Gene Symbol: Tac1
Description: tachykinin 1
Alias: 4930528L02Rik, NK-1, NK1, Nkna, PPT-A, PPTA, protachykinin-1, neurokinin 1, neurokinin A, preprotachykinin A, substance P
Species: mouse
Products:     Tac1

Top Publications

  1. Sang Q, Young H. The origin and development of the vagal and spinal innervation of the external muscle of the mouse esophagus. Brain Res. 1998;809:253-68 pubmed
  2. George L, Chaverra M, Wolfe L, Thorne J, Close Davis M, Eibs A, et al. Familial dysautonomia model reveals Ikbkap deletion causes apoptosis of Pax3+ progenitors and peripheral neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:18698-703 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that FD does not result from a failure in trunk neural crest migration, but rather from a critical function for Ikbkap in TrkA progenitors and TrkA(+) neurons. ..
  3. Metwali A, Blum A, Elliott D, Setiawan T, Weinstock J. Cutting edge: hemokinin has substance P-like function and expression in inflammation. J Immunol. 2004;172:6528-32 pubmed
    Substance P (SP) belongs to the tachykinin family of molecules. SP, cleaved from preprotachykinin A, is a neuropeptide and a proinflammatory leukocyte product. SP engages neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) to stimulate cells...
  4. Lin C, Chen W, Chen C, Lin Y, Zimmer A, Chen C. An antinociceptive role for substance P in acid-induced chronic muscle pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E76-83 pubmed publisher
    Release of substance P (SP) from nociceptive nerve fibers and activation of its receptor neurokinin 1 (NK1) are important effectors in the transmission of pain signals. Nonetheless, the role of SP in muscle pain remains unknown...
  5. Zimmer A, Zimmer A, Baffi J, Usdin T, Reynolds K, Konig M, et al. Hypoalgesia in mice with a targeted deletion of the tachykinin 1 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2630-5 pubmed
    The tachykinin neuropeptides, substance P and substance K, are produced in nociceptive primary sensory neurons and in many brain regions involved in pain signaling...
  6. Cao Y, Mantyh P, Carlson E, Gillespie A, Epstein C, Basbaum A. Primary afferent tachykinins are required to experience moderate to intense pain. Nature. 1998;392:390-4 pubmed
    ..The contribution of substance P, however, is still unclear. We have now disrupted the mouse preprotachykinin A gene (PPT-A), which encodes substance P and a related tachykinin, neurokinin A...
  7. Kramer I, Sigrist M, de Nooij J, Taniuchi I, Jessell T, Arber S. A role for Runx transcription factor signaling in dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron diversification. Neuron. 2006;49:379-93 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings suggest that Runx transcription factor signaling plays a key role in sensory neuron diversification. ..
  8. Chen C, Broom D, Liu Y, de Nooij J, Li Z, Cen C, et al. Runx1 determines nociceptive sensory neuron phenotype and is required for thermal and neuropathic pain. Neuron. 2006;49:365-77 pubmed
    ..Moreover, mice lacking Runx1 exhibit specific defects in thermal and neuropathic pain. Thus, Runx1 coordinates the phenotype of a large cohort of nociceptors, a finding with implications for pain therapy. ..
  9. Berger A, Tran A, Dida J, Minkin S, Gerard N, Yeomans J, et al. Diminished pheromone-induced sexual behavior in neurokinin-1 receptor deficient (TACR1(-/-)) mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:568-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated whether TAC1- and TAC4-encoded peptides (substance P and hemokinin-1, respectively) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the modulation of sexual ..

More Information


  1. Zhang H, Hegde A, Ng S, Adhikari S, Moochhala S, Bhatia M. Hydrogen sulfide up-regulates substance P in polymicrobial sepsis-associated lung injury. J Immunol. 2007;179:4153-60 pubmed
    ..However, whether endogenous H2S would regulate sepsis-associated lung inflammation via substance P (SP) and its receptors remains unknown...
  2. Ng S, Zhang H, Hegde A, Bhatia M. Role of preprotachykinin-A gene products on multiple organ injury in LPS-induced endotoxemia. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:288-95 pubmed
    ..Preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) gene products, substance P (SP), and neurokinin-A have been shown to play an important role in neurogenic inflammation...
