Gene Symbol: Synpo
Description: synaptopodin
Alias: 9030217H17Rik, 9130229N11, 9330140I15Rik, AW046661, synaptopodin
Species: mouse
Products:     Synpo

Top Publications

  1. Mundel P, Heid H, Mundel T, Kruger M, Reiser J, Kriz W. Synaptopodin: an actin-associated protein in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:193-204 pubmed
    b>Synaptopodin is an actin-associated protein of differentiated podocytes that also occurs as part of the actin cytoskeleton of postsynaptic densities (PSD) and associated dendritic spines in a subpopulation of exclusively telencephalic ..
  2. Doné S, Takemoto M, He L, Sun Y, Hultenby K, Betsholtz C, et al. Nephrin is involved in podocyte maturation but not survival during glomerular development. Kidney Int. 2008;73:697-704 pubmed
    ..Nephrin does not seem to have a primary role in cell survival but has a small impact on gene regulation during glomerular development. ..
  3. Stewart K, Gaitan Y, Shafer M, Aoudjit L, Hu D, Sharma R, et al. A Point Mutation in p190A RhoGAP Affects Ciliogenesis and Leads to Glomerulocystic Kidney Defects. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005785 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results establish an unexpected link between Rho GTPase regulation, ciliogenesis and glomerulocystic kidney disease. ..
  4. Fan X, Li Q, Pisarek Horowitz A, Rasouly H, Wang X, Bonegio R, et al. Inhibitory effects of Robo2 on nephrin: a crosstalk between positive and negative signals regulating podocyte structure. Cell Rep. 2012;2:52-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Robo2 signaling acts as a negative regulator on nephrin to influence podocyte foot process architecture. ..
  5. Deller T, Korte M, Chabanis S, Drakew A, Schwegler H, Stefani G, et al. Synaptopodin-deficient mice lack a spine apparatus and show deficits in synaptic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10494-9 pubmed
    ..We have recently shown that the 100-kDa protein synaptopodin is associated with the spine apparatus...
  6. Faul C, Dhume A, Schecter A, Mundel P. Protein kinase A, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, and calcineurin regulate the intracellular trafficking of myopodin between the Z-disc and the nucleus of cardiac myocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8215-27 pubmed
    ..The identification of myopodin as a direct target of PKA, CaMKII, and calcineurin defines a novel intracellular signaling pathway whereby changes in Z-disc dynamics may translate into compartmentalized signal transduction in the heart. ..
  7. Yanagida Asanuma E, Asanuma K, Kim K, Donnelly M, Young Choi H, Hyung Chang J, et al. Synaptopodin protects against proteinuria by disrupting Cdc42:IRSp53:Mena signaling complexes in kidney podocytes. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:415-27 pubmed
    ..b>Synaptopodin is an actin-associated protein essential for the integrity of the podocyte actin cytoskeleton because ..
  8. Korkotian E, Frotscher M, Segal M. Synaptopodin regulates spine plasticity: mediation by calcium stores. J Neurosci. 2014;34:11641-51 pubmed publisher
    The role of synaptopodin (SP), an actin-binding protein residing in dendritic spines, in synaptic plasticity was studied in dissociated cultures of hippocampus taken from control and SP knock-out (SPKO) mice...
  9. Bas Orth C, Vlachos A, Del Turco D, Burbach G, Haas C, Mundel P, et al. Lamina-specific distribution of Synaptopodin, an actin-associated molecule essential for the spine apparatus, in identified principal cell dendrites of the mouse hippocampus. J Comp Neurol. 2005;487:227-39 pubmed
    b>Synaptopodin is an actin-associated molecule found in a subset of telencephalic spines. It is an essential component of the spine apparatus, a Ca(2+)-storing organelle and has been implicated in synaptic plasticity (Deller et al...

