Gene Symbol: Tagln
Description: transgelin
Alias: Sm22, Sm22a, Ws310, transgelin, SM22-alpha, Sm22alpha, actin-associated protein p27, smooth muscle protein 22-alpha
Species: mouse
Products:     Tagln

Top Publications

  1. Li L, Miano J, Cserjesi P, Olson E. SM22 alpha, a marker of adult smooth muscle, is expressed in multiple myogenic lineages during embryogenesis. Circ Res. 1996;78:188-95 pubmed
    b>SM22 alpha is a calponin-related protein that is expressed specifically in adult smooth muscle...
  2. Nie X, Sun J, Gordon R, Cai C, Xu P. SIX1 acts synergistically with TBX18 in mediating ureteral smooth muscle formation. Development. 2010;137:755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover an essential role for Six1 in establishing a functionally normal ureter and provide new insights into the molecular basis of urinary tract malformations in BOR patients. ..
  3. Albinsson S, Suarez Y, Skoura A, Offermanns S, Miano J, Sessa W. MicroRNAs are necessary for vascular smooth muscle growth, differentiation, and function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Dicer-dependent miRNAs are important for VSM development and function by regulating proliferation and contractile differentiation. ..
  4. Assinder S, Stanton J, Prasad P. Transgelin: an actin-binding protein and tumour suppressor. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:482-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Transgelin is a shape change sensitive 22 kDa actin-binding protein of the calponin family. It contains a C-terminal calponin-like module (CLIK(23)) and an upstream positively charged amino acid region required for actin binding...
  5. Weber S, Bernhard D, Lukowski R, Weinmeister P, Wörner R, Wegener J, et al. Rescue of cGMP kinase I knockout mice by smooth muscle specific expression of either isozyme. Circ Res. 2007;101:1096-103 pubmed
    ..The cGKIalpha or the -Ibeta coding sequences were placed under the control of the SM22alpha promoter to express either isoform selectively in smooth muscle cells (SM-Ialpha or SM-Ibeta transgene)...
  6. Arora R, Metzger R, Papaioannou V. Multiple roles and interactions of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in development of the respiratory system. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002866 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Tbx4 and Tbx5 interact with Fgf10 during the process of lung growth and branching but not during tracheal/bronchial cartilage development. ..
  7. Wu B, Zhang Z, Lui W, Chen X, Wang Y, Chamberlain A, et al. Endocardial cells form the coronary arteries by angiogenesis through myocardial-endocardial VEGF signaling. Cell. 2012;151:1083-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This information may help develop better cell therapies for coronary artery disease...
  8. Daniel C, Lüdke A, Wagner A, Todorov V, Hohenstein B, Hugo C. Transgelin is a marker of repopulating mesangial cells after injury and promotes their proliferation and migration. Lab Invest. 2012;92:812-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Using self-organizing maps, transgelin was identified as a new marker for repopulating glomerular cells...
  9. Pan Y, Balazs L, Tigyi G, Yue J. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. ..

More Information


  1. Guo C, Sun Y, Zhou B, Adam R, Li X, Pu W, et al. A Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway controls mammalian cardiovascular and craniofacial morphogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings reveal a Tbx1-Six1/Eya1-Fgf8 genetic pathway that is crucial for mammalian cardiocraniofacial morphogenesis and provide insights into the pathogenesis of human del22q11 syndromes. ..
  2. Zhang J, Kim S, Helmke B, Yu W, Du K, Lu M, et al. Analysis of SM22alpha-deficient mice reveals unanticipated insights into smooth muscle cell differentiation and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1336-44 pubmed
    b>SM22alpha is a 22-kDa smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage-restricted protein that physically associates with cytoskeletal actin filament bundles in contractile SMCs...
  3. Marshall C, Krofft R, Blonski M, Kowalewska J, Logar C, Pippin J, et al. Role of smooth muscle protein SM22? in glomerular epithelial cell injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F1026-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported that the transcript of SM22?, an actin-binding protein considered one of the earliest markers of smooth muscle differentiation, is upregulated ..