  3. De Felipe C, Herrero J, O Brien J, Palmer J, Doyle C, Smith A, et al. Altered nociception, analgesia and aggression in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. Nature. 1998;392:394-7 pubmed
    The peptide neurotransmitter substance P modulates sensitivity to pain by activating the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is expressed by discrete populations of neurons throughout the central nervous system...
  4. Liu H, Cao Y, Basbaum A, Mazarati A, Sankar R, Wasterlain C. Resistance to excitotoxin-induced seizures and neuronal death in mice lacking the preprotachykinin A gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12096-101 pubmed
    ..Here we report that mice with disruption of the preprotachykinin A gene, which encodes SP and neurokinin A, are resistant to kainate excitoxicity...
  5. Garza A, Weinstock J, Robinson P. Absence of the SP/SP receptor circuitry in the substance P-precursor knockout mice or SP receptor, neurokinin (NK)1 knockout mice leads to an inhibited cytokine response in granulomas associated with murine Taenia crassiceps infection. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction. The neuropeptide, substance P (SP), stimulates T-helper (TH) 1 cytokine production...
  6. Puneet P, Hegde A, Ng S, Lau H, Lu J, Moochhala S, et al. Preprotachykinin-A gene products are key mediators of lung injury in polymicrobial sepsis. J Immunol. 2006;176:3813-20 pubmed
    Preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) gene products substance P and neurokinin-A have been shown to play an important role in neurogenic inflammation...
  7. Bhatia M, Zhi L, Zhang H, Ng S, Moore P. Role of substance P in hydrogen sulfide-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L896-904 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have investigated the involvement of substance P and neurogenic inflammation in H(2)S-induced lung inflammation...
  8. Xu Y, Lopes C, Qian Y, Liu Y, Cheng L, Goulding M, et al. Tlx1 and Tlx3 coordinate specification of dorsal horn pain-modulatory peptidergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4037-46 pubmed publisher
    ..a set of neuropeptide genes, including those encoding the anti-opioid peptide cholecystokinin, pronociceptive Substance P (SP), Neurokinin B, and a late wave of somatostatin...
  9. Robinson P, White A, Lewis D, Thornby J, David E, Weinstock J. Sequential expression of the neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin in granulomas associated with murine cysticercosis. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4534-8 pubmed
    ..Neuropeptides modulate cytokine responses and granuloma formation in murine schistosomiasis. Substance P (SP) induces Th1 cytokine expression and granuloma formation, whereas somatostatin inhibits the granulomatous ..
  10. Xiang M, Gan L, Zhou L, Klein W, Nathans J. Targeted deletion of the mouse POU domain gene Brn-3a causes selective loss of neurons in the brainstem and trigeminal ganglion, uncoordinated limb movement, and impaired suckling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11950-5 pubmed
  11. Taniwaki T, Shinoda H, Kaseda Y, Kato M, Goto I. Increased preproenkephalin mRNA and preprotachykinin mRNA in the striatum of Rolling mouse Nagoya. Brain Res. 1996;714:231-4 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that the site of primary dysfunction in the basal ganglia is in the striatum of RMN. ..
  12. Simavli S, Thompson I, Maguire C, Gill J, Carroll R, Wolfe A, et al. Substance p regulates puberty onset and fertility in the female mouse. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we assessed whether SP, through binding to its receptor NK1R (neurokinin 1 receptor), participates in the timing of puberty onset and fertility in the mouse...
  13. Kandere Grzybowska K, Gheorghe D, Priller J, Esposito P, Huang M, Gerard N, et al. Stress-induced dura vascular permeability does not develop in mast cell-deficient and neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. Brain Res. 2003;980:213-20 pubmed
    ..effects inhibited by neonatal pretreatment with capsaicin implicating sensory neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP)...
  14. Chaverra M, George L, Mergy M, Waller H, Kujawa K, Murnion C, et al. The familial dysautonomia disease gene IKBKAP is required in the developing and adult mouse central nervous system. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:605-618 pubmed publisher
    ..With the identification of discrete CNS cell types and structures that depend on Ikbkap, novel strategies to thwart the progressive demise of CNS neurons in FD can be developed. ..
