Syk

Summary

Gene Symbol: Syk
Description: spleen tyrosine kinase
Alias: Sykb, tyrosine-protein kinase SYK
Species: mouse
Products:     Syk

Top Publications

  1. Zarbock A, Lowell C, Ley K. Spleen tyrosine kinase Syk is necessary for E-selectin-induced alpha(L)beta(2) integrin-mediated rolling on intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Immunity. 2007;26:773-83 pubmed
    ..Slow rolling was abolished by pharmacological blockade of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and was absent in Syk(-/-) bone-marrow chimeric mice...
  2. Mocsai A, Zhou M, Meng F, Tybulewicz V, Lowell C. Syk is required for integrin signaling in neutrophils. Immunity. 2002;16:547-58 pubmed
    The Syk tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in the signaling machinery of various receptors of the adaptive immune system. Here we show that Syk is also an essential component of integrin signaling in neutrophils...
  3. Moon K, Post C, Durden D, Zhou Q, De P, Harrison M, et al. Molecular basis for a direct interaction between the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1543-51 pubmed
    After engagement of the B cell receptor for antigen, the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase becomes phosphorylated on multiple tyrosines, some of which serve as docking sites for downstream effectors with SH2 or other phosphotyrosine binding ..
  4. Lim B, Lee J, Ko N, Mun S, Kim J, Kim D, et al. Polygoni cuspidati radix inhibits the activation of Syk kinase in mast cells for antiallergic activity. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:1425-31 pubmed
    ..With regard to its mechanism of action, PR inhibited the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key signaling protein for the activation of mast cells...
  5. Groesch T, Zhou F, Mattila S, Geahlen R, Post C. Structural basis for the requirement of two phosphotyrosine residues in signaling mediated by Syk tyrosine kinase. J Mol Biol. 2006;356:1222-36 pubmed
    The protein-tyrosine kinase Syk couples immune recognition receptors to multiple signal transduction pathways, including the mobilization of calcium and the activation of NFAT...
  6. Kurosaki T. Genetic analysis of B cell antigen receptor signaling. Annu Rev Immunol. 1999;17:555-92 pubmed
    ..in cell lines and mice have revealed distinct functions for the intracellular protein tyrosine kinases (Lyn, Syk, Btk) in BCR signaling and B cell development...
  7. Mocsai A, Humphrey M, Van Ziffle J, Hu Y, Burghardt A, Spusta S, et al. The immunomodulatory adapter proteins DAP12 and Fc receptor gamma-chain (FcRgamma) regulate development of functional osteoclasts through the Syk tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6158-63 pubmed
    ..immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within receptor-associated adapter proteins recruit the Syk tyrosine kinase. Here we demonstrate that a similar mechanism is required for development of functional osteoclasts...
  8. Abtahian F, Guerriero A, Sebzda E, Lu M, Zhou R, Mocsai A, et al. Regulation of blood and lymphatic vascular separation by signaling proteins SLP-76 and Syk. Science. 2003;299:247-51 pubmed
    ..emerging lymphatic vessels from blood vessels in mice lacking the hematopoietic signaling protein SLP-76 or Syk. Blood-lymphatic connections lead to embryonic hemorrhage and arteriovenous shunting...
  9. Sancho D, Joffre O, Keller A, Rogers N, Martinez D, Hernanz Falcón P, et al. Identification of a dendritic cell receptor that couples sensing of necrosis to immunity. Nature. 2009;458:899-903 pubmed publisher
    ..a key tyrosine residue in its intracellular tail that allows the recruitment and activation of the tyrosine kinase SYK, which is also essential for cross-presentation of dead-cell-associated antigens...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Werninghaus K, Babiak A, Gross O, Hölscher C, Dietrich H, Agger E, et al. Adjuvanticity of a synthetic cord factor analogue for subunit Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccination requires FcRgamma-Syk-Card9-dependent innate immune activation. J Exp Med. 2009;206:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that these glycolipids activate macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) via Syk-Card9-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling to induce a specific innate activation program distinct from the response to Toll-like ..
  2. Rothfuchs A, Bafica A, Feng C, Egen J, Williams D, Brown G, et al. Dectin-1 interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to enhanced IL-12p40 production by splenic dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:3463-71 pubmed
    ..cytokine production by facilitating interaction with TLR2 or by directly activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)...
  3. Rogers N, Slack E, Edwards A, Nolte M, Schulz O, Schweighoffer E, et al. Syk-dependent cytokine induction by Dectin-1 reveals a novel pattern recognition pathway for C type lectins. Immunity. 2005;22:507-17 pubmed
    ..and IL-10 through phosphorylation of the membrane proximal tyrosine in the cytoplasmic domain and recruitment of Syk kinase...