  4. Huang Z, Chen J, Regan J, Maguire C, Tang R, Dong X, et al. Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncovered a central role for Dicer and miRNAs in NCC survival, migration, and patterning in craniofacial and cardiovascular development which, when mutated, lead to congenital neuro-craniofacial-cardiac defects. ..
  5. Lukowski R, Rybalkin S, Loga F, Leiss V, Beavo J, Hofmann F. Cardiac hypertrophy is not amplified by deletion of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I in cardiomyocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that cardiac myocyte cGKI does not affect the development of heart hypertrophy induced by pressure overload or chronic ISO infusion. ..
  6. Chen Z, Wu J, Yang C, Fan P, Balazs L, Jiao Y, et al. DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein-mediated microRNA biogenesis is essential for vascular smooth muscle cell development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..miRNA maturation in VSMCs, we generated DGCR8 conditional knockout (cKO) mice by crossing VSMC-specific Cre mice (SM22-Cre) with DGCR8(loxp/loxp) mice...
  7. Wang X, Sakatsume M, Sakamaki Y, Inomata S, Yamamoto T, Narita I. Quantitative histological analysis of SM22? (transgelin) in an adriamycin-induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis model. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2012;120:e1-11 pubmed publisher
    SM22?, transgelin, has been revealed to be specifically expressed in glomerular epithelial cells and interstitial cells, according to the nature of the renal injury...
  8. Huang J, Elicker J, Bowens N, Liu X, Cheng L, Cappola T, et al. Myocardin regulates BMP10 expression and is required for heart development. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3678-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data identify a heretofore undescribed myocardin/BMP10 signaling pathway that regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the embryonic heart. ..
  9. Katz T, Singh M, Degenhardt K, RIVERA FELICIANO J, Johnson R, Epstein J, et al. Distinct compartments of the proepicardial organ give rise to coronary vascular endothelial cells. Dev Cell. 2012;22:639-50 pubmed publisher
  10. Buchholz B, Shapiro R, Vodovotz Y, Billiar T, Sodhi C, Hackam D, et al. Myocyte TLR4 enhances enteric and systemic inflammation driving late murine endotoxic ileus. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G852-62 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR4(+/+), TLR4(-/-), bmTLR4(+/+)/TLR4(-/-) chimera, SM22-Cre(-/-)TLR4(flox/flox), and selective myocyte TLR4-deficient (SM22-Cre(+/-)TLR4(flox/flox)) mice were injected ..
  11. Zeidan A, Swärd K, Nordström I, Ekblad E, Zhang J, Parmacek M, et al. Ablation of SM22alpha decreases contractility and actin contents of mouse vascular smooth muscle. FEBS Lett. 2004;562:141-6 pubmed
    The actin-binding protein SM22alpha marks contractile differentiation in smooth muscle, but its function is unknown. We tested its role in arterial contractility and stretch-sensitive vascular protein synthesis...
  12. Wystub K, Besser J, Bachmann A, Boettger T, Braun T. miR-1/133a clusters cooperatively specify the cardiomyogenic lineage by adjustment of myocardin levels during embryonic heart development. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003793 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that myocardin positively regulates expression of miR-1/133a, thus constituting a negative feedback loop that is essential for early cardiac development. ..
  13. Naito S, Pippin J, Shankland S. The glomerular parietal epithelial cell's responses are influenced by SM22 alpha levels. BMC Nephrol. 2014;15:174 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors governing these are not well understood. We have shown that SM22α, an actin-binding protein considered a marker of smooth muscle differentiation, is upregulated in podocytes and ..
  14. He Y, Zhang H, Yu L, Gunel M, Boggon T, Chen H, et al. Stabilization of VEGFR2 signaling by cerebral cavernous malformation 3 is critical for vascular development. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that CCM3 promotes VEGFR2 signaling during vascular development. ..
  15. Mundell N, Labosky P. Neural crest stem cell multipotency requires Foxd3 to maintain neural potential and repress mesenchymal fates. Development. 2011;138:641-52 pubmed publisher
  16. Malhowski A, Hira H, Bashiruddin S, Warburton R, Goto J, Robert B, et al. Smooth muscle protein-22-mediated deletion of Tsc1 results in cardiac hypertrophy that is mTORC1-mediated and reversed by rapamycin. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1290-305 pubmed publisher
    ..of Tsc1, using a conditional allele of Tsc1 and a cre recombinase allele regulated by the smooth muscle protein-22 (SM22) promoter (Tsc1c/cSM22cre+/-) to constitutively activate mTOR in cardiovascular tissue...
