Gene Symbol: Tacr1
Description: tachykinin receptor 1
Alias: Nk1r, Spr, Tac1r, substance-P receptor, Nk1 receptor, neurokinin receptor 1, substance P receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Tacr1

Top Publications

  1. Cook G, Elliott D, Metwali A, Blum A, Sandor M, Lynch R, et al. Molecular evidence that granuloma T lymphocytes in murine schistosomiasis mansoni express an authentic substance P (NK-1) receptor. J Immunol. 1994;152:1830-5 pubmed
    ..CD4+ granuloma T lymphocytes, purified by FACS, express NK-1 receptor mRNA. Normal liver devoid of granulomas exhibited none of the three tachykinin receptor subclasses. ..
  2. Fisher A, Stewart R, Yan T, Hunt S, Stanford S. Disruption of noradrenergic transmission and the behavioural response to a novel environment in NK1R-/- mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1195-204 pubmed
    The behaviour of neurokinin-1-receptor gene knockout (NK1R-/-) mice, which lack functional, substance P-preferring receptors, resembles that of NK1R+/+ mice treated with an antidepressant...
  3. Froger N, Gardier A, Moratalla R, Alberti I, Lena I, Boni C, et al. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A autoreceptor adaptive changes in substance P (neurokinin 1) receptor knock-out mice mimic antidepressant-induced desensitization. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8188-97 pubmed
    ..Double immunocytochemical labeling experiments suggest that such a heteroregulation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in NK1-/- mutants does not reflect the existence of direct NK1-5-HT(1A) receptor interactions in normal mice. ..
  4. Pillidge K, Porter A, Dudley J, Tsai Y, Heal D, Stanford S. The behavioural response of mice lacking NK? receptors to guanfacine resembles its clinical profile in treatment of ADHD. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171:4785-96 pubmed publisher
    Mice with functional ablation of substance P-preferring neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/- mice) display behavioural abnormalities resembling those in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  5. George D, Gilman J, Hersh J, Thorsell A, Herion D, Geyer C, et al. Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism. Science. 2008;319:1536-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), a mediator of behavioral stress responses, in alcohol dependence and treatment...
  6. Palmer J, De Felipe C, O Brien J, Hunt S. Disruption of the substance P receptor (neurokinin-1) gene does not prevent upregulation of preprotachykinin-A mRNA in the spinal cord of mice following peripheral inflammation. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:3531-8 pubmed
    ..substance P and dynorphin following the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice in which the substance P receptor gene, also known as the neurokinin-1 receptor gene, has been disrupted by homologous recombination...
  7. Dozmorov I, Saban M, Gerard N, Lu B, Nguyen N, Centola M, et al. Neurokinin 1 receptors and neprilysin modulation of mouse bladder gene regulation. Physiol Genomics. 2003;12:239-50 pubmed
  8. Dudley J, Weir R, Yan T, Grabowska E, Grimmé A, Amini S, et al. Antagonism of L-type Ca(v) channels with nifedipine differentially affects performance of wildtype and NK1R-/- mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task. Neuropharmacology. 2013;64:329-36 pubmed publisher
    Mice with functional ablation of the substance P-preferring receptor gene ('Nk1r' in mice ('NK1R-/-'), 'TACR1' in humans) display deficits in cognitive performance that resemble those seen in patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity ..
  9. Ripley T, Gadd C, De Felipe C, Hunt S, Stephens D. Lack of self-administration and behavioural sensitisation to morphine, but not cocaine, in mice lacking NK1 receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2002;43:1258-68 pubmed
    Mice lacking the NK1 receptor, the preferred receptor for substance P, demonstrate normal analgesic responses to morphine on the hot plate assay, but have been predicted, on the basis of conditioned place preference studies, to be ..

More Information


  1. Gadd C, Murtra P, De Felipe C, Hunt S. Neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the amygdala modulate morphine reward and anxiety behaviors in the mouse. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8271-80 pubmed
    ..that might contribute to this effect, we assessed the behavioral effects of ablation of neurons expressing the NK1 receptor in specific regions of the mouse brain using the neurotoxin substance P-saporin...
