Gene Symbol: Syna
Description: syncytin a
Alias: Gm453, Gm52, syncytin-A, syncytin-A, envelope glycoprotein syncytin-A
Species: mouse
Products:     Syna

Top Publications

  1. Simmons D, Natale D, Begay V, Hughes M, Leutz A, Cross J. Early patterning of the chorion leads to the trilaminar trophoblast cell structure in the placental labyrinth. Development. 2008;135:2083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5-14.5) including Ctsq in S-TGCs (also Hand1-positive), Syna in syncytiotrophoblast layer I (SynT-I), and Gcm1, Cebpa and Synb in syncytiotrophoblast layer II (SynT-II)...
  2. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Bawa O, Harper F, Pierron G, Opolon P, et al. Syncytin-A knockout mice demonstrate the critical role in placentation of a fusogenic, endogenous retrovirus-derived, envelope gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12127-32 pubmed publisher
  3. Oh McGinnis R, Bogutz A, Lefebvre L. Partial loss of Ascl2 function affects all three layers of the mature placenta and causes intrauterine growth restriction. Dev Biol. 2011;351:277-86 pubmed publisher
  4. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Harper F, Guégan J, Dessen P, Pierron G, et al. A pair of co-opted retroviral envelope syncytin genes is required for formation of the two-layered murine placental syncytiotrophoblast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Although some are absolutely required for completion of pregnancy, others are still amenable to "epigenetic" compensations, thus illustrating the complexity of the molecular machinery that developed during placental evolution. ..
  5. Mangeney M, Renard M, Schlecht Louf G, Bouallaga I, Heidmann O, Letzelter C, et al. Placental syncytins: Genetic disjunction between the fusogenic and immunosuppressive activity of retroviral envelope proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20534-9 pubmed
    ..Selective inactivation of immunosuppression, under conditions not affecting fusogenicity, should be important for understanding the role of this function in placental physiology and maternofetal tolerance. ..
  6. Chubanov V, Ferioli S, Wisnowsky A, Simmons D, Leitzinger C, Einer C, et al. Epithelial magnesium transport by TRPM6 is essential for prenatal development and adult survival. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, maintenance of organismal Mg2+ balance by TRPM6 is crucial for prenatal development and survival to adulthood. ..
  7. Kröger C, Vijayaraj P, Reuter U, Windoffer R, Simmons D, Heukamp L, et al. Placental vasculogenesis is regulated by keratin-mediated hyperoxia in murine decidual tissues. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that keratin mutations might mediate conditions leading to early pregnancy loss due to hyperoxia in the decidua. ..
  8. Schubert S, Lamoureux N, Kilian K, Klein Hitpass L, Hashemolhosseini S. Identification of integrin-alpha4, Rb1, and syncytin a as murine placental target genes of the transcription factor GCMa/Gcm1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5460-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we identified down-regulation of the murine syncytin A gene, which is fundamental for syncytiotrophoblast formation...
  9. Bacquin A, Bireau C, Tanguy M, Romanet C, Vernochet C, Dupressoir A, et al. A Cell Fusion-Based Screening Method Identifies Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Protein Ly6e as the Receptor for Mouse Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Syncytin-A. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Each layer specifically expresses a distinct mouse syncytin, namely, syncytin-A (SynA) for ST-I and syncytin-B (SynB) for ST-II, which have been shown to be essential to placentogenesis and embryo ..