  17. Shankman L, Gomez D, Cherepanova O, Salmon M, Alencar G, Haskins R, et al. KLF4-dependent phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells has a key role in atherosclerotic plaque pathogenesis. Nat Med. 2015;21:628-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the contribution of SMCs to atherosclerotic plaques has been greatly underestimated, and that KLF4-dependent transitions in SMC phenotype are critical in lesion pathogenesis. ..
  18. Laguë M, Detmar J, Paquet M, Boyer A, Richards J, Adamson S, et al. Decidual PTEN expression is required for trophoblast invasion in the mouse. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E936-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate novel roles of PTEN in the mammalian uterus and its requirement for proper trophoblast invasion and decidual regression. ..
  19. Liu Y, Jin Y, Li J, Seto E, Kuo E, Yu W, et al. Inactivation of Cdc42 in neural crest cells causes craniofacial and cardiovascular morphogenesis defects. Dev Biol. 2013;383:239-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results demonstrate that Cdc42 plays an essential role in NCC migration, and inactivation of Cdc42 in NCCs impairs craniofacial and cardiovascular development in mice. ..
  20. Guignabert C, Tu L, Izikki M, Dewachter L, Zadigue P, Humbert M, et al. Dichloroacetate treatment partially regresses established pulmonary hypertension in mice with SM22alpha-targeted overexpression of the serotonin transporter. FASEB J. 2009;23:4135-47 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and in experimental models including mice with SM22alpha-targeted overexpression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT)...
  21. Liu X, Liu Y, Li X, Zhao J, Geng Y, Ning W. Follistatin like-1 (Fstl1) is required for the normal formation of lung airway and vascular smooth muscle at birth. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177899 pubmed publisher
    ..Fstl1 knockout mice also displayed abnormal vasculature SM manifested as hyperplasia SM in pulmonary artery. This study indicates a pivotal role for Fstl1 in early stage of lung airway smooth muscle development. ..
  22. Zhao Y, Li Y, Luo P, Gao Y, Yang J, Lao K, et al. XBP1 splicing triggers miR-150 transfer from smooth muscle cells to endothelial cells via extracellular vesicles. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28627 pubmed publisher
  23. Chen F, Marquez H, Kim Y, Qian J, Shao F, Fine A, et al. Prenatal retinoid deficiency leads to airway hyperresponsiveness in adult mice. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:801-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for endogenous RA signaling in restricting SM differentiation and preventing precocious and excessive SM differentiation when airways are forming. ..
  24. Stanier P, Abu Hayyeh S, Murdoch J, Eddleston J, Copp A. Paralogous sm22alpha (Tagln) genes map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 9: further evidence for a paralogous relationship. Genomics. 1998;51:144-7 pubmed
    b>SM22alpha (TAGLN) is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle, being expressed exclusively in the smooth muscle cells of adult tissues and transiently in embryonic skeletal and cardiac tissues...
  25. Jakus Z, Gleghorn J, Enis D, Sen A, Chia S, Liu X, et al. Lymphatic function is required prenatally for lung inflation at birth. J Exp Med. 2014;211:815-26 pubmed publisher
    ..They explain respiratory failure in infants with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia, and suggest that inadequate late gestation lymphatic function may also contribute to respiratory failure in premature infants. ..
  26. Moessler H, Mericskay M, Li Z, Nagl S, Paulin D, Small J. The SM 22 promoter directs tissue-specific expression in arterial but not in venous or visceral smooth muscle cells in transgenic mice. Development. 1996;122:2415-25 pubmed
  27. Leiss V, Illison J, Domes K, Hofmann F, Lukowski R. Expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I in mature white adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;452:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, αRMs were protected from streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia. Our results suggest that cGMP/cGKI affects both glucose and FC homeostasis in more complex mode than previously thought. ..