  2. Yan T, McQuillin A, Thapar A, Asherson P, Hunt S, Stanford S, et al. NK1 (TACR1) receptor gene 'knockout' mouse phenotype predicts genetic association with ADHD. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:27-38 pubmed publisher
    Mice with functional genetic ablation of the Tacr1 (substance P-preferring receptor) gene (NK1R-/-) are hyperactive...
  3. Garza A, Weinstock J, Robinson P. Absence of the SP/SP receptor circuitry in the substance P-precursor knockout mice or SP receptor, neurokinin (NK)1 knockout mice leads to an inhibited cytokine response in granulomas associated with murine Taenia crassiceps infection. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..were significantly higher than those of granulomas derived from infected SP-precursor knockout or the NK1 receptor (NKIR)knockout mice...
  4. Saban R, Saban M, Nguyen N, Lu B, Gerard C, Gerard N, et al. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor is required in antigen-induced cystitis. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:775-80 pubmed
    ..This work presents the first evidence of participation of NK-1 receptors in cystitis and a mandatory participation of these receptors on the chain of events linking mast cell degranulation and inflammation. ..
  5. D Andrea M, Saban M, Gerard N, Wershil B, Saban R. Lack of neurokinin-1 receptor expression affects tissue mast cell numbers but not their spatial relationship with nerves. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R491-500 pubmed
    ..We therefore assessed mast cell-nerve relationships in tissues isolated from wild-type and NK1 receptor knockout (NK1-/-) mice...
  6. De Felipe C, Herrero J, O Brien J, Palmer J, Doyle C, Smith A, et al. Altered nociception, analgesia and aggression in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. Nature. 1998;392:394-7 pubmed
  7. McCutcheon J, Fisher A, Guzdar E, Wood S, Lightman S, Hunt S. Genetic background influences the behavioural and molecular consequences of neurokinin-1 receptor knockout. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:683-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we find that HPA axis activity differs between the strains and that there are profoundly background-specific effects of the NK1 receptor mutation.
  8. Yan T, Dudley J, Weir R, Grabowska E, Peña Oliver Y, Ripley T, et al. Performance deficits of NK1 receptor knockout mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task: effects of d-amphetamine, stress and time of day. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17586 pubmed publisher
    The neurochemical status and hyperactivity of mice lacking functional substance P-preferring NK1 receptors (NK1R-/-) resemble abnormalities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)...
  9. Berger A, Tran A, Dida J, Minkin S, Gerard N, Yeomans J, et al. Diminished pheromone-induced sexual behavior in neurokinin-1 receptor deficient (TACR1(-/-)) mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:568-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Male mice deficient for the NK-1R (TACR1 (-/-)) exhibited decreased exploration of female urine in contrast to C57BL/6 control mice and mice deficient for ..
  10. Herpfer I, Hunt S, Stanford S. A comparison of neurokinin 1 receptor knock-out (NK1-/-) and wildtype mice: exploratory behaviour and extracellular noradrenaline concentration in the cerebral cortex of anaesthetised subjects. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:706-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, alpha(2)-adrenoceptors are possibly desensitised in NK1-/- mice. We have yet to establish whether this is a cause or a consequence of the increased noradrenaline efflux. ..
  11. Murtra P, Sheasby A, Hunt S, De Felipe C. Rewarding effects of opiates are absent in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. Nature. 2000;405:180-3 pubmed
    ..The substance P receptor is highly expressed in areas of the brain that are implicated in these behaviours, but also in other areas ..
  12. Bester H, De Felipe C, Hunt S. The NK1 receptor is essential for the full expression of noxious inhibitory controls in the mouse. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1039-46 pubmed
    Behavioral analysis of the NK1 receptor gene knock-out (NK1-/-) mouse indicated that substance P was closely involved in orchestrating the physiological and behavioral response of the animal to major environmental stressors...
  13. Bozic C, Lu B, Höpken U, Gerard C, Gerard N. Neurogenic amplification of immune complex inflammation. Science. 1996;273:1722-5 pubmed
    ..Gene-targeted disruption of the substance P receptor (NK-1R) protected the lung from immune complex injury, as did disruption of the C5a anaphylatoxin receptor...