  15. Shanley L, Lear M, Davidson S, Ross R, Mackenzie A. Evidence for regulatory diversity and auto-regulation at the TAC1 locus in sensory neurones. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:10 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide substance-P (SP) is expressed from the TAC1 gene in sensory neurones where it acts as a key modulator of neurogenic inflammation...
  16. Matsumoto K, Hosoya T, Tashima K, Namiki T, Murayama T, Horie S. Distribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel-expressing nerve fibers in mouse rectal and colonic enteric nervous system: relationship to peptidergic and nitrergic neurons. Neuroscience. 2011;172:518-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Abundant substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactivity were revealed in muscle layers...
  17. Yu T, Calvo L, Anta B, L pez Benito S, L pez Bellido R, Vicente Garc a C, et al. In vivo regulation of NGF-mediated functions by Nedd4-2 ubiquitination of TrkA. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6098-106 pubmed publisher
    ..dorsal root ganglia from the TrkAP782S knock-in mice display an increased number of neurons expressing CGRP and substance P. Moreover, the mutant mice show enhanced sensitivity to thermal and inflammatory pain...
  18. Blum A, Setiawan T, Hang L, Stoyanoff K, Weinstock J. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 induction of substance p synthesis in murine T cells and macrophages is subject to IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta regulation. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3651-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P is a tachykinin that enhances pathways of inflammation. Leukocytes at sites of intestinal inflammation make substance P...
  19. Xu L, Zhao Y, Zhan S, Tang X, Guo Y, Wang H, et al. Temporal and spatial expression of preprotachykinin A mRNA in the developing filial mice brain after maternal administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy. Neuroscience. 2007;145:974-80 pubmed
    ..In mice, the expression of preprotachykinin A mRNA (PPT A mRNA) was assessed in neurons of in the brain after MSG treatment...
  20. Ehrman L, Mu X, Waclaw R, Yoshida Y, Vorhees C, Klein W, et al. The LIM homeobox gene Isl1 is required for the correct development of the striatonigral pathway in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4026-35 pubmed publisher
  21. Shimamura K, Takahashi T, Takeichi M. E-cadherin expression in a particular subset of sensory neurons. Dev Biol. 1992;152:242-54 pubmed
    ..dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which was identified as part of lamina II by double-staining for E-cadherin and substance P or somatostatin...
  22. Hongbao M, Yan Y, Shen C. Gender-specific effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P on coronary blood flow in an experimental model. Angiology. 2009;60:569-75 pubmed publisher
    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) play counter-regulatory roles in coronary flow. This study is to assess whether effects of CGRP and SP are gender-specific...
  23. Quinn J, Kipar A, Hughes D, Bennett E, Cox H, McLaughlin L, et al. Altered host response to murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection in mice lacking the tachykinin 1 gene and the receptor for substance P. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:49-53 pubmed publisher
    The tachykinins are implicated in neurogenic inflammation and the neuropeptide substance P in particular has been shown to be a proinflammatory mediator...
  24. Nakatsuka T, Chen M, Takeda D, King C, Ling J, Xing H, et al. Substance P-driven feed-forward inhibitory activity in the mammalian spinal cord. Mol Pain. 2005;1:20 pubmed
    ..b>Substance P (SP), the prototypic neuropeptide released from primary afferent fibers to the dorsal horn, is regarded as a ..
  25. Okaya T, Holthaus R, Kato A, Lentsch A. Involvement of the neuropeptide substance P in lung inflammation induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Inflamm Res. 2004;53:257-61 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential role of substance P in accumulation of neutrophils in the lung following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion...
  26. Fauchey V, Jaber M, Bloch B, Le Moine C. Dopamine control of striatal gene expression during development: relevance to knockout mice for the dopamine transporter. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:3415-25 pubmed
    ..By in situ hybridization, we detected striatal dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptor, and substance P mRNAs at G13, preproenkephalin A mRNA at G14 and dynorphin mRNA at G17 in normal mice...