More Information


  1. Cheng H, Kim M, Valerius M, Surendran K, Schuster Gossler K, Gossler A, et al. Notch2, but not Notch1, is required for proximal fate acquisition in the mammalian nephron. Development. 2007;134:801-11 pubmed
    ..These results establish distinct (non-redundant), instructive roles for Notch receptors in nephron segmentation. ..
  2. Segal M, Vlachos A, Korkotian E. The spine apparatus, synaptopodin, and dendritic spine plasticity. Neuroscientist. 2010;16:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synaptopodin (SP), an actin-binding protein, colocalizes with the SA...
  3. Asanuma K, Kim K, Oh J, Giardino L, Chabanis S, Faul C, et al. Synaptopodin regulates the actin-bundling activity of alpha-actinin in an isoform-specific manner. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1188-98 pubmed
    b>Synaptopodin is the founding member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins highly expressed in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes...
  4. Vlachos A, Ikenberg B, Lenz M, Becker D, Reifenberg K, Bas Orth C, et al. Synaptopodin regulates denervation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8242-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptopodin (SP) is a marker and essential component of the spine apparatus (SA), an enigmatic cellular organelle composed of stacked smooth endoplasmic reticulum that has been linked to synaptic plasticity...
  5. Guo N, Guo J, Su D. MicroRNA-206 and its down-regulation of Wilms'Tumor-1 dictate podocyte health in adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Ren Fail. 2016;38:989-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Wilms' tumor-1 (WT1) and synaptopodin were detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting...
  6. Wagner N, Morrison H, Pagnotta S, Michiels J, Schwab Y, Tryggvason K, et al. The podocyte protein nephrin is required for cardiac vessel formation. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:2182-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that nephrin directly interacts with p75NTR and reveal an important role for nephrin in murine cardiac development by permitting survival of cardiovascular progenitor cells. ..
  7. Kremerskothen J, Plaas C, Kindler S, Frotscher M, Barnekow A. Synaptopodin, a molecule involved in the formation of the dendritic spine apparatus, is a dual actin/alpha-actinin binding protein. J Neurochem. 2005;92:597-606 pubmed
    b>Synaptopodin (SYNPO) is a cytoskeletal protein that is preferentially located in mature dendritic spines, where it accumulates in the spine neck and closely associates with the spine apparatus...
  8. Moore A, McInnes L, Kreidberg J, Hastie N, Schedl A. YAC complementation shows a requirement for Wt1 in the development of epicardium, adrenal gland and throughout nephrogenesis. Development. 1999;126:1845-57 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a variety of new functions for WT1 and suggest a general requirement for this protein in the formation of organs derived from the intermediate mesoderm. ..
  9. Marshall C, Krofft R, Blonski M, Kowalewska J, Logar C, Pippin J, et al. Role of smooth muscle protein SM22? in glomerular epithelial cell injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F1026-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, there was decreased activation of Erk1/2 in diseased SM22? +/+ mice. We conclude that the de novo expression of SM22? in glomerular epithelial cells affects the course of crescentic glomerulonephritis. ..
  10. Walter B, Schlechter T, Hergt M, Berger I, Hofmann I. Differential expression pattern of protein ARVCF in nephron segments of human and mouse kidney. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130:943-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This prominent cytoplasmic localization of ARVCF in cultured cells and its occurrence in proximal tubules implies an involvement of ARVCF in specific functional processes of proximal tubules of kidney. ..
  11. Yu H, Artomov M, Brähler S, Stander M, Shamsan G, Sampson M, et al. A role for genetic susceptibility in sporadic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1067-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis supports a broader role for genetic susceptibility of both sporadic and familial cases of FSGS and provides a tool to rapidly evaluate candidate FSGS-associated genes. ..
  12. Vosseller K, Trinidad J, Chalkley R, Specht C, Thalhammer A, Lynn A, et al. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine proteomics of postsynaptic density preparations using lectin weak affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:923-34 pubmed
  13. Kostka G, Giltay R, Bloch W, Addicks K, Timpl R, Fassler R, et al. Perinatal lethality and endothelial cell abnormalities in several vessel compartments of fibulin-1-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7025-34 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a strong but restricted abnormality in some endothelial compartments which, together with some kidney and lung defects, may be responsible for early death. ..
