belo J. Ccbe1 expression marks the cardiac and lymphatic progenitor lineages during early stages of mouse development. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:1007-14 pubmed publisher
    ..0 to E8.75). Later in development, Ccbe1 expression is localized in the septum transversum and in the vicinity of the anterior cardinal vein, embryonic structures related to hepatic and lymphatic development, respectively. ..
  48. Singh A, Ramesh S, Cibi D, Yun L, Li J, Li L, et al. Hippo Signaling Mediators Yap and Taz Are Required in the Epicardium for Coronary Vasculature Development. Cell Rep. 2016;15:1384-1393 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that Yap and Taz control epicardial cell behavior, in part by regulating Tbx18 and Wt1 expression...
  49. Manousiouthakis E, Mendez M, Garner M, Exertier P, Makita T. Venous endothelin guides sympathetic innervation of the developing mouse heart. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3918 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings present venous Edn1 as a sympathetic guidance cue, and show how axon guidance mechanisms are coordinated with endorgan morphogenesis. ..
  50. Li J, Miao L, Zhao C, Shaikh Qureshi W, Shieh D, Guo H, et al. CDC42 is required for epicardial and pro-epicardial development by mediating FGF receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane. Development. 2017;144:1635-1647 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF signaling promotes epicardium formation in vivo, and biochemical studies demonstrated that CDC42 is involved in the trafficking of FGF receptors to the cell membrane to regulate epicardium formation. ..
  51. Warrier S, Nuwayhid S, Sabatino J, Sugrue K, Zohn I. Supt20 is required for development of the axial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2017;421:245-257 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Gcn5 and Supt20 hypomorphs show similar defects in rostral-caudal somite patterning potentially suggesting shared mechanisms. ..
  52. Volz K, Jacobs A, Chen H, Poduri A, McKay A, Riordan D, et al. Pericytes are progenitors for coronary artery smooth muscle. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are the first demonstration that pericytes are progenitors for smooth muscle, and their presence in adult hearts reveals a new potential cell type for targeting during cardiovascular disease. ..
  53. Banerjee I, Zhang J, Moore Morris T, Lange S, Shen T, Dalton N, et al. Thymosin beta 4 is dispensable for murine cardiac development and function. Circ Res. 2012;110:456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..5-Cre and ?MHC-Cre, were also found to have no phenotype. We conclude that T?4 is dispensable for embryonic viability, heart development, coronary vessel development, and adult myocardial function. ..
  54. Deng J, DeKruyff R, Freeman G, Umetsu D, Levy S. Critical role of CD81 in cognate T-B cell interactions leading to Th2 responses. Int Immunol. 2002;14:513-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that CD81 expression by T cells greatly enhances cognate T-B cell interactions and greatly augments intracellular activation pathways leading to Th2 polarization. ..
  55. Baffi M, Moran M, Serra R. Tgfbr2 regulates the maintenance of boundaries in the axial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2006;296:363-74 pubmed
    ..Proliferation was modestly reduced in the loose cells of the sclerotome. The results suggest that signaling through Tgfbr2 regulates the maintenance of boundaries in the sclerotome and developing axial skeleton. ..
  56. Smith C, Baek S, Sung C, Tallquist M. Epicardial-derived cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fate specification require PDGF receptor signaling. Circ Res. 2011;108:e15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling through both PDGF receptors is necessary for epicardial EMT and formation of epicardial-mesenchymal derivatives. PDGF receptors also have independent functions in the development of specific epicardial-derived cell fates. ..
  57. Takeichi M, Nimura K, Mori M, Nakagami H, Kaneda Y. The transcription factors Tbx18 and Wt1 control the epicardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition through bi-directional regulation of Slug in murine primary epicardial cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57829 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that two transcription factors expressed in the developing epicardium, T-box18 (Tbx18) and Wilms' tumor 1 homolog (Wt1), bi-directionally control the epicardial EMT through their effects on Slug ..
  58. Shou S, Scott V, Reed C, Hitzemann R, Stadler H. Transcriptome analysis of the murine forelimb and hindlimb autopod. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:74-89 pubmed
    ..05) were detected between forelimb and hindlimb tissues including 38 new transcripts such as Rdh10, Frzb, Tbx18, and Hip that exhibit differential limb expression...
  59. Snitow M, Lu M, Cheng L, Zhou S, Morrisey E. Ezh2 restricts the smooth muscle lineage during mouse lung mesothelial development. Development. 2016;143:3733-3741 pubmed
    ..Loss of Ezh2 derepresses expression of myocardin and Tbx18, which are important regulators of smooth muscle differentiation from the mesothelium and related cell lineages...