  27. Niedermair T, Kuhn V, Doranehgard F, Stange R, Wieskötter B, Beckmann J, et al. Absence of substance P and the sympathetic nervous system impact on bone structure and chondrocyte differentiation in an adult model of endochondral ossification. Matrix Biol. 2014;38:22-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the impact of the absence of sensory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and the removal of SNF on callus differentiation, a model for endochondral ossification in adult animals, ..
  28. Navarro V, Bosch M, León S, Simavli S, True C, Pinilla L, et al. The integrated hypothalamic tachykinin-kisspeptin system as a central coordinator for reproduction. Endocrinology. 2015;156:627-37 pubmed publisher
    Tachykinins are comprised of the family of related peptides, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB)...
  29. Funato H, Sato M, Sinton C, Gautron L, Williams S, Skach A, et al. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Gscl(-/-) mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. ..
  30. Engel M, Khalil M, Mueller Tribbensee S, Becker C, Neuhuber W, Neurath M, et al. The proximodistal aggravation of colitis depends on substance P released from TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons. J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:256-65 pubmed publisher
    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1)-expressing sensory neurons release neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which play a crucial role in the pathomechanism of experimental ..
  31. Chen T, Wang P, Carroll L, Zhang Y, Han B, Wang F. Generation and characterization of Tmeff2 mutant mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..No tumors were found in Tmeff2-mutant mice. The Tmeff2(PLAP/PLAP) knock-in mouse is an useful tool for studying the in vivo biological functions of TMEFF2. ..
  32. Luo C, Gangadharan V, Bali K, Xie R, Agarwal N, Kurejova M, et al. Presynaptically localized cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase 1 is a key determinant of spinal synaptic potentiation and pain hypersensitivity. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001283 pubmed publisher
  33. Trivedi C, Shan X, Tung Y, Kabra D, Holland J, Amburgy S, et al. Tachykinin-1 in the central nervous system regulates adiposity in rodents. Endocrinology. 2015;156:1714-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified tachykinin-1 (Tac1) as a gene negatively regulated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus...
  34. Telgkamp P, Cao Y, Basbaum A, Ramirez J. Long-term deprivation of substance P in PPT-A mutant mice alters the anoxic response of the isolated respiratory network. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:206-13 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the neuromodulator substance P and its related tachykinin neurokinin A (NKA) in the homeostasis of respiratory activity...
  35. Chung S, Weber F, Zhong P, Tan C, Nguyen T, BEIER K, et al. Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling. Nature. 2017;545:477-481 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings provide easy genetic access to sleep-promoting preoptic area neurons and a valuable entry point for dissecting the sleep control circuit. ..
  36. Plassat J, Amlaiky N, Hen R. Molecular cloning of a mammalian serotonin receptor that activates adenylate cyclase. Mol Pharmacol. 1993;44:229-36 pubmed
    ..The high affinity of the 5-HTx receptor for neuroleptic agents such as (+)-butaclamol and clozapine suggests also that this receptor might play a role in certain neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
  37. Murtra P, Sheasby A, Hunt S, De Felipe C. Rewarding effects of opiates are absent in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. Nature. 2000;405:180-3 pubmed
    Modulation of substance P activity offers a radical new approach to the management of depression, anxiety and stress...
  38. King T, Barr G. Functional development of neurokinin peptides substance P and neurokinin A in nociception. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1603-7 pubmed
    ..neurokinin peptides in 3- and 21-day-old rat pups using the preprotachykinin-A (PPTA) knockout mouse, lacking neurokinin A and substance P...
  39. Wu Y, You H, Ma P, Li L, Yuan Y, Li J, et al. Role of transient receptor potential ion channels and evoked levels of neuropeptides in a formaldehyde-induced model of asthma in BALB/c mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62827 pubmed publisher
    ..Formaldehyde is a common indoor air pollutant that can cause asthma in people experiencing long-term exposure. The irritant effect and adjuvant effect are the two possible pathways of formaldehyde promoted asthma...
  40. Barreto S, Carati C, Schloithe A, Toouli J, Saccone G. The combination of neurokinin-1 and galanin receptor antagonists ameliorates caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Peptides. 2010;31:315-21 pubmed publisher
    Both galanin and substance P have been separately implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis...