  4. Colucci F, Guy Grand D, Wilson A, Turner M, Schweighoffer E, Tybulewicz V, et al. A new look at Syk in alpha beta and gamma delta T cell development using chimeric mice with a low competitive hematopoietic environment. J Immunol. 2000;164:5140-5 pubmed
    The Syk protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is essential for B, but not T or NK, cell development, although certain T cell subsets (i.e., gamma delta T cells of intestine and skin) appear to be dependent on Syk...
  5. Bae Y, Lee J, Choi S, Kim S, Almazan F, Witztum J, et al. Macrophages generate reactive oxygen species in response to minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein: toll-like receptor 4- and spleen tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase 2. Circ Res. 2009;104:210-8, 21p following 218 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that ROS generation required the recruitment and activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and that mmLDL also induced phospholipase PLCgamma1 phosphorylation and protein kinase C membrane translocation...
  6. Zarbock A, Abram C, Hundt M, Altman A, Lowell C, Ley K. PSGL-1 engagement by E-selectin signals through Src kinase Fgr and ITAM adapters DAP12 and FcR gamma to induce slow leukocyte rolling. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..activate the beta(2) integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 by signaling through spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)...
  7. Cheng A, Rowley B, Pao W, Hayday A, Bolen J, Pawson T. Syk tyrosine kinase required for mouse viability and B-cell development. Nature. 1995;378:303-6 pubmed
    The Syk cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase has two amino-terminal SH2 domains and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain...
  8. Robinson M, Osorio F, Rosas M, Freitas R, Schweighoffer E, Gross O, et al. Dectin-2 is a Syk-coupled pattern recognition receptor crucial for Th17 responses to fungal infection. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2037-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies with Dectin-1, a PRR for fungi, have defined a novel innate signaling pathway involving Syk kinase and the adaptor CARD9, which is critical for inducing Th17 responses to fungal infection...
  9. Böhmer R, Neuhaus B, Bühren S, Zhang D, Stehling M, Böck B, et al. Regulation of developmental lymphangiogenesis by Syk(+) leukocytes. Dev Cell. 2010;18:437-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here a myeloid population that is defined by expression of the tyrosine kinase Syk, comprises largely M2-polarized mononuclear cells, and robustly expresses angiogenic factors, including VEGF-C/-D ..
  10. Choi S, Wiesner P, Almazan F, Kim J, Miller Y. Spleen tyrosine kinase regulates AP-1 dependent transcriptional response to minimally oxidized LDL. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32378 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also demonstrated that the mmLDL activation leads to recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to TLR4 and TLR4 and Syk phosphorylation...
  11. Mueller H, Stadtmann A, Van Aken H, Hirsch E, Wang D, Ley K, et al. Tyrosine kinase Btk regulates E-selectin-mediated integrin activation and neutrophil recruitment by controlling phospholipase C (PLC) gamma2 and PI3Kgamma pathways. Blood. 2010;115:3118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway, which in turn activates the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). However, the signaling pathway linking Syk to integrin activation after E-selectin engagement is unknown...
  12. Sebzda E, Hibbard C, Sweeney S, Abtahian F, Bezman N, Clemens G, et al. Syk and Slp-76 mutant mice reveal a cell-autonomous hematopoietic cell contribution to vascular development. Dev Cell. 2006;11:349-61 pubmed
    ..Mouse embryos lacking the signaling proteins Syk and Slp-76 develop abnormal blood-lymphatic endothelial connections...
  13. Falet H, Pollitt A, Begonja A, Weber S, Duerschmied D, Wagner D, et al. A novel interaction between FlnA and Syk regulates platelet ITAM-mediated receptor signaling and function. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1967-79 pubmed publisher
    ..alphaIIbbeta3 activation, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, particularly that of the protein tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase C-gamma2, in response to stimulation through the collagen receptor GPVI and the C-type lectin-..
  14. Schymeinsky J, Sindrilaru A, Frommhold D, Sperandio M, Gerstl R, Then C, et al. The Vav binding site of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk at Tyr 348 is critical for beta2 integrin (CD11/CD18)-mediated neutrophil migration. Blood. 2006;108:3919-27 pubmed
    Leukocyte adhesion via beta(2) integrins (CD11/CD18) activates the tyrosine kinase Syk. We found that Syk was enriched at the lamellipodium during N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced migration of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells...