  14. Santarelli L, Gobbi G, Debs P, Sibille E, Blier P, Hen R, et al. Genetic and pharmacological disruption of neurokinin 1 receptor function decreases anxiety-related behaviors and increases serotonergic function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1912-7 pubmed
    ..Recently, the neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), have been proposed as possible targets for new antidepressant and anxiolytic therapies...
  15. Jones S, Tucker K, Sage T, Kaiser W, Barrett N, Lowry P, et al. Peripheral tachykinins and the neurokinin receptor NK1 are required for platelet thrombus formation. Blood. 2008;111:605-12 pubmed
    ..We have reported previously that the preferred pharmacologically characterized receptor for these peptides, the NK1 receptor, is present on platelets...
  16. Lai Y, Su C, Jiang S, Chang Y, Lai A, Huang Y. Deficiency of CPEB2-Confined Choline Acetyltransferase Expression in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of Vagus Causes Hyperactivated Parasympathetic Signaling-Associated Bronchoconstriction. J Neurosci. 2016;36:12661-12676 pubmed
    ..e., choline acetyltransferase). Consequently, increased parasympathetic signaling leads to hyperactivated bronchoconstriction and abnormal respiration in the KO neonates. ..
  17. Pommier Y, Pourquier P, Fan Y, Strumberg D. Mechanism of action of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I and drugs targeted to the enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1400:83-105 pubmed
    ..Because of the importance of topoisomerase I as a chemotherapeutic target, we review the mechanisms of action of camptothecins and the other topoisomerase I inhibitors identified to date. ..
  18. Huang H, Kuzirian M, Cai X, Snyder L, Cohen J, Kaplan D, et al. Generation of a NK1R-CreER knockin mouse strain to study cells involved in Neurokinin 1 Receptor signaling. Genesis. 2016;54:593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..the generation of a NK1R-CreER knockin allele, in which CreERT2 replaces the coding sequence of the TACR1 gene (encoding NK1R) in order to gain genetic access to these cells...
  19. Mulè F, Amato A, Serio R. Role for NK(1) and NK(2) receptors in the motor activity in mouse colon. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;570:196-202 pubmed
    ..NK(1) receptors appear to be located on cholinergic and on nitrergic neurons as well as on smooth muscle cells, whereas NK(2) receptors seem to be present exclusively on smooth muscle cells. ..
  20. Zhang H, Wei B, Shang Y, Jiao X, Wang L, He M, et al. Effects of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection on airway neurokinin-1 receptor expression in BALB/c mice. Genet Mol Res. 2014;13:8320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). NK1-R expression in the trachea, bronchus, and lung tissue increased in MP-infected BALB/c mice, which may explain why wheezing occurs after MP infection. ..
  21. Qian Y, Fritzsch B, Shirasawa S, Chen C, Choi Y, Ma Q. Formation of brainstem (nor)adrenergic centers and first-order relay visceral sensory neurons is dependent on homeodomain protein Rnx/Tlx3. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2533-45 pubmed
  22. Koh Y, Moochhala S, Bhatia M. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors up-regulates substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in murine pancreatic acinar cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1582-92 pubmed publisher
    Acute pancreatitis (AP) has been associated with an up-regulation of substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the pancreas. Increased SP-NK1R interaction was suggested to be pro-inflammatory during AP...
  23. Niedermair T, Kuhn V, Doranehgard F, Stange R, Wieskötter B, Beckmann J, et al. Absence of substance P and the sympathetic nervous system impact on bone structure and chondrocyte differentiation in an adult model of endochondral ossification. Matrix Biol. 2014;38:22-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Callus tissue was prepared for immunofluorescence staining for SP, neurokinin1-receptor (NK1R), tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and adrenergic receptors ?1, ?2 and ?2...
  24. Castagliuolo I, Morteau O, Keates A, Valenick L, Wang C, Zacks J, et al. Protective effects of neurokinin-1 receptor during colitis in mice: role of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;136:271-9 pubmed
    ..5. Our results indicate that in mice lacking the neurokinin - 1 receptor, substance P plays a protective role in prolonged experimental colitis. ..