  41. Senzaki K, Ozaki S, Yoshikawa M, Ito Y, Shiga T. Runx3 is required for the specification of TrkC-expressing mechanoreceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Runx3 is required for the specification of TrkC-expressing TG neurons, conveying mechanoreceptive signals from the Merkel cells in the ORS of the whisker vibrissae to the Sp5I. ..
  42. Komatsu T, Mizoguchi H, Sasaki M, Sakurada C, Tsuzuki M, Sakurada S, et al. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by substance P N-terminal fragment decreases capsaicin-induced nociceptive response. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61:608-13 pubmed publisher
    Previous research has demonstrated that substance P N-terminal fragments produced by the action of several different enzymes in the spinal cord could reduce nociception when injected intrathecally (i.t.) into mice...
  43. Kiehl T, Fischer S, Ezzat S, Asa S. Mice lacking the transcription factor Ikaros display behavioral alterations of an anti-depressive phenotype. Exp Neurol. 2008;211:107-14 pubmed publisher
  44. Siebenhaar F, Sharov A, Peters E, Sharova T, Syska W, Mardaryev A, et al. Substance P as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in a mouse model for autoimmune hair loss (alopecia areata). J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1489-97 pubmed
    ..b>Substance P (SP) plays a critical role in the cutaneous neuroimmune network and influences immune cell functions through ..
  45. Yamaoka J, Kawana S. A transient unresponsive state of self-scratching behaviour is induced in mice by skin-scratching stimulation. Exp Dermatol. 2007;16:737-45 pubmed
    ..From these results, it is suggested that substance P (SP) signalling through its receptor NK-1R at least in part mediates the induction of self-scratching behaviour...
  46. Arsenescu R, Blum A, Metwali A, Elliott D, Weinstock J. IL-12 induction of mRNA encoding substance P in murine macrophages from the spleen and sites of inflammation. J Immunol. 2005;174:3906-11 pubmed
    ..We therefore studied macrophages (F4/80(+)) from these models of inflammation. SP mRNA (preprotachykinin A (PPT A)) was detected within the schistosome granuloma, spleen, and lamina propria macrophages...
  47. Fazeli A, Dickinson S, Hermiston M, Tighe R, Steen R, Small C, et al. Phenotype of mice lacking functional Deleted in colorectal cancer (Dcc) gene. Nature. 1997;386:796-804 pubmed
    ..These observations fail to support a tumour-suppressor function for Dcc, but are consistent with the hypothesis that DCC is a component of a receptor for netrin-1. ..
  48. Pagliardini S, Ren J, Wevrick R, Greer J. Developmental abnormalities of neuronal structure and function in prenatal mice lacking the prader-willi syndrome gene necdin. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:175-91 pubmed
  49. Leal E, Carvalho E, Tellechea A, Kafanas A, Tecilazich F, Kearney C, et al. Substance P promotes wound healing in diabetes by modulating inflammation and macrophage phenotype. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:1638-48 pubmed publisher
    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication of diabetes. Substance P (SP) is involved in wound healing, but its effect in diabetic skin wounds is unclear...
  50. Sio S, Puthia M, Lu J, Moochhala S, Bhatia M. The neuropeptide substance P is a critical mediator of burn-induced acute lung injury. J Immunol. 2008;180:8333-41 pubmed
    The classical tachykinin substance P (SP) has numerous potent neuroimmunomodulatory effects on all kinds of airway functions...
  51. Krause J, Chirgwin J, Carter M, Xu Z, Hershey A. Three rat preprotachykinin mRNAs encode the neuropeptides substance P and neurokinin A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:881-5 pubmed
    ..to screen a rat striatal cDNA library for sequences corresponding to the tachykinin peptides substance P and neurokinin A. The cDNA library was constructed from RNA isolated from the rostral portion of the rat corpus striatum, the ..
  52. Vergnolle N, Bunnett N, Sharkey K, Brussee V, Compton S, Grady E, et al. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 and hyperalgesia: A novel pain pathway. Nat Med. 2001;7:821-6 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a previously unrecognized nociceptive pathway with important therapeutic implications, and our results point to a direct role for proteinases and their receptors in pain transmission. ..