  28. Théveniau Ruissy M, Pérez Pomares J, Parisot P, Baldini A, Miquerol L, Kelly R. Coronary stem development in wild-type and Tbx1 null mouse hearts. Dev Dyn. 2016;245:445-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular differences associated with left and right CA stems provide new insights into the etiology of CA patterning defects. ..
  29. Young K, Krebs L, Tweedie E, Conley B, Mancini M, Arthur H, et al. Endoglin is required in Pax3-derived cells for embryonic blood vessel formation. Dev Biol. 2016;409:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a requirement for endoglin in descendants of Pax3-expressing vascular cell precursors, and thus provides new insight into the cellular basis underlying adult vascular diseases such as HHT. ..
  30. Risley M, Clowes C, Yu M, Mitchell K, Hentges K. The Mediator complex protein Med31 is required for embryonic growth and cell proliferation during mammalian development. Dev Biol. 2010;342:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..As the Mediator complex is a transcriptional co-activator, our results suggest that Med31 functions to promote the transcription of genes required for embryonic growth and cell proliferation. ..
  31. Turner C, Badu Nkansah K, Crowley D, van der Flier A, Hynes R. α5 and αv integrins cooperate to regulate vascular smooth muscle and neural crest functions in vivo. Development. 2015;142:797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..issue, we have generated mice that lack α5, αv or both α5 and αv integrins on their vSMCs, using the SM22α-Cre transgenic mouse line...
  32. Manderfield L, Aghajanian H, Engleka K, Lim L, Liu F, Jain R, et al. Hippo signaling is required for Notch-dependent smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest. Development. 2015;142:2962-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Convergence of Hippo and Notch pathways by the mechanisms described here might be relevant for the function of these signaling cascades in many tissues and in diseases such as cancer. ..
  33. Klaiber M, Dankworth B, Kruse M, Hartmann M, Nikolaev V, Yang R, et al. A cardiac pathway of cyclic GMP-independent signaling of guanylyl cyclase A, the receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18500-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant rise in [Ca(2+)](i) might increase the propensity to cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmias. ..
  34. Rudat C, Grieskamp T, Röhr C, Airik R, Wrede C, Hegermann J, et al. Upk3b is dispensable for development and integrity of urothelium and mesothelium. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112112 pubmed publisher
    ..Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only. ..
  35. Schmitz Rohmer D, Probst S, Yang Z, Laurent F, Stadler M, Zuniga A, et al. NDR Kinases Are Essential for Somitogenesis and Cardiac Looping during Mouse Embryonic Development. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136566 pubmed publisher
    ..Ndr1/2-double null embryos show defects in somitogenesis and cardiac looping, which reveals their essential functions and shows that the NDR kinases are critically required during the early phase of organogenesis. ..
  36. Mitani A, Nagase T, Fukuchi K, Aburatani H, Makita R, Kurihara H. Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif is essential for normal alveolarization in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Taz-heterozygous mice were resistant to bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The results indicate the importance of TAZ in lung alveolarization and its involvement in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. ..
  37. Xie X, Nie X, Wu J, Zhang F, Zhao L, Lin Y, et al. Smooth muscle 22α facilitates angiotensin II-induced signaling and vascular contraction. J Mol Med (Berl). 2015;93:547-58 pubmed publisher
    Smooth muscle 22α (SM22α) is involved in stress fiber formation and enhances contractility in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
  38. Greif D, Kumar M, Lighthouse J, Hum J, An A, Ding L, et al. Radial construction of an arterial wall. Dev Cell. 2012;23:482-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of such radial signaling pathways may underlie vessel-specific differences and pathological changes in arterial wall size and structure. ..
  39. Ola R, Lefebvre S, Braunewell K, Sainio K, Sariola H. The expression of Visinin-like 1 during mouse embryonic development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..g. taste buds, cochlea, thyroid, tooth, salivary and adrenal gland. The stage specific expression pattern of Vsnl1 makes it a potentially useful marker particularly in studies of cardiac and vascular morphogenesis. ..
