Gene Symbol: Synb
Description: syncytin b
Alias: D930020E02Rik, syncytin-B, syncytin-B, envelope glycoprotein syncytin-B, placenta-specific/fusogenic
Species: mouse
Products:     Synb

Top Publications

  1. Simmons D, Natale D, Begay V, Hughes M, Leutz A, Cross J. Early patterning of the chorion leads to the trilaminar trophoblast cell structure in the placental labyrinth. Development. 2008;135:2083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..including Ctsq in S-TGCs (also Hand1-positive), Syna in syncytiotrophoblast layer I (SynT-I), and Gcm1, Cebpa and Synb in syncytiotrophoblast layer II (SynT-II)...
  2. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Harper F, Gu├ęgan J, Dessen P, Pierron G, et al. A pair of co-opted retroviral envelope syncytin genes is required for formation of the two-layered murine placental syncytiotrophoblast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Although some are absolutely required for completion of pregnancy, others are still amenable to "epigenetic" compensations, thus illustrating the complexity of the molecular machinery that developed during placental evolution. ..
  3. Matsuura K, Jigami T, Taniue K, Morishita Y, Adachi S, Senda T, et al. Identification of a link between Wnt/?-catenin signalling and the cell fusion pathway. Nat Commun. 2011;2:548 pubmed publisher
  4. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Bawa O, Harper F, Pierron G, Opolon P, et al. Syncytin-A knockout mice demonstrate the critical role in placentation of a fusogenic, endogenous retrovirus-derived, envelope gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12127-32 pubmed publisher
  5. Kashif M, Hellwig A, Kolleker A, Shahzad K, Wang H, Lang S, et al. p45NF-E2 represses Gcm1 in trophoblast cells to regulate syncytium formation, placental vascularization and embryonic growth. Development. 2011;138:2235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..absence of p45NF-E2, the width of syncytiotrophoblast layer 2 and the expression of Gcm1 and Gcm1-dependent genes (Synb and Cebpa) are increased...
  6. Reichmann J, Reddington J, Best D, Read D, Ollinger R, Meehan R, et al. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1791-806 pubmed publisher
  7. Dupressoir A, Marceau G, Vernochet C, B nit L, Kanellopoulos C, Sapin V, et al. Syncytin-A and syncytin-B, two fusogenic placenta-specific murine envelope genes of retroviral origin conserved in Muridae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:725-30 pubmed publisher
  8. Anwar S, Peters O, Millership S, Ninkina N, Doig N, Connor Robson N, et al. Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7264-74 pubmed publisher
  9. Watson E, Hughes M, Simmons D, Natale D, Sutherland A, Cross J. Cell-cell adhesion defects in Mrj mutant trophoblast cells are associated with failure to pattern the chorion during early placental development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2505-19 pubmed publisher
    ..cells since Rhox4b expression, a marker of syncytiotrophoblast progenitors, was maintained and Gcm1, Synb, and Syna expression failed to increase...

More Information


  1. Henke C, Ruebner M, Faschingbauer F, Stolt C, Schaefer N, Lang N, et al. Regulation of murine placentogenesis by the retroviral genes Syncytin-A, Syncytin-B and Peg10. Differentiation. 2013;85:150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the expression of Peg10 in TGCs, we propose an essential functional role in the fetal-maternal blood system. ..
  2. Redelsperger F, Raddi N, Bacquin A, Vernochet C, Mariot V, Gache V, et al. Genetic Evidence That Captured Retroviral Envelope syncytins Contribute to Myoblast Fusion and Muscle Sexual Dimorphism in Mice. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006289 pubmed publisher
  3. Mangeney M, Renard M, Schlecht Louf G, Bouallaga I, Heidmann O, Letzelter C, et al. Placental syncytins: Genetic disjunction between the fusogenic and immunosuppressive activity of retroviral envelope proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20534-9 pubmed
    ..Selective inactivation of immunosuppression, under conditions not affecting fusogenicity, should be important for understanding the role of this function in placental physiology and maternofetal tolerance. ..
  4. Mould A, Morgan M, Li L, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Blimp1/Prdm1 governs terminal differentiation of endovascular trophoblast giant cells and defines multipotent progenitors in the developing placenta. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, the transcriptional repressor Blimp1/Prdm1 is required for terminal differentiation of SpA-TGCs and defines a lineage-restricted progenitor cell population contributing to placental growth and morphogenesis. ..
  5. Lu J, Zhang S, Nakano H, Simmons D, Wang S, Kong S, et al. A positive feedback loop involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 directs chorionic branching morphogenesis in the placenta. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001536 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Gcm1 and Fzd5 function in an evolutionary conserved positive feedback loop that regulates trophoblast differentiation and sites of chorionic branching morphogenesis...
  6. Lacko L, Hurtado R, Hinds S, Poulos M, Butler J, Stuhlmann H. Altered feto-placental vascularization, feto-placental malperfusion and fetal growth restriction in mice with Egfl7 loss of function. Development. 2017;144:2469-2479 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of genes involved in branching morphogenesis, Gcm1, Syna and Synb, and in patterning of the extracellular matrix, Mmrn1, were temporally dysregulated in the placentas...