More Information


  1. Lu J, Zhang S, Nakano H, Simmons D, Wang S, Kong S, et al. A positive feedback loop involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 directs chorionic branching morphogenesis in the placenta. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001536 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Gcm1 and Fzd5 function in an evolutionary conserved positive feedback loop that regulates trophoblast differentiation and sites of chorionic branching morphogenesis...
  2. Branco M, King M, Perez García V, Bogutz A, Caley M, Fineberg E, et al. Maternal DNA Methylation Regulates Early Trophoblast Development. Dev Cell. 2016;36:152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that maternal DNA methylation controls multiple differentiation-related and physiological processes in trophoblast via both imprinting-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  3. Gong R, Huang L, Shi J, Luo K, Qiu G, Feng H, et al. Syncytin-A mediates the formation of syncytiotrophoblast involved in mouse placental development. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:517-26 pubmed
    ..These results present evidence in support of the direct role for syncytin-A in mouse TS cell fusion and differentiation involved in placental development. ..
  4. Szabo R, Peters D, Kosa P, Camerer E, Bugge T. Regulation of feto-maternal barrier by matriptase- and PAR-2-mediated signaling is required for placental morphogenesis and mouse embryonic survival. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004470 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal unexpected complementary roles of matriptase-prostasin- and PAR-2-dependent proteolytic signaling in the establishment of placental epithelial barrier function and overall embryonic survival. ..
  5. Anwar S, Peters O, Millership S, Ninkina N, Doig N, Connor Robson N, et al. Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7264-74 pubmed publisher
  6. Dupressoir A, Marceau G, Vernochet C, B nit L, Kanellopoulos C, Sapin V, et al. Syncytin-A and syncytin-B, two fusogenic placenta-specific murine envelope genes of retroviral origin conserved in Muridae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:725-30 pubmed publisher
  7. Henke C, Ruebner M, Faschingbauer F, Stolt C, Schaefer N, Lang N, et al. Regulation of murine placentogenesis by the retroviral genes Syncytin-A, Syncytin-B and Peg10. Differentiation. 2013;85:150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the expression of Peg10 in TGCs, we propose an essential functional role in the fetal-maternal blood system. ..
  8. Stemmler M, Bedzhov I. A Cdh1HA knock-in allele rescues the Cdh1-/- phenotype but shows essential Cdh1 function during placentation. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2330-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Placentas without Cdh1 expression are impaired and incapable of establishing a proper connection between the embryonic and the maternal blood vessels for efficient nutrient and oxygen transport. ..
  9. Rakoczy J, Zhang Z, Bowling F, Dawson P, Simmons D. Loss of the sulfate transporter Slc13a4 in placenta causes severe fetal abnormalities and death in mice. Cell Res. 2015;25:1273-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Lacko L, Hurtado R, Hinds S, Poulos M, Butler J, Stuhlmann H. Altered feto-placental vascularization, feto-placental malperfusion and fetal growth restriction in mice with Egfl7 loss of function. Development. 2017;144:2469-2479 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of genes involved in branching morphogenesis, Gcm1, Syna and Synb, and in patterning of the extracellular matrix, Mmrn1, were temporally dysregulated in ..
  11. Tunster S, Van de Pette M, John R. Fetal overgrowth in the Cdkn1c mouse model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:814-21 pubmed publisher
  12. Hughes M, Natale B, Simmons D, Natale D. Ly6e expression is restricted to syncytiotrophoblast cells of the mouse placenta. Placenta. 2013;34:831-5 pubmed publisher
    ..5 with spatial expression similar to Syncytin a (Syna). At later stages of gestation, Ly6e was restricted to syncytiotrophoblast in the labyrinth...
  13. Reichmann J, Reddington J, Best D, Read D, Ollinger R, Meehan R, et al. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1791-806 pubmed publisher
  14. Sripathy S, Lee M, Vasioukhin V. Mammalian Llgl2 is necessary for proper branching morphogenesis during placental development. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2920-33 pubmed publisher
  15. Peng X, Pan J, Gong R, Liu Y, Kang S, Feng H, et al. Functional characterization of syncytin-A, a newly murine endogenous virus envelope protein. Implication for its fusion mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:381-9 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we showed that SynA 1 + 2 of syncytin-A (residues 445-536, including predicted NHR, CHR, and a natural linker) could form trimer and ..
  16. Keniry A, Oxley D, Monnier P, Kyba M, Dandolo L, Smits G, et al. The H19 lincRNA is a developmental reservoir of miR-675 that suppresses growth and Igf1r. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The controlled release of miR-675 from H19 may also allow rapid inhibition of cell proliferation in response to cellular stress or oncogenic signals. ..
  17. Watson E, Hughes M, Simmons D, Natale D, Sutherland A, Cross J. Cell-cell adhesion defects in Mrj mutant trophoblast cells are associated with failure to pattern the chorion during early placental development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2505-19 pubmed publisher
    ..cells since Rhox4b expression, a marker of syncytiotrophoblast progenitors, was maintained and Gcm1, Synb, and Syna expression failed to increase...
  18. Kashif M, Hellwig A, Kolleker A, Shahzad K, Wang H, Lang S, et al. p45NF-E2 represses Gcm1 in trophoblast cells to regulate syncytium formation, placental vascularization and embryonic growth. Development. 2011;138:2235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify a novel function of p45NF-E2 during placental development: in trophoblast cells, p45NF-E2 represses Gcm1 and syncytiotrophoblast formation via acetylation. ..