  25. Dubreuil V, Thoby Brisson M, Rallu M, Persson K, Pattyn A, Birchmeier C, et al. Defective respiratory rhythmogenesis and loss of central chemosensitivity in Phox2b mutants targeting retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14836-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide genetic evidence for the essential role of the Phox2b-expressing RTN neurons both in establishing a normal respiratory rhythm before birth and in providing chemosensory drive. ..
  26. Caubit X, Thoby Brisson M, Voituron N, Filippi P, Bevengut M, Faralli H, et al. Teashirt 3 regulates development of neurons involved in both respiratory rhythm and airflow control. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a single gene, Tshz3, controls the development of diverse components of the circuitry required for breathing. ..
  27. Vergnolle N, Bunnett N, Sharkey K, Brussee V, Compton S, Grady E, et al. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 and hyperalgesia: A novel pain pathway. Nat Med. 2001;7:821-6 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a previously unrecognized nociceptive pathway with important therapeutic implications, and our results point to a direct role for proteinases and their receptors in pain transmission. ..
  28. Delgado Morales R, Del Río E, Gómez Román A, Bisagno V, Nadal R, De Felipe C, et al. Adrenocortical and behavioural response to chronic restraint stress in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. Physiol Behav. 2012;105:669-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that deletion of the NK1 receptor does not alter behavioural susceptibility to chronic repeated stress in mice, but accelerates adaptation of the ..
  29. David D, Froger N, Guiard B, Przybylski C, Jego G, Boni C, et al. Serotonin transporter in substance P (neurokinin 1) receptor knock-out mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;492:41-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that no compensatory response to the constitutive deletion of the tachykinin NK1 receptor involving changes in the activity of the selective 5-HT transporter occurred in the DRN, frontal cortex and ..
  30. Gazzieri D, Trevisani M, Springer J, Harrison S, Cottrell G, Andre E, et al. Substance P released by TRPV1-expressing neurons produces reactive oxygen species that mediate ethanol-induced gastric injury. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43:581-9 pubmed
  31. Suzuki R, Hunt S, Dickenson A. The coding of noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli of deep dorsal horn neurones is attenuated in NK1 knockout mice. Neuropharmacology. 2003;45:1093-100 pubmed
    Previous behavioural evidence has shown that NK1 receptor gene knockout (NK1 -/-) mice display altered nociceptive responses following tissue or peripheral nerve injury...
  32. Dubreuil V, Ramanantsoa N, Trochet D, Vaubourg V, Amiel J, Gallego J, et al. A human mutation in Phox2b causes lack of CO2 chemosensitivity, fatal central apnea, and specific loss of parafacial neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1067-72 pubmed publisher
  33. Janelsins B, Mathers A, Tkacheva O, Erdos G, Shufesky W, Morelli A, et al. Proinflammatory tachykinins that signal through the neurokinin 1 receptor promote survival of dendritic cells and potent cellular immunity. Blood. 2009;113:3017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of the tachykinin family, including substance P (SP) and hemokinin-1 (HK-1), bind the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and promote stimulatory immune responses...
  34. Dominguez Lopez S, Howell R, Gobbi G. Characterization of serotonin neurotransmission in knockout mice: implications for major depression. Rev Neurosci. 2012;23:429-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation of 5-HT activity and behavior could be a predictor factor for understanding the role of receptors, channels and enzymes in depression, and could be used also to assess the potential antidepressive effects of novel drugs. ..
  35. Thoby Brisson M, Karlen M, Wu N, Charnay P, Champagnat J, Fortin G. Genetic identification of an embryonic parafacial oscillator coupling to the preBötzinger complex. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1028-35 pubmed publisher
    ..5, entrained and then coupled with the preBötC, which emerged independently at E15.5. These data establish the dual organization of the respiratory rhythm generator at the time of its inception, when it begins to drive fetal breathing. ..
  36. Reinke E, Johnson M, Ling C, Karman J, Lee J, Weinstock J, et al. Substance P receptor mediated maintenance of chronic inflammation in EAE. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;180:117-25 pubmed
  37. Rigual R, Rico A, Prieto Lloret J, De Felipe C, Gonzalez C, Donnelly D. Chemoreceptor activity is normal in mice lacking the NK1 receptor. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;16:2078-84 pubmed
    ..vitro, and tissue catecholamine levels and release in adult, wild-type mice and mice lacking the gene for the NK1 receptor (NK1-KO)...