  53. Martin W, Cao Y, Basbaum A. Characterization of wide dynamic range neurons in the deep dorsal horn of the spinal cord in preprotachykinin-a null mice in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:1945-54 pubmed
    ..reported that mice with a deletion of the preprotachykinin-A (pptA) gene, from which substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are derived, exhibit reduced behavioral responses to intense stimuli, but that behavioral ..
  54. Xia X, Treanor J, Senaldi G, Khare S, Boone T, Kelley M, et al. TACI is a TRAF-interacting receptor for TALL-1, a tumor necrosis factor family member involved in B cell regulation. J Exp Med. 2000;192:137-43 pubmed
    ..The identification and characterization of the receptor for TALL-1 provides useful information for the development of a treatment for B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. ..
  55. Fan X, Kim H, Warner M, Gustafsson J. Estrogen receptor beta is essential for sprouting of nociceptive primary afferents and for morphogenesis and maintenance of the dorsal horn interneurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13696-701 pubmed
    ..In ERbeta(-/-) mice, there were higher levels of calcitonin gene-regulated peptide and substance P in spinal cord dorsal horn and isolectin B4 in the dorsal root ganglion...
  56. Wang Y, Gallego Arteche E, Iezza G, Yuan X, Matli M, Choo S, et al. Homeodomain transcription factor NKX2.2 functions in immature cells to control enteroendocrine differentiation and is expressed in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:267-79 pubmed publisher
    ..2 functions in immature endocrine cells to control NE differentiation in normal intestine and is expressed in most NE tumors of the gut, and is therefore a novel target of diagnosis for patients with gastrointestinal NE tumors. ..
  57. Batista Brito R, Machold R, Klein C, Fishell G. Gene expression in cortical interneuron precursors is prescient of their mature function. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2306-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our work has revealed that many of the genes expressed in cortical interneuron precursors have been independently linked to neurological disorders in both mice and humans. ..
  58. Mazario J, Basbaum A. Contribution of substance P and neurokinin A to the differential injury-induced thermal and mechanical responsiveness of lamina I and V neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:762-70 pubmed
    ..mice and in mice with a deletion of the preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) gene, which encodes substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA)...
  59. Zou M, Li S, Klein W, Xiang M. Brn3a/Pou4f1 regulates dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron specification and axonal projection into the spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2012;364:114-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results together demonstrate a critical role for Brn3a in generating DRG sensory neuron diversity and regulating sensory afferent projections to the central targets. ..
  60. Jones S, Tucker K, Sage T, Kaiser W, Barrett N, Lowry P, et al. Peripheral tachykinins and the neurokinin receptor NK1 are required for platelet thrombus formation. Blood. 2008;111:605-12 pubmed
    ..this study, we define a role for peripherally distributed members of the tachykinin family of peptides, namely substance P and the newly discovered endokinins A and B that are present in platelets, in the activation of platelet ..
  61. Pavlovic S, Liezmann C, Blois S, Joachim R, Kruse J, Romani N, et al. Substance P is a key mediator of stress-induced protection from allergic sensitization via modified antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2011;186:848-55 pubmed publisher
    ..and increases levels of IL-2 and T regulatory cell numbers in local lymph nodes and inflamed tissue in a neurokinin 1-SP-receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor)-dependent manner...
  62. Lopes C, Liu Z, Xu Y, Ma Q. Tlx3 and Runx1 act in combination to coordinate the development of a cohort of nociceptors, thermoceptors, and pruriceptors. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9706-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies suggest that genetically Tlx3 acts in combination with Runx1 to control the development of a cohort of nociceptors, thermoceptors, and pruriceptors in mice. ..
  63. Berner J, Shvarev Y, Zimmer A, Wickstrom R. Hypoxic ventilatory response in Tac1-/- neonatal mice following exposure to opioids. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;113:1718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..on respiration during intermittent hypoxia in newborn Tac1 gene knockout mice (Tac1-/-) lacking substance P and neurokinin A. In vivo, plethysmography revealed a blunted hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in Tac1-/- mice...