  15. Hamerman J, Tchao N, Lowell C, Lanier L. Enhanced Toll-like receptor responses in the absence of signaling adaptor DAP12. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:579-86 pubmed
    ..Additionally, macrophages deficient in spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), which signals downstream of DAP12, showed a phenotype identical to that of DAP12-deficient macrophages...
  16. Meade J, Tybulewicz V, Turner M. The tyrosine kinase Syk is required for light chain isotype exclusion but dispensable for the negative selection of B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1102-10 pubmed
    In this study we set out to test whether Syk was required for negative selection of immature B cells...
  17. Cheng A, Negishi I, Anderson S, Chan A, Bolen J, Loh D, et al. The Syk and ZAP-70 SH2-containing tyrosine kinases are implicated in pre-T cell receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9797-801 pubmed
    ..The ZAP-70 and Syk tyrosine kinases each contain two N-terminal SH2 domains that bind phosphorylated motifs in antigen receptor ..
  18. LeibundGut Landmann S, Osorio F, Brown G, Reis E Sousa C. Stimulation of dendritic cells via the dectin-1/Syk pathway allows priming of cytotoxic T-cell responses. Blood. 2008;112:4971-80 pubmed publisher
    The C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for beta-glucans and signals via Syk kinase but independently of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway to regulate expression of innate response genes...
  19. Chu D, van Oers N, Malissen M, Harris J, Elder M, Weiss A. Pre-T cell receptor signals are responsible for the down-regulation of Syk protein tyrosine kinase expression. J Immunol. 1999;163:2610-20 pubmed
    ..These receptors employ two families of protein tyrosine kinases to propagate their signals, the Src and Syk families...
  20. Van Ziffle J, Lowell C. Neutrophil-specific deletion of Syk kinase results in reduced host defense to bacterial infection. Blood. 2009;114:4871-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling pathways downstream of CD18 integrins are dependent on the spleen tyrosine kinase, Syk. To investigate the role integrin signaling plays in host defense, we examined the responses of Syk-deficient ..
  21. Zou W, Kitaura H, Reeve J, Long F, Tybulewicz V, Shattil S, et al. Syk, c-Src, the alphavbeta3 integrin, and ITAM immunoreceptors, in concert, regulate osteoclastic bone resorption. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:877-88 pubmed
    In this study, we establish that the tyrosine kinase Syk is essential for osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo. Syk(-/-) osteoclasts fail to organize their cytoskeleton, and, as such, their bone-resorptive capacity is arrested...
  22. Underhill D, Rossnagle E, Lowell C, Simmons R. Dectin-1 activates Syk tyrosine kinase in a dynamic subset of macrophages for reactive oxygen production. Blood. 2005;106:2543-50 pubmed
    ..Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein tyrosine kinase that is critical for adaptive immune responses where it mediates signaling through B-..
  23. Turner M, Gulbranson Judge A, Quinn M, Walters A, MacLennan I, Tybulewicz V. Syk tyrosine kinase is required for the positive selection of immature B cells into the recirculating B cell pool. J Exp Med. 1997;186:2013-21 pubmed
    The tyrosine kinase Syk has been implicated as a key signal transducer from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR)...
  24. Poole A, Gibbins J, Turner M, van Vugt M, van de Winkel J, Saito T, et al. The Fc receptor gamma-chain and the tyrosine kinase Syk are essential for activation of mouse platelets by collagen. EMBO J. 1997;16:2333-41 pubmed
    ..with tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins including the Fc receptor gamma-chain, the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2, suggesting that collagen signals in a manner similar to that of immune receptors...
  25. Negishi I, Motoyama N, Nakayama K, Senju S, Hatakeyama S, Zhang Q, et al. Essential role for ZAP-70 in both positive and negative selection of thymocytes. Nature. 1995;376:435-8 pubmed
    ..Natural killer cell function was intact in the absence of ZAP-70. These data suggest that ZAP-70 is a central signalling molecule during thymic selection for CD4 and CD8 lineage. ..
  26. Turner M, Schweighoffer E, Colucci F, Di Santo J, Tybulewicz V. Tyrosine kinase SYK: essential functions for immunoreceptor signalling. Immunol Today. 2000;21:148-54 pubmed
    The tyrosine kinase SYK plays critical roles in signalling through immune receptors...
  27. Costello P, Turner M, Walters A, Cunningham C, Bauer P, Downward J, et al. Critical role for the tyrosine kinase Syk in signalling through the high affinity IgE receptor of mast cells. Oncogene. 1996;13:2595-605 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of Fc epsilon RI results in the rapid association and activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase...
  28. Mocsai A, Abram C, Jakus Z, Hu Y, Lanier L, Lowell C. Integrin signaling in neutrophils and macrophages uses adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:1326-33 pubmed
    ..Activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk by integrins required that DAP12 and FcRgamma were first phosphorylated by Src family kinases...