  38. Weinstock J, Blum A, Metwali A, Elliott D, Bunnett N, Arsenescu R. Substance P regulates Th1-type colitis in IL-10 knockout mice. J Immunol. 2003;171:3762-7 pubmed
    ..NK-1R antagonist reverses ongoing intestinal inflammation attesting to the importance of SP and its receptor in mucosal inflammation. ..
  39. Luo C, Gangadharan V, Bali K, Xie R, Agarwal N, Kurejova M, et al. Presynaptically localized cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase 1 is a key determinant of spinal synaptic potentiation and pain hypersensitivity. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001283 pubmed publisher
  40. Quinn J, Kipar A, Hughes D, Bennett E, Cox H, McLaughlin L, et al. Altered host response to murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection in mice lacking the tachykinin 1 gene and the receptor for substance P. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..for the tachykinins in host response to viral infection has been previously demonstrated using either TAC1- or NK1 receptor-deficient transgenic mice...
  41. Ramalho R, Almeida J, Fernandes R, Costa R, Pirraco A, Guardão L, et al. Neurokinin-1 receptor, a new modulator of lymphangiogenesis in obese-asthma phenotype. Life Sci. 2013;93:169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..that Substance P (SP) is involved in pathophysiology of obese-asthma phenotype in mice through its selective NK1 receptor (NK1-R)...
  42. Weng H, Mansikka H, Winchurch R, Raja S, Dougherty P. Sensory processing in the deep spinal dorsal horn of neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. Anesthesiology. 2001;94:1105-12 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, neurokinin-1 receptors are critical for the central hyperexcitability that is observed in these neurons with repeated C-fiber inputs and to the central sensitization induced by topical mustard oil application. ..
  43. Laird J, Roza C, De Felipe C, Hunt S, Cervero F. Role of central and peripheral tachykinin NK1 receptors in capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in mice. Pain. 2001;90:97-103 pubmed
    ..role by comparing the behavioural responses to intradermal capsaicin of mutant mice with a disruption of the NK1 receptor (NK1 KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
  44. Gruber R, Börnchen C, Rose K, Daubmann A, Volksdorf T, Wladykowski E, et al. Diverse regulation of claudin-1 and claudin-4 in atopic dermatitis. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:2777-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we provide the first evidence that Cldn-1 and Cldn-4 are differentially involved in AD pathogenesis. Our data suggest a role of Cldn-1 in AD eczema formation triggered by inflammation. ..
  45. King T, Gardell L, Wang R, Vardanyan A, Ossipov M, Malan T, et al. Role of NK-1 neurotransmission in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Pain. 2005;116:276-88 pubmed
    ..Understanding of sustained morphine-induced neurochemical changes will help identify approaches that limit the deleterious actions of opiates. ..
  46. Dib M, Zsengeller Z, Mitsialis A, Lu B, Craig S, Gerard C, et al. A paradoxical protective role for the proinflammatory peptide substance P receptor (NK1R) in acute hyperoxic lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide substance P manifests its biological functions through ligation of a G protein-coupled receptor, the NK1R. Mice with targeted deletion of this receptor reveal a preponderance of proinflammatory properties resulting from ..
  47. Löffler S, Schulz A, Hunt S, Spanel Borowski K. Increased formation of corpora lutea in neurokinin 1-receptor deficient mice. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;68:408-14 pubmed
    ..Our observation may have implications for the luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome in humans. ..
  48. Amadesi S, Reni C, Katare R, Meloni M, Oikawa A, Beltrami A, et al. Role for substance p-based nociceptive signaling in progenitor cell activation and angiogenesis during ischemia in mice and in human subjects. Circulation. 2012;125:1774-86, S1-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight the role of SP in reparative neovascularization. Nociceptive signaling may represent a novel target of regenerative medicine. ..
  49. Robinson P, Garza A, Weinstock J, Serpa J, Goodman J, Eckols K, et al. Substance P causes seizures in neurocysticercosis. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002489 pubmed publisher
    ..from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice...