  40. Papangeli I, Scambler P. Tbx1 genetically interacts with the transforming growth factor-?/bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Smad7 during great vessel remodeling. Circ Res. 2013;112:90-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Tbx1 acts upstream of Smad7 controlling vascular smooth muscle and extracellular matrix investment of the fourth arch artery. ..
  41. Wu S, Dong X, Regan J, Su C, Majesky M. Tbx18 regulates development of the epicardium and coronary vessels. Dev Biol. 2013;383:307-20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, analysis of PECAM-1 whole mount immunostaining, distribution of SM22?(lacZ/+) activity, and analysis of coronary vascular casts suggest that defective vascular plexus remodeling ..
  42. Yeo M, Kim D, Park H, Oh T, Kim J, Cho S, et al. Loss of transgelin in repeated bouts of ulcerative colitis-induced colon carcinogenesis. Proteomics. 2006;6:1158-65 pubmed
    ..We identified 27 of these proteins, including GRP94, HSC70, enolase, prohibitin, and transgelin. The reduction of transgelin expression in mouse colon tumors was confirmed by Western blotting and ..
  43. Desch M, Sigl K, Hieke B, Salb K, Kees F, Bernhard D, et al. IRAG determines nitric oxide- and atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated smooth muscle relaxation. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..IRAG signalling does not modulate basal tone but might be important for blood pressure regulation under pathophysiological conditions. ..
  44. Fernández Tenorio M, González Rodríguez P, Porras C, Castellano A, Moosmang S, Hofmann F, et al. Short communication: genetic ablation of L-type Ca2+ channels abolishes depolarization-induced Ca2+ release in arterial smooth muscle. Circ Res. 2010;106:1285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a novel, ion-independent, functional role of L-type Ca(2+) channels linked to intracellular signaling pathways in vascular myocytes. ..
  45. Catela C, Kratsios P, Hede M, Lang F, Rosenthal N. Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is necessary for vascular remodeling during angiogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover a novel and essential function for SGK1 in cardiovascular development contributing to a better understanding of mammalian angiogenesis. ..
  46. Wu H, Choi S, Levitt P. Differential patterning of genes involved in serotonin metabolism and transport in extra-embryonic tissues of the mouse. Placenta. 2016;42:74-83 pubmed publisher
  47. Singh M, Lu M, Massera D, Epstein J. MicroRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is required in epicardium for coronary vasculature development. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41036-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for Dicer, and by implication miRNAs, in murine epicardial development. ..
  48. Zhang W, Peng Y, Zhang G, He W, Qiao Y, Dong Y, et al. Myosin light chain kinase is necessary for tonic airway smooth muscle contraction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, contractile airway smooth muscles are necessary for physiological and asthmatic airway resistance...
  49. Wasteson P, Johansson B, Jukkola T, Breuer S, Akyürek L, Partanen J, et al. Developmental origin of smooth muscle cells in the descending aorta in mice. Development. 2008;135:1823-32 pubmed publisher
    ..0-9.5, as indicated by expression of the SMC-specific reporter gene SM22alpha-lacZ. There was, however, no migration of SMCs from the ventral to the dorsal side of the vessel...
  50. Leiss V, Friebe A, Welling A, Hofmann F, Lukowski R. Cyclic GMP kinase I modulates glucagon release from pancreatic ?-cells. Diabetes. 2011;60:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mmol/l glucose, but was without effect on [Ca²(+)](i) or hormone release in cGKI-deficient islets. We propose that cGKI modulates glucagon release by suppression of [Ca²(+)](i) in ?-cells. ..
  51. Koike S, Keino Masu K, Masu M. Deficiency of autotaxin/lysophospholipase D results in head cavity formation in mouse embryos through the LPA receptor-Rho-ROCK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the signal transduction defects that underlie the abnormalities in Enpp2(-/-) embryos. ..
  52. Rudat C, Norden J, Taketo M, Kispert A. Epicardial function of canonical Wnt-, Hedgehog-, Fgfr1/2-, and Pdgfra-signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Canonical Wnt-, Hh-, and Fgfr1/Fgfr2-signalling are dispensable for epicardial development, but Pdgfra-signalling is crucial for the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts from epicardium-derived cells. ..