  14. Ueda H, Miyazaki Y, Matsusaka T, Utsunomiya Y, Kawamura T, Hosoya T, et al. Bmp in podocytes is essential for normal glomerular capillary formation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study suggests that podocyte-derived BMP plays an important role in glomerular capillary formation, perhaps by acting on non-podocyte glomerular cells in a paracrine fashion. ..
  15. Huber T, Kwoh C, Wu H, Asanuma K, Gödel M, Hartleben B, et al. Bigenic mouse models of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis involving pairwise interaction of CD2AP, Fyn, and synaptopodin. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1337-45 pubmed
    ..Combinations of Cd2ap heterozygosity and heterozygosity of either synaptopodin (Synpo) or Fyn proto-oncogene (Fyn) but not kin of IRRE like 1 (Neph1) resulted in spontaneous proteinuria and ..
  16. Kato T, Mizuno S, Nakamura T. Preservations of nephrin and synaptopodin by recombinant hepatocyte growth factor in podocytes for the attenuations of foot process injury and albuminuria in nephritic mice. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011;16:310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..albuminuria did not involve podocyte loss, but was associated with a decrease in nephrin and its key anchor, synaptopodin. In these processes, c-Met tyrosine phosphorylation, which represented HGF signal activation, occurred in ..
  17. Saarikangas J, Mattila P, Varjosalo M, Bovellan M, Hakanen J, Calzada Wack J, et al. Missing-in-metastasis MIM/MTSS1 promotes actin assembly at intercellular junctions and is required for integrity of kidney epithelia. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that MIM modulates interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane to promote the maintenance of intercellular contacts in kidney epithelia...
  18. Weins A, Schwarz K, Faul C, Barisoni L, Linke W, Mundel P. Differentiation- and stress-dependent nuclear cytoplasmic redistribution of myopodin, a novel actin-bundling protein. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:393-404 pubmed
    We report the cloning and functional characterization of myopodin, the second member of the synaptopodin gene family. Myopodin shows no significant homology to any known protein except synaptopodin. Northern blot analysis resulted in a 3...
  19. Deller T, Haas C, Deissenrieder K, Del Turco D, Coulin C, Gebhardt C, et al. Laminar distribution of synaptopodin in normal and reeler mouse brain depends on the position of spine-bearing neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2002;453:33-44 pubmed
    b>Synaptopodin is the first member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins...
  20. Bas Orth C, Schultz C, Müller C, Frotscher M, Deller T. Loss of the cisternal organelle in the axon initial segment of cortical neurons in synaptopodin-deficient mice. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:441-9 pubmed
    ..Considering the structural similarity of these two organelles, we hypothesized that synaptopodin, a protein essential for the formation of the dendritic spine apparatus, could also be a component of the ..
  21. Hammes A, Guo J, Lutsch G, Leheste J, Landrock D, Ziegler U, et al. Two splice variants of the Wilms' tumor 1 gene have distinct functions during sex determination and nephron formation. Cell. 2001;106:319-29 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate distinct functions for the two splice variants and place the +KTS variants as important regulators for Sry in the sex determination pathway. ..
  22. Cohen J, Louneva N, Han L, Hodes G, Wilson R, Bennett D, et al. Chronic corticosterone exposure alters postsynaptic protein levels of PSD-95, NR1, and synaptopodin in the mouse brain. Synapse. 2011;65:763-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization and expression levels for PSD-95, NR1, and synaptopodin proteins were assessed. Biochemical analysis revealed lower protein levels of PSD-95 (32% decrease, P < 0...
  23. Li X, Ding F, Wang S, Li B, Ding J. Cyclosporine A protects podocytes by regulating WAVE1 phosphorylation. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17694 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synaptopodin is a well-characterized target of CsA...