  50. Gaddipati S, Rao P, Jerome A, Burugula B, Gerard N, Suvas S. Loss of Neurokinin-1 Receptor Alters Ocular Surface Homeostasis and Promotes an Early Development of Herpes Stromal Keratitis. J Immunol. 2016;197:4021-4033 pubmed
    Substance P neuropeptide and its receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), are reported to present on the ocular surface...
  51. Sun J, Ramnath R, Tamizhselvi R, Bhatia M. Neurokinin A engages neurokinin-1 receptor to induce NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in murine macrophages: implications of ERK1/2 and PI 3-kinase/Akt pathways. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C679-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings reveal cellular mechanisms that may underlie NKA-mediated inflammatory and immunological conditions. ..
  52. Lever I, Grant A, Pezet S, Gerard N, Brain S, Malcangio M. Basal and activity-induced release of substance P from primary afferent fibres in NK1 receptor knockout mice: evidence for negative feedback. Neuropharmacology. 2003;45:1101-10 pubmed
    ..investigate the existence of this receptor on central and peripheral terminals of primary afferent fibres, NK1 receptor knockout mice and an NK1 receptor antagonist were used in nerve-attached tissue preparations...
  53. Marriott I, Bost K. Substance P receptor mediated macrophage responses. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;493:247-54 pubmed
    Taken together, these studies demonstrate an important role for substance P receptor expression by macrophages...
  54. Castagliuolo I, Riegler M, Pasha A, Nikulasson S, Lu B, Gerard C, et al. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor is required in Clostridium difficile- induced enteritis. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1547-50 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a major requirement for substance P receptors in the pathogenesis of acute inflammatory diarrhea. ..
  55. Weil M, Itin A, Keshet E. A role for mesenchyme-derived tachykinins in tooth and mammary gland morphogenesis. Development. 1995;121:2419-28 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest a surprising new role for tachykinins in tooth and mammary gland morphogenesis, and possibly also in limb, ear and external genitalia morphogenesis. ..
  56. Monastyrskaya K, Hostettler A, Buergi S, Draeger A. The NK1 receptor localizes to the plasma membrane microdomains, and its activation is dependent on lipid raft integrity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7135-46 pubmed
    ..The NK1 receptor was transiently expressed in HEK293 and HepG2 cell lines and its localization in membrane microdomains ..
  57. Leo D, Gainetdinov R. Transgenic mouse models for ADHD. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;354:259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..New transgenic models mouse models targeting other genes have recently been proposed for ADHD. Here, we discuss the recent advances and pitfalls in modeling ADHD endophenotypes in genetically altered animals. ..
  58. Koon H, Shih D, Karagiannides I, Zhao D, Fazelbhoy Z, Hing T, et al. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2300-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SP, via NK-1R, promotes intestinal fibrogenesis after chronic colitis by stimulating fibrotic responses in fibroblasts. ..
  59. Saban R, Gerard N, Saban M, Nguyen N, Deboer D, Wershil B. Mast cells mediate substance P-induced bladder inflammation through an NK(1) receptor-independent mechanism. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F616-29 pubmed
    The role of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in the interaction between mast cells and substance P (SP) in bladder inflammation was determined...
  60. Makino A, Sakai A, Ito H, Suzuki H. Involvement of tachykinins and NK1 receptor in the joint inflammation with collagen type II-specific monoclonal antibody-induced arthritis in mice. J Nippon Med Sch. 2012;79:129-38 pubmed
    ..Systemic injection of an NK1 receptor antagonist, WIN 51708, significantly inhibited the joint swelling, but not the mechanical allodynia, on day 7 ..
  61. Jasmin L, Tien D, Weinshenker D, Palmiter R, Green P, Janni G, et al. The NK1 receptor mediates both the hyperalgesia and the resistance to morphine in mice lacking noradrenaline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1029-34 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, however, antagonists to the substance P receptor (the NK1 receptor) could achieve the same effect as NA replacement...
  62. Wallén Mackenzie A, Gezelius H, Thoby Brisson M, Nygård A, Enjin A, Fujiyama F, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 is required for central respiratory rhythm generation but not for locomotor central pattern generation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12294-307 pubmed
    ..Hence, the present study identifies VGLUT2-mediated signaling as an obligatory component of the developing respiratory rhythm generator. ..