  29. Law D, Nannizzi Alaimo L, Ministri K, Hughes P, Forsyth J, Turner M, et al. Genetic and pharmacological analyses of Syk function in alphaIIbbeta3 signaling in platelets. Blood. 1999;93:2645-52 pubmed
    ..These in turn trigger outside-in signaling resulting in further platelet stimulation. Because the Syk tyrosine kinase is activated during both phases of integrin signaling, we evaluated its role in alphaIIbbeta3 ..
  30. Walmsley M, Ooi S, Reynolds L, Smith S, Ruf S, Mathiot A, et al. Critical roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B cell development and signaling. Science. 2003;302:459-62 pubmed
    ..Both GTPases were required to transduce BCR signals leading to proliferation, survival and up-regulation of BAFF-R, a receptor for BAFF, a key survival molecule required for B cell development and maintenance. ..
  31. Gong Q, White L, Johnson R, White M, Negishi I, Thomas M, et al. Restoration of thymocyte development and function in zap-70-/- mice by the Syk protein tyrosine kinase. Immunity. 1997;7:369-77 pubmed
    The Syk family of protein tyrosine kinases, consisting of ZAP-70 and Syk, associate with the pre- and alphabeta T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) and undergo tyrosine phosphorylation and activation following receptor engagement...
  32. Gross O, Poeck H, Bscheider M, Dostert C, Hannesschläger N, Endres S, et al. Syk kinase signalling couples to the Nlrp3 inflammasome for anti-fungal host defence. Nature. 2009;459:433-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the tyrosine kinase Syk, operating downstream of several immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled fungal pattern ..
  33. Thomas R, Schmedt C, Novelli M, Choi B, Skok J, Tarakhovsky A, et al. C-terminal SRC kinase controls acute inflammation and granulocyte adhesion. Immunity. 2004;20:181-91 pubmed
    ..Hyperphosphorylation of key signaling proteins such as Syk and Paxillin in mutant granulocytes further supported breakdown of the activation threshold set by Csk...
  34. Saijo K, Schmedt C, Su I, Karasuyama H, Lowell C, Reth M, et al. Essential role of Src-family protein tyrosine kinases in NF-kappaB activation during B cell development. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:274-9 pubmed
    ..This signaling defect is SFK specific, as a deficiency in Syk, which controls pre-B cell development, does not affect NF-kappaB induction...
  35. Mallick Wood C, Pao W, Cheng A, Lewis J, Kulkarni S, Bolen J, et al. Disruption of epithelial gamma delta T cell repertoires by mutation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9704-9 pubmed
    Chimeric mice in which lymphocytes are deficient in the Syk tyrosine kinase have been created...
  36. Block H, Herter J, Rossaint J, Stadtmann A, Kliche S, Lowell C, et al. Crucial role of SLP-76 and ADAP for neutrophil recruitment in mouse kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Exp Med. 2012;209:407-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SLP-76 and ADAP are involved in E-selectin-mediated integrin activation and neutrophil recruitment to inflamed kidneys, which may underlie the development of life-threatening ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI in humans...
  37. Hara H, Tsuchiya K, Kawamura I, Fang R, Hernandez Cuellar E, Shen Y, et al. Phosphorylation of the adaptor ASC acts as a molecular switch that controls the formation of speck-like aggregates and inflammasome activity. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:1247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that signaling pathways dependent on the kinases Syk and Jnk were required for the activation of caspase-1 via the ASC-dependent inflammasomes NLRP3 and AIM2...
  38. Richards J, Gold M, Hourihane S, DeFranco A, Matsuuchi L. Reconstitution of B cell antigen receptor-induced signaling events in a nonlymphoid cell line by expressing the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6458-66 pubmed
    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) cross-linking activates both Src family and Syk tyrosine kinases, resulting in increased cellular protein-tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of several downstream signaling enzymes...
  39. Mocsai A, Zhang H, Jakus Z, Kitaura J, Kawakami T, Lowell C. G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in Syk-deficient neutrophils and mast cells. Blood. 2003;101:4155-63 pubmed
    The Syk tyrosine kinase is essential for immunoreceptor and multiple integrin functions as well as being implicated in signaling from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in cell lines, transfection systems, and pharmacologic studies...
  40. Dennehy K, Ferwerda G, Faro Trindade I, Pyz E, Willment J, Taylor P, et al. Syk kinase is required for collaborative cytokine production induced through Dectin-1 and Toll-like receptors. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:500-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that Dectin-1 signaling through the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) pathway is required for this collaboration, which can also occur with TLR4, 5, 7 and 9...