  53. VanDussen K, Samuelson L. Mouse atonal homolog 1 directs intestinal progenitors to secretory cell rather than absorptive cell fate. Dev Biol. 2010;346:215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Math1 is a key effector directing multipotential precursors to adopt secretory and not absorptive cell fate. ..
  54. Lin M, Chen T, Leaf E, Speer M, Giachelli C. Runx2 Expression in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Required for Arterial Medial Calcification in Mice. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:1958-69 pubmed publisher
    ..SMC-specific deletion using SM22-recombinase transgenic allele mice (Runx2(ΔSM)) led to viable mice with normal bone and arterial morphology...
  55. Wallingford M, Gammill H, Giachelli C. Slc20a2 deficiency results in fetal growth restriction and placental calcification associated with thickened basement membranes and novel CD13 and lamininα1 expressing cells. Reprod Biol. 2016;16:13-26 pubmed publisher
  56. Müller P, Gnügge R, Dhayade S, Thunemann M, Krippeit Drews P, Drews G, et al. H?O? lowers the cytosolic Ca²? concentration via activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I?. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1574-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A decrease in [Ca²?](i) in VSMCs via activation of cGKI? might be a major mechanism of H?O?-induced vasodilation. ..
  57. Feng X, Krebs L, Gridley T. Patent ductus arteriosus in mice with smooth muscle-specific Jag1 deletion. Development. 2010;137:4191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This new model for a common congenital heart defect provides novel insights into the genetic programs that underlie ductus arteriosus development and closure. ..
  58. Hoggatt A, Kim J, Ustiyan V, Ren X, Kalin T, Kalinichenko V, et al. The transcription factor Foxf1 binds to serum response factor and myocardin to regulate gene transcription in visceral smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28477-87 pubmed publisher
  59. Bielenberg D, Seth A, Shimizu A, Pelton K, Cristofaro V, Ramachandran A, et al. Increased smooth muscle contractility in mice deficient for neuropilin 2. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:548-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings identify Nrp2 as a mediator of prorelaxant stimuli in SMCs and suggest a novel function for Nrp2 as a regulator of visceral SM contractility. ..
  60. Liu R, Hossain M, Chen X, Jin J. Mechanoregulation of SM22?/Transgelin. Biochemistry. 2017;56:5526-5538 pubmed publisher
    SM22?, also named transgelin, is an actin filament-associated protein in smooth muscle and fibroblasts. Three decades after its discovery, the biological function of SM22? remains under investigation...
  61. Miller M, Cohen E, Baggs J, Lu M, Hogenesch J, Morrisey E. Wnt ligands signal in a cooperative manner to promote foregut organogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15348-53 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a model in which Pdgf signaling potentiates Wnt2-Wnt7b signaling to promote high levels of Wnt activity in mesenchymal progenitors that is required for proper development of endoderm-derived organs, such as the lung. ..
  62. Greulich F, Farin H, Schuster Gossler K, Kispert A. Tbx18 function in epicardial development. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;96:476-83 pubmed publisher
  63. Mancini M, Terzic A, Conley B, Oxburgh L, Nicola T, Vary C. Endoglin plays distinct roles in vascular smooth muscle cell recruitment and regulation of arteriovenous identity during angiogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2479-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that endoglin plays distinct and cell-autonomous roles in vSMC recruitment and arteriovenous specification via COUPTFII in angiogenesis that may contribute to HHT. ..
  64. Lai D, Liu X, Forrai A, Wolstein O, Michalicek J, Ahmed I, et al. Neuregulin 1 sustains the gene regulatory network in both trabecular and nontrabecular myocardium. Circ Res. 2010;107:715-27 pubmed publisher
  65. Li W, Waldo K, Linask K, Chen T, Wessels A, Parmacek M, et al. An essential role for connexin43 gap junctions in mouse coronary artery development. Development. 2002;129:2031-42 pubmed
    ..We discuss the potential involvement of connexin43 in human cardiovascular anomalies involving the coronary arteries. ..