  60. Tian X, Hu T, Zhang H, He L, Huang X, Liu Q, et al. Subepicardial endothelial cells invade the embryonic ventricle wall to form coronary arteries. Cell Res. 2013;23:1075-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggested that subepicardial ECs are the major source of intramyocardial coronary arteries in the ventricle wall, and that coronary arteries and veins have a common origin in the developing heart. ..
  61. Wu S, Dong X, Regan J, Su C, Majesky M. Tbx18 regulates development of the epicardium and coronary vessels. Dev Biol. 2013;383:307-20 pubmed publisher
    The epicardium and coronary vessels originate from progenitor cells in the proepicardium. Here we show that Tbx18, a T-box family member highly expressed in the proepicardium, controls critical early steps in coronary development...
  62. Chen J, Lu L, Shi S, Stanley P. Expression of Notch signaling pathway genes in mouse embryos lacking beta4galactosyltransferase-1. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:376-82 pubmed
    ..01). The subtlety of the in vivo phenotype may be due to redundancy since several B4galt genes related to B4galt1 are expressed during embryogenesis. ..
  63. Yamak A, Temsah R, Maharsy W, Caron S, Paradis P, Aries A, et al. Cyclin D2 rescues size and function of GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303:H1057-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that postnatal upregulation of a cell-cycle gene in GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts may be protective opens new avenues for maintaining or restoring cardiac function in GATA4-dependent cardiac disease. ..
  64. Kuta A, Mao Y, Martin T, Ferreira de Sousa C, Whiting D, Zakaria S, et al. Fat4-Dchs1 signalling controls cell proliferation in developing vertebrae. Development. 2016;143:2367-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have identified a new pathway crucial for the development of the vertebrae and our data indicate that novel mechanisms of Fat4-Dchs1 signalling have evolved to control cell proliferation within the developing vertebrae. ..
  65. Maier J, Lo Y, Harfe B. Foxa1 and Foxa2 are required for formation of the intervertebral discs. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55528 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that Foxa genes are required for activation of Shh in the notochord. ..
  66. Pu D, Du J, Zhang J, Li X, Weng M, Liu Y, et al. An economical and practical method for whole-mount in situ hybridization for mouse embryos and organs. Biotech Histochem. 2013;88:27-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we sectioned the specimens after hybridization and ?-galactosidase staining; the results agreed with the literature. ..
  67. Chal J, Oginuma M, Al Tanoury Z, Gobert B, Sumara O, Hick A, et al. Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to muscle fiber to model Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nat Biotechnol. 2015;33:962-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibers derived from ES cells of mdx mice exhibit an abnormal branched phenotype resembling that described in vivo, thus providing an attractive model to study the origin of the pathological defects associated with DMD. ..
  68. Casaca A, Nóvoa A, Mallo M. Hoxb6 can interfere with somitogenesis in the posterior embryo through a mechanism independent of its rib-promoting activity. Development. 2016;143:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the requirement of precisely regulated Hoxb6 expression for proper segmentation at tailbud stages. ..
  69. Yasuhiko Y, Kitajima S, Takahashi Y, Oginuma M, Kagiwada H, Kanno J, et al. Functional importance of evolutionally conserved Tbx6 binding sites in the presomitic mesoderm-specific enhancer of Mesp2. Development. 2008;135:3511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that there is significant evolutionary conservation of Mesp regulatory mechanisms between fish and mice...
  70. White P, Farkas D, McFadden E, Chapman D. Defective somite patterning in mouse embryos with reduced levels of Tbx6. Development. 2003;130:1681-90 pubmed
    ..The similarity in the phenotypes we describe here and that of some human birth defects, such as spondylocostal dysostosis, raises the possibility that mutations in Tbx6 or components of this pathway may be responsible for these defects. ..
  71. Lopez T, Fan C. Dynamic CREB family activity drives segmentation and posterior polarity specification in mammalian somitogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2019-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data support that the CREB family acts at the determination front to modulate Wnt signaling and strengthen Notch signaling as a means to orchestrate cells for somite segmentation and anterior/posterior patterning. ..
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    ..To disclose the roles of TBX18, a member of the T-box transcription factor family, during endochondral bone formation, its spatial and temporal ..
  73. Nie X, Xu J, El Hashash A, Xu P. Six1 regulates Grem1 expression in the metanephric mesenchyme to initiate branching morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;352:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, the UB elongates within Tbx18- and Bmp4-expressing mesenchyme...
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    ..In addition, we show absence of cross-regulation with previously identified regulators Tbx18 and Wt1...
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    ..The vertebral column, ribs, and appendicular skeleton were all affected in these embryos, which resembled Tbx18 and Tbx15 null embryos...