  41. LeibundGut Landmann S, Gross O, Robinson M, Osorio F, Slack E, Tsoni S, et al. Syk- and CARD9-dependent coupling of innate immunity to the induction of T helper cells that produce interleukin 17. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:630-8 pubmed
    The C-type lectin dectin-1 binds to yeast and signals through the kinase Syk and the adaptor CARD9 to induce production of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-2 in dendritic cells (DCs)...
  42. Crowley M, Costello P, Fitzer Attas C, Turner M, Meng F, Lowell C, et al. A critical role for Syk in signal transduction and phagocytosis mediated by Fcgamma receptors on macrophages. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1027-39 pubmed
    ..Signaling events necessary for these responses are likely initiated by the activation of Src-family and Syk-family tyrosine kinases after FcgammaR cross-linking...
  43. Turner M, Mee P, Costello P, Williams O, Price A, Duddy L, et al. Perinatal lethality and blocked B-cell development in mice lacking the tyrosine kinase Syk. Nature. 1995;378:298-302 pubmed
    The tyrosine kinase Syk (relative molecular mass 72,000), which is widely expressed in haematopoietic cells, becomes associated with and activated by engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor...
  44. Kiefer F, Brumell J, Al Alawi N, Latour S, Cheng A, Veillette A, et al. The Syk protein tyrosine kinase is essential for Fcgamma receptor signaling in macrophages and neutrophils. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4209-20 pubmed
    The cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase Syk has two amino-terminal SH2 domains that engage phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs in the signaling subunits of immunoreceptors...
  45. Faccio R, Teitelbaum S, Fujikawa K, Chappel J, Zallone A, Tybulewicz V, et al. Vav3 regulates osteoclast function and bone mass. Nat Med. 2005;11:284-90 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence for the role of Syk tyrosine kinase as a crucial upstream regulator of Vav3 in osteoclasts...
  46. Ulanova M, Puttagunta L, Marcet Palacios M, Duszyk M, Steinhoff U, Duta F, et al. Syk tyrosine kinase participates in beta1-integrin signaling and inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;288:L497-507 pubmed
    The protein tyrosine kinase Syk is critically involved in immunoreceptor signaling in hematopoietic cells...
  47. Slack E, Robinson M, Hernanz Falcón P, Brown G, Williams D, Schweighoffer E, et al. Syk-dependent ERK activation regulates IL-2 and IL-10 production by DC stimulated with zymosan. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1600-12 pubmed
    ..high levels of IL-2 and IL-10 from dendritic cells (DC) and engages multiple innate receptors, including the Syk-coupled receptor dectin-1 and the MyD88-coupled receptor TLR2...
  48. Lin Y, Huang D, Chu C, Lin W. Anti-inflammatory actions of Syk inhibitors in macrophages involve non-specific inhibition of toll-like receptors-mediated JNK signaling pathway. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though non-receptor spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a key signaling molecule of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs-containing immunoreceptors, its ..
  49. Abtahian F, Bezman N, Clemens R, Sebzda E, Cheng L, Shattil S, et al. Evidence for the requirement of ITAM domains but not SLP-76/Gads interaction for integrin signaling in hematopoietic cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6936-49 pubmed
    b>Syk tyrosine kinase and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) are signaling mediators activated downstream of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing ..
  50. Furuhata S, Ando K, Oki M, Aoki K, Ohnishi S, Aoyagi K, et al. Gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;298:125-38 pubmed
    ..For instance, the list includes Syk and galectin-3, which encode protein tyrosine kinase and beta-galactoside-binding protein, respectively, and are ..
  51. Ying H, Li Z, Yang L, Zhang J. Syk mediates BCR- and CD40-signaling integration during B cell activation. Immunobiology. 2011;216:566-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is involved in CD40 signaling, and is synergistically activated in B cells in response to BCR/CD40 costimulation...
  52. Mourão Sá D, Robinson M, Zelenay S, Sancho D, Chakravarty P, Larsen R, et al. CLEC-2 signaling via Syk in myeloid cells can regulate inflammatory responses. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:3040-53 pubmed publisher
    ..CLEC-2 is highly expressed on mouse and human platelets where it signals via Syk to promote aggregation...
  53. Flynn R, Allen J, Luznik L, MacDonald K, Paz K, Alexander K, et al. Targeting Syk-activated B cells in murine and human chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood. 2015;125:4085-94 pubmed publisher
    ..cells are activated and primed for survival, we sought to further evaluate the role of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in cGVHD in multiple murine models and human peripheral blood cells...