  66. Almendral J, Santaren J, Perera J, Zerial M, Bravo R. Expression, cloning and cDNA sequence of a fibroblast serum-regulated gene encoding a putative actin-associated protein (p27). Exp Cell Res. 1989;181:518-30 pubmed
    ..The coordinate induction of p27 and actin mRNAs suggest that p27 may be involved in the cytoskeletal rearrangements induced early in cell growth and proliferation. ..
  67. Brunskill E, Witte D, Yutzey K, Potter S. Novel cell lines promote the discovery of genes involved in early heart development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:507-20 pubmed
    ..5, GATA4, Tbx5, dHAND, cardiac troponin C, and SM22-alpha. Furthermore, many genes not previously implicated in early cardiac development were expressed...
  68. Azizoglu D, Chong D, Villasenor A, Magenheim J, Barry D, Lee S, et al. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas. Dev Biol. 2016;420:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. ..
  69. French W, Creemers E, Tallquist M. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors direct vascular development independent of vascular smooth muscle cell function. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of either PDGFRalpha or PDGFRbeta caused no overt vascular defects, but loss of both receptors using an SM22alpha-Cre transgenic mouse line led to a disruption in yolk sac blood vessel development...
  70. Chang L, Villacorta L, Li R, Hamblin M, Xu W, Dou C, et al. Loss of perivascular adipose tissue on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? deletion in smooth muscle cells impairs intravascular thermoregulation and enhances atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2012;126:1067-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This thermogenic capacity of PVAT plays an important protective role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ..
  71. Tsao P, Matsuoka C, Wei S, Sato A, Sato S, Hasegawa K, et al. Epithelial Notch signaling regulates lung alveolar morphogenesis and airway epithelial integrity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:8242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that epithelial Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of postnatal development in the distal lung and may represent a potential target for intervention in pulmonary diseases. ..
  72. Cushing L, Costinean S, Xu W, Jiang Z, Madden L, Kuang P, et al. Disruption of miR-29 Leads to Aberrant Differentiation of Smooth Muscle Cells Selectively Associated with Distal Lung Vasculature. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005238 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings suggested a vessel specific role of miR-29 in vSMC differentiation and function by targeting several key negative regulators. ..
  73. Smith C, Baek S, Sung C, Tallquist M. Epicardial-derived cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fate specification require PDGF receptor signaling. Circ Res. 2011;108:e15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling through both PDGF receptors is necessary for epicardial EMT and formation of epicardial-mesenchymal derivatives. PDGF receptors also have independent functions in the development of specific epicardial-derived cell fates. ..
  74. He W, Qiao Y, Zhang C, Peng Y, Chen C, Wang P, et al. Role of myosin light chain kinase in regulation of basal blood pressure and maintenance of salt-induced hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H584-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MLCK is necessary for both physiological and pathological blood pressure. MLCK(SMKO) mice may be a useful model of vascular failure and hypotension. ..
  75. Shen D, Li J, Lepore J, Anderson T, Sinha S, Lin A, et al. Aortic aneurysm generation in mice with targeted deletion of integrin-linked kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2011;109:616-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of this pathway is required for morphogenetic development of the aorta and ductus arteriosus during embryonic and postnatal survival. ..
  76. Zhang J, Zhong W, Cui T, Yang M, Hu X, Xu K, et al. Generation of an adult smooth muscle cell-targeted Cre recombinase mouse model. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:e23-4 pubmed
  77. Manderfield L, High F, Engleka K, Liu F, Li L, Rentschler S, et al. Notch activation of Jagged1 contributes to the assembly of the arterial wall. Circulation. 2012;125:314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results provide a mechanism for lateral induction that allows for a multilayered smooth muscle wall to form around a nascent arterial endothelial tube and identify Jagged1 as a direct Notch target. ..
  78. Cavallero S, Shen H, Yi C, Lien C, Kumar S, Sucov H. CXCL12 Signaling Is Essential for Maturation of the Ventricular Coronary Endothelial Plexus and Establishment of Functional Coronary Circulation. Dev Cell. 2015;33:469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Failed maturation of the coronary system explains the late-gestation lethality of these mutants. ..