  63. Borbély E, Hajna Z, Sandor K, Kereskai L, Toth I, Pinter E, et al. Role of tachykinin 1 and 4 gene-derived neuropeptides and the neurokinin 1 receptor in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis of the mouse. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61684 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analysed the involvement of tachykinins derived from the Tac1 and Tac4 genes, as well as the NK1 receptor in chronic arthritis of the mouse...
  64. Kandere Grzybowska K, Gheorghe D, Priller J, Esposito P, Huang M, Gerard N, et al. Stress-induced dura vascular permeability does not develop in mast cell-deficient and neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. Brain Res. 2003;980:213-20 pubmed
    ..These results may help explain initial events in pathogenesis of stress-induced migraines. ..
  65. Ashique A, Choe Y, Karlen M, May S, Phamluong K, Solloway M, et al. The Rfx4 transcription factor modulates Shh signaling by regional control of ciliogenesis. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Rfx4 is a regionally specific transcriptional regulator of ciliogenesis and thus is also a regionally specific modulator of Shh signaling during development of the central nervous system. ..
  66. Mathers A, Tckacheva O, Janelsins B, Shufesky W, Morelli A, Larregina A. In vivo signaling through the neurokinin 1 receptor favors transgene expression by Langerhans cells and promotes the generation of Th1- and Tc1-biased immune responses. J Immunol. 2007;178:7006-17 pubmed
    ..SP exerts its proinflammatory functions by binding with high affinity to the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R)...
  67. Saban R, Nguyen N, Saban M, Gerard N, Pasricha P. Nerve-mediated motility of ileal segments isolated from NK(1) receptor knockout mice. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:G1173-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that, in the mouse ileum, both NK(1) and NK(2) receptors modulated the responses to exogenous tachykinins, whereas NK(1) is the primary tachykinin receptor involved in both iNANC and eNANC transmission. ..
  68. Starr A, Graepel R, Keeble J, Schmidhuber S, Clark N, Grant A, et al. A reactive oxygen species-mediated component in neurogenic vasodilatation. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;78:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..An essential role of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS is revealed that may be of fundamental importance to the neurogenic vasodilator component involved in circulatory homeostasis and the pathophysiology of certain cardiovascular diseases. ..
  69. Porter A, Pillidge K, Grabowska E, Stanford S. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, prevents the hyperactivity and impulsivity of neurokinin-1 receptor gene 'knockout' mice: sex differences and implications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:512-21 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display behavioural abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): locomotor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness...
  70. Wang J, Angulo J. Methamphetamine induces striatal neurokinin-1 receptor endocytosis primarily in somatostatin/NPY/NOS interneurons and the role of dopamine receptors in mice. Synapse. 2011;65:300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that METH induces the trafficking of the striatal neurokinin-1 receptors principally in the somatostatin/NPY/NOS interneurons and that this phenomenon is dependent on the activity of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. ..
  71. van der Kleij H, Ma D, Redegeld F, Kraneveld A, Nijkamp F, Bienenstock J. Functional expression of neurokinin 1 receptors on mast cells induced by IL-4 and stem cell factor. J Immunol. 2003;171:2074-9 pubmed
    ..This expression of NK(1) receptors has been demonstrated to be of functional relevance and leads to an increase in the sensitivity of BMMC to substance P. ..
  72. Morcuende S, Gadd C, Peters M, Moss A, Harris E, Sheasby A, et al. Increased neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurokinin-1 receptor gene knockout mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1828-36 pubmed
    ..They support the hypothesis that increased neurogenesis, perhaps accompanied by higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, may contribute to the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy. ..
  73. Hilaire G, Burnet H, Ptak K, Sieweke M, Blanchi B, De Felipe C, et al. Deletion of tachykinin NK1 receptor gene in mice does not alter respiratory network maturation but alters respiratory responses to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;536:497-504 pubmed
  74. Krieger K, Abbott M, Joksimovic M, Lueth P, Sonea I, Jeannotte L, et al. Transgenic mice ectopically expressing HOXA5 in the dorsal spinal cord show structural defects of the cervical spinal cord along with sensory and motor defects of the forelimb. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;150:125-39 pubmed
    ..Further, we see increased levels of apoptosis in transgenic spinal cord at embryonic day 13.5. Our evidence suggests apoptosis due to HOXA5 misexpression is a major cause of loss of superficial lamina cells in Hoxa5SV2 mice. ..