  24. Clar J, Gri B, Calderaro J, Birling M, Hérault Y, Smit G, et al. Targeted deletion of kidney glucose-6 phosphatase leads to nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2014;86:747-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The K-G6pc(-/-) mouse model is a unique tool to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying renal failure and to evaluate potential therapeutic strategies. ..
  25. Schell C, Rogg M, Suhm M, Helmstädter M, Sellung D, Yasuda Yamahara M, et al. The FERM protein EPB41L5 regulates actomyosin contractility and focal adhesion formation to maintain the kidney filtration barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E4621-E4630 pubmed publisher
  26. Hasegawa S, Kume H, Iinuma S, Yamasaki M, Takahashi N, Fukui T. Acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase is essential for normal neuronal development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..caused decreases in the expression of MAP-2 and NeuN, which are markers of neuronal differentiation, as well as synaptopodin, a marker of spine apparatus...
  27. Grigoryan G, Segal M. Ryanodine-mediated conversion of STP to LTP is lacking in synaptopodin-deficient mice. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:2393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also been able to link the involvement of synaptopodin (SP), an actin-binding protein, with neuronal plasticity via its interaction with RyRs...
  28. Doyonnas R, Kershaw D, Duhme C, Merkens H, Chelliah S, Graf T, et al. Anuria, omphalocele, and perinatal lethality in mice lacking the CD34-related protein podocalyxin. J Exp Med. 2001;194:13-27 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the first example of an essential role for a sialomucin in development and suggest that defects in podocalyxin could play a role in podocyte dysfunction in renal failure and omphalocele in humans...
  29. Zhang X, Pöschel B, Faul C, Upreti C, Stanton P, Mundel P. Essential role for synaptopodin in dendritic spine plasticity of the developing hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synaptopodin is a dendritic spine associated modulator of actin dynamics and a substrate of PKA...
  30. Verpoorten N, Verhoeven K, Weckx S, Jacobs A, Serneels S, Del Favero J, et al. Synaptopodin and 4 novel genes identified in primary sensory neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;30:316-25 pubmed
    ..The 4930579P15Rik gene encodes for a novel inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 and 9030217H17Rik was found to be the mouse gene synaptopodin...
  31. Garovic V, Wagner S, Petrovic L, Gray C, Hall P, Sugimoto H, et al. Glomerular expression of nephrin and synaptopodin, but not podocin, is decreased in kidney sections from women with preeclampsia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:1136-43 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical stains for nephrin, synaptopodin and podocin were performed on representative sections prepared from paraffin-embedded material...
  32. Kos C, Le T, Sinha S, Henderson J, Kim S, Sugimoto H, et al. Mice deficient in alpha-actinin-4 have severe glomerular disease. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1683-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, these genetic studies demonstrate that the nonsarcomeric alpha-actinin-4 is involved in the regulation of cell movement. ..
  33. Sanchez Ponce D, Blazquez Llorca L, DeFelipe J, Garrido J, Munoz A. Colocalization of ?-actinin and synaptopodin in the pyramidal cell axon initial segment. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:1648-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in the cisternal organelle of cultured hippocampal neurons, ?-actinin colocalizes extensively with synaptopodin, a protein that interacts with both actin and ?-actinin, and they appear concomitantly during the development ..
  34. Akilesh S, Suleiman H, Yu H, Stander M, Lavin P, Gbadegesin R, et al. Arhgap24 inactivates Rac1 in mouse podocytes, and a mutant form is associated with familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Arhgap24 contributes to the careful balancing of RhoA and Rac1 signaling in podocytes, the disruption of which may lead to kidney disease. ..
  35. Kim E, Suh J, Chiu Y, Dryer S. Regulation of podocyte BK(Ca) channels by synaptopodin, Rho, and actin microfilaments. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that BK(Ca) channels reciprocally coimmunoprecipitate with synaptopodin (Synpo) in mouse glomeruli, in mouse podocytes, and in a heterologous expression system (HEK293T cells) in ..