  79. Singh A, Spiessberger B, Zheng W, Xiao F, Lukowski R, Wegener J, et al. Neuronal cGMP kinase I is essential for stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion by luminal acid. FASEB J. 2012;26:1745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..vagus elicited a similar HCO(3)(-) secretory response in cGKI(-/-), ncGKI(-/-) and wild-type mice. These findings show that protection of the duodenum from acid injury requires neuronal cGKI. ..
  80. Turlo K, Noel O, Vora R, Larussa M, Fassler R, Hall Glenn F, et al. An essential requirement for ?1 integrin in the assembly of extracellular matrix proteins within the vascular wall. Dev Biol. 2012;365:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It further establishes a critical role of ?1 integrin in the protection against aneurysms that is particularly confined to the ascending aorta and its branches. ..
  81. Mao X, Debenedittis P, Sun Y, Chen J, Yuan K, Jiao K, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell Smad4 gene is important for mouse vascular development. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Breeding of Smad4(flox/flox) mice with SM22?-Cre mice resulted in no viable offspring with SM22?-Cre;Smad4(flox/flox) genotype in a total of 165 newborns...
  82. McGowan S, McCoy D. Regulation of fibroblast lipid storage and myofibroblast phenotypes during alveolar septation in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L618-31 pubmed publisher
    ..At P8, neutral lipid droplets predominate in LF with the lower level of pdgfrα gene expression, whereas transgelin (tagln) was predominantly expressed in LF with higher pdgfrα gene expression...
  83. Xu B, Washington A, Domeniconi R, Ferreira Souza A, Lu X, Sutherland A, et al. Protein tyrosine kinase 7 is essential for tubular morphogenesis of the Wolffian duct. Dev Biol. 2016;412:219-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PTK7 is essential for Wolffian duct morphogenesis and male fertility. ..
  84. Zadelaar S, Boesten L, Pires N, van Nieuwkoop A, Biessen E, Jukema W, et al. Local Cre-mediated gene recombination in vascular smooth muscle cells in mice. Transgenic Res. 2006;15:31-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, local application of a 4-OHT-eluting PDD results in vascular SMC-specific Cre-mediated recombination in SM-CreER(T2)(ki)/rosa26 mice without affecting additional SMCs. ..
  85. Liu Y, Wang T, Zhang R, Fu W, Wang X, Wang F, et al. Calorie restriction protects against experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice. J Exp Med. 2016;213:2473-2488 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings suggest that CR may be an effective intervention that protects against AAA formation. ..
  86. Qi W, Li Q, Liew C, Rask Madsen C, Lockhart S, Rasmussen L, et al. SHP-1 activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a rodent model of insulin resistance and diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017;60:585-596 pubmed publisher
    ..Augmenting SHP-1 levels is a potential therapeutic strategy to maintain stent patency in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. ..
  87. Sheen C, Kuss P, Narisawa S, Yadav M, Nigro J, Wang W, et al. Pathophysiological role of vascular smooth muscle alkaline phosphatase in medial artery calcification. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:824-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemizygous overexpressor male mice (Tagln-Cre(+/-) ; Hprt(ALPL) (/Y) or TNAP-OE) show extensive vascular calcification, high blood pressure, and cardiac ..
  88. Mamo T, Wittern A, Kleppa M, Bohnenpoll T, Weiss A, Kispert A. BMP4 uses several different effector pathways to regulate proliferation and differentiation in the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the developing mouse ureter. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:3553-3563 pubmed publisher
  89. Diman N, Brooks G, Kruithof B, Elemento O, Seidman J, Seidman C, et al. Tbx5 is required for avian and Mammalian epicardial formation and coronary vasculogenesis. Circ Res. 2014;115:834-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a conserved Tbx5 dose-dependent requirement for both proepicardial and epicardial progenitor cell development in chick and in mouse coronary vascular formation. ..
  90. Dai X, Thiagarajan D, Fang J, Shen J, Annam N, Yang Z, et al. SM22? suppresses cytokine-induced inflammation and the transcription of NF-?B inducing kinase (Nik) by modulating SRF transcriptional activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0190191 pubmed publisher
    ..Our published study shows that depletion of SM22? (aka SM22, Transgelin, an actin cytoskeleton binding protein) promotes inflammation in SMCs by activating NF-?B signal pathways both ..