  64. Melendez G, Li J, Law B, Janicki J, Supowit S, Levick S. Substance P induces adverse myocardial remodelling via a mechanism involving cardiac mast cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;92:420-9 pubmed publisher
    Substance P and neurokinin A (NKA) are sensory nerve neuropeptides encoded by the TAC1 gene. Substance P is a mast cell secretagogue and mast cells are known to play a role in adverse myocardial remodelling...
  65. Wang Y, Wang D. Role of substance P in renal injury during DOCA-salt hypertension. Endocrinology. 2012;153:5972-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P (SP), a neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) agonist, is mainly produced and stored in primary sensory nerves and, upon its release, participates in cardiovascular and renal functional regulation...
  66. Erin N, Duymuş O, Ozturk S, Demir N. Activation of vagus nerve by semapimod alters substance P levels and decreases breast cancer metastasis. Regul Pept. 2012;179:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..role of vagal sensory neurons on this effect and changes in mediators of the neuroimmune connection, such as substance P (SP) as well as neprilysin-like activity, were examined...
  67. Xu J, Xu F, Wang R, Seagrave J, Lin Y, March T. Cigarette smoke-induced hypercapnic emphysema in C3H mice is associated with increases of macrophage metalloelastase and substance P in the lungs. Exp Lung Res. 2007;33:197-215 pubmed
    The authors tested whether macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) and substance P (SP) were increased in the cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed female C3H/HeN mice with hypercapnic emphysema...
  68. Hegde A, Tamizhselvi R, Manikandan J, Melendez A, Moochhala S, Bhatia M. Substance P in polymicrobial sepsis: molecular fingerprint of lung injury in preprotachykinin-A-/- mice. Mol Med. 2010;16:188-98 pubmed publisher
    Deletion of mouse preprotachykinin-A (PPTA), which encodes mainly for neuropeptide substance P, has been shown to protect against lung injury and mortality in sepsis...
  69. Nakamura Y, Une Y, Miyano K, Abe H, Hisaoka K, Morioka N, et al. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 evokes nociception through substance P release from primary sensory neurons. J Neurochem. 2012;120:1036-47 pubmed publisher
    To examine mechanisms underlying substance P (SP) release from primary sensory neurons in response to activation of the non-selective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), SP release from cultured rat dorsal root ..
  70. Kuwako K, Hosokawa A, Nishimura I, Uetsuki T, Yamada M, Nada S, et al. Disruption of the paternal necdin gene diminishes TrkA signaling for sensory neuron survival. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7090-9 pubmed
    ..necdin allele displayed augmented apoptosis in the sensory ganglia in vivo and had a reduced population of substance P-containing neurons...
  71. Dinh Q, Groneberg D, Peiser C, Joachim R, Frossard N, Arck P, et al. Expression of substance P and nitric oxide synthase in vagal sensory neurons innervating the mouse airways. Regul Pept. 2005;126:189-94 pubmed
    Airway sensory nerves have the capacity to release neuromediators such as substance P and nitric oxide to control airway functions...
  72. Mori T, Yuxing Z, Takaki H, Takeuchi M, Iseki K, Hagino S, et al. The LIM homeobox gene, L3/Lhx8, is necessary for proper development of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:3129-41 pubmed
    ..Neurotransmitter phenotypes other than cholinergic in the basal forebrain appeared intact. From these results, we suggested that L3/Lhx8 has a pivotal and specific role in the development and/or maintenance of BFCNs. ..
  73. Wang Q, Oyarzabal E, Wilson B, Qian L, Hong J. Substance P enhances microglial density in the substantia nigra through neurokinin-1 receptor/NADPH oxidase-mediated chemotaxis in mice. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:757-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism underlying this uneven distribution remains unclear. Substance P (SP) is a potent proinflammatory neuropeptide with high concentrations in the SN...
  74. Gutierrez Mecinas M, Bell A, Marin A, Taylor R, Boyle K, Furuta T, et al. Preprotachykinin A is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory neurons in the mouse superficial spinal dorsal horn including cells that respond to noxious and pruritic stimuli. Pain. 2017;158:440-456 pubmed publisher
    ..We show with immunocytochemistry that its precursor protein (preprotachykinin A, PPTA) can be detected in ?14% of lamina I-II neurons, and these are concentrated in the outer part of ..