  75. Grant A, Akhtar R, Gerard N, Brain S. Neurokinin B induces oedema formation in mouse lung via tachykinin receptor-independent mechanisms. J Physiol. 2002;543:1007-14 pubmed
    ..These findings are in keeping with a role for NKB in mediating plasma extravasation in diseases such as pre-eclampsia. ..
  76. Liu H, Cao R, Jin L, Chen L. Immunocytochemical localization of substance P receptor in hypothalamic oxytocin-containing neurons of C57 mice. Brain Res. 2002;948:175-9 pubmed
    ..of double immunofluorescence, we have examined the distribution of oxytocin-containing neurons that express substance P receptor (SPR) in the hypothalamus of C57 mice...
  77. Cao T, Grant A, Gerard N, Brain S. Lack of a significant effect of deletion of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor on wound healing in mouse skin. Neuroscience. 2001;108:695-700 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it is shown that deletion of a functional NK(1) receptor has little effect on wound healing in response to a simple cut in mouse skin. ..
  78. Aita M, Seo K, Fujiwara N, Takagi R, Maeda T. Postnatal changes in the spatial distributions of substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis of mice. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2005;155:33-41 pubmed
    ..The present study examined postnatal changes in the spatial relationship between SP and its receptor, the NK1 receptor (NK1R), in the mouse Vc by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis...
  79. Zhao A, Shea Donohue T. PAR-2 agonists induce contraction of murine small intestine through neurokinin receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G696-703 pubmed
    ..We concluded that PAR-2 agonists induced a contraction of murine intestinal smooth muscle that was mediated by nerves. The excitatory effect is also dependent on sensory neural pathways and requires both NK1 and NK2 receptors. ..
  80. Xu J, Xu F. Role of neurogenic substance P in overexpression of alveolar macrophages' neurokinin 1 receptor in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Exp Lung Res. 2010;36:243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulate pulmonary C-fibers (PCFs) to release SP, we asked whether this neurogenic SP was responsible for AMs' NK1R overexpression during CS...
  81. Vergnano A, Salio C, Merighi A. NK1 receptor activation leads to enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission in spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons of mouse. Pain. 2004;112:37-47 pubmed
    ..recordings on lamina II neurons from transverse mouse spinal cord slices (P8-12), using the selective NK1 receptor agonist [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP (SM-SP, 3-5 microM) in the presence of NBQX...
  82. Scotland R, Chauhan S, Davis C, De Felipe C, Hunt S, Kabir J, et al. Vanilloid receptor TRPV1, sensory C-fibers, and vascular autoregulation: a novel mechanism involved in myogenic constriction. Circ Res. 2004;95:1027-34 pubmed
  83. Makhortova N, Askovich P, Patterson C, Gechman L, Gerard N, Rall G. Neurokinin-1 enables measles virus trans-synaptic spread in neurons. Virology. 2007;362:235-44 pubmed
    ..FIP, also blocked neuronal MV spread; and (4) both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of the Substance P receptor, neurokinin-1 (NK-1), reduced infection of susceptible mice...
  84. Chevalier M, Cardoit L, Moreau M, Sans N, Montcouquiol M, Simmers J, et al. The embryonic development of hindbrain respiratory networks is unaffected by mutation of the planar polarity protein Scribble. Neuroscience. 2017;357:160-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus further illustrate the robustness and specificity of the developmental processes involved in the establishment of hindbrain respiratory circuits. ..
  85. Kidd B, Inglis J, Vetsika K, Hood V, De Felipe C, Bester H, et al. Inhibition of inflammation and hyperalgesia in NK-1 receptor knock-out mice. Neuroreport. 2003;14:2189-92 pubmed
    ..The results point to a previously unrecognised influence of substance P on peripheral tissue injury and the maintenance of hyperalgesia during more severe or more chronic phases of inflammatory disease. ..