  75. Allison M, Patterson C, Krashes M, Lowell B, Myers M, Olson D. TRAP-seq defines markers for novel populations of hypothalamic and brainstem LepRb neurons. Mol Metab. 2015;4:299-309 pubmed publisher
    ..TRAP-seq of CNS LepRb neurons defines the LepRb neuron transcriptome and reveals novel markers for previously unrecognized subpopulations of LepRb neurons. ..
  76. Miegueu P, St Pierre D, Lapointe M, Poursharifi P, Lu H, Gupta A, et al. Substance P decreases fat storage and increases adipocytokine production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G420-7 pubmed publisher
    Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance are closely linked. Substance P (SP), via its neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), mediates inflammatory and, possibly, neuroendocrine processes...
  77. Weinstock J, Blum A, Metwali A, Elliott D, Bunnett N, Arsenescu R. Substance P regulates Th1-type colitis in IL-10 knockout mice. J Immunol. 2003;171:3762-7 pubmed
    Substance P (SP) is a proinflammatory molecule that interacts with a neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), which is on T cells and helps control IFN-gamma production...
  78. Ang S, Moochhala S, Macary P, Bhatia M. Hydrogen sulfide and neurogenic inflammation in polymicrobial sepsis: involvement of substance P and ERK-NF-?B signaling. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24535 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that whether substance P (SP) is one important neural element that implicates in H(2)S-induced neurogenic inflammation in sepsis in a ..
  79. Wang B, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Dlx6 regulates molecular properties of the striatum and central nucleus of the amygdala. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:2320-34 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA expression array analysis of the E18.5 striatum was useful in identifying the transcription factors that are expressed in this tissue, but did not identify major changes in gene expression in the Dlx6(LacZ/LacZ) mutant. ..
  80. Lu K, Evans S, Hirano S, Liu F. Dual role for Islet-1 in promoting striatonigral and repressing striatopallidal genetic programs to specify striatonigral cell identity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons was defective, as evidenced by decreased expression of striatonigral-enriched genes, including substance P, prodynorphin, solute carrier family 35, member D3 (Slc35d3), and PlexinD1...
  81. Hens G, Raap U, Vanoirbeek J, Meyts I, Callebaut I, Verbinnen B, et al. Selective nasal allergen provocation induces substance P-mediated bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:517-23 pubmed publisher
    ..An increased substance P (SP) concentration in the bronchial lumen was found, as well as an increased number of SP-positive pulmonary ..
  82. Mo J, Neelam S, Mellon J, Brown J, Niederkorn J. Effect of Corneal Nerve Ablation on Immune Tolerance Induced by Corneal Allografts, Oral Immunization, or Anterior Chamber Injection of Antigens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:137-148 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide substance P (SP) was crucial for contrasuppressor activity as CS cells could not be induced in SP-/- mice and the SP ..
  83. Ringstedt T, Kucera J, Lendahl U, Ernfors P, Ibanez C. Limb proprioceptive deficits without neuronal loss in transgenic mice overexpressing neurotrophin-3 in the developing nervous system. Development. 1997;124:2603-13 pubmed
    ..birth, transgenic DRG showed increased neuron numbers, and displayed a normal proportion of neurons expressing substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and the NT3 receptor trkC...
  84. Baydyuk M, Russell T, Liao G, Zang K, An J, Reichardt L, et al. TrkB receptor controls striatal formation by regulating the number of newborn striatal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1669-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that neurotrophins can control the size of neuronal populations in the brain by promoting the survival of newborn neurons before they migrate to their final destinations. ..
  85. Nahas G, Murthy R, Patel S, Ganta T, Greco S, Rameshwar P. The RNA-binding protein Musashi 1 stabilizes the oncotachykinin 1 mRNA in breast cancer cells to promote cell growth. FASEB J. 2016;30:149-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P and its truncated receptor exert oncogenic effects. The high production of substance P in breast cancer cells (BCCs) is caused by the enhancement of tachykinin (TAC)1 translation by cytosolic factor...