Gene Symbol: Stx1a
Description: syntaxin 1A (brain)
Alias: HPC-1, syntaxin-1A, neuron-specific antigen HPC-1, syntaxin 1 a
Species: mouse
Products:     Stx1a

Top Publications

  1. Fujiwara T, Mishima T, Kofuji T, Chiba T, Tanaka K, Yamamoto A, et al. Analysis of knock-out mice to determine the role of HPC-1/syntaxin 1A in expressing synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5767-76 pubmed
    The protein HPC-1/syntaxin 1A is abundantly expressed in neurons and localized in the neuronal plasma membrane...
  2. Lam P, Leung Y, Sheu L, Ellis J, Tsushima R, Osborne L, et al. Transgenic mouse overexpressing syntaxin-1A as a diabetes model. Diabetes. 2005;54:2744-54 pubmed
  3. Ashery Padan R, Marquardt T, Zhou X, Gruss P. Pax6 activity in the lens primordium is required for lens formation and for correct placement of a single retina in the eye. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2701-11 pubmed
  4. Washbourne P, Thompson P, Carta M, Costa E, Mathews J, Lopez Bendito G, et al. Genetic ablation of the t-SNARE SNAP-25 distinguishes mechanisms of neuroexocytosis. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:19-26 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the development of neurotransmission requires the recruitment of a specialized SNARE core complex to meet the demands of regulated exocytosis. ..
  5. Jurado S, Goswami D, Zhang Y, Molina A, Sudhof T, Malenka R. LTP requires a unique postsynaptic SNARE fusion machinery. Neuron. 2013;77:542-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, postsynaptic exocytosis of AMPARs during LTP is mediated by a unique fusion machinery that is distinct from that used during presynaptic neurotransmitter release. ..
  6. Gerber S, Rah J, Min S, Liu X, de Wit H, Dulubova I, et al. Conformational switch of syntaxin-1 controls synaptic vesicle fusion. Science. 2008;321:1507-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the closed conformation of syntaxin-1 gates the initiation of the synaptic vesicle fusion reaction, which is then mediated by SNARE-complex/Munc18-1 assemblies. ..
  7. Cotrufo T, Perez Branguli F, Muhaisen A, Ros O, Andres R, Baeriswyl T, et al. A signaling mechanism coupling netrin-1/deleted in colorectal cancer chemoattraction to SNARE-mediated exocytosis in axonal growth cones. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14463-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence of a new signaling mechanism that couples chemotropic Netrin-1/DCC axonal guidance and Sytx1/TI-VAMP SNARE proteins regulating membrane turnover and exocytosis. ..
  8. Yang S, Larsson O, Branstrom R, Bertorello A, Leibiger B, Leibiger I, et al. Syntaxin 1 interacts with the L(D) subtype of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in pancreatic beta cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:10164-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that there is a structure-function relationship between the alpha(1D) subunit of the L type Ca(2+) channel and the exocytotic machinery in the pancreatic beta cell. ..
  9. Mishima T, Fujiwara T, Kofuji T, Akagawa K. Impairment of catecholamine systems during induction of long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 synapses in HPC-1/syntaxin 1A knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:381-9 pubmed publisher
    The membrane protein HPC-1/syntaxin 1A is believed to play a key role in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and it was recently suggested to be required for synaptic plasticity...

More Information


  1. Arancillo M, Min S, Gerber S, Münster Wandowski A, Wu Y, Herman M, et al. Titration of Syntaxin1 in mammalian synapses reveals multiple roles in vesicle docking, priming, and release probability. J Neurosci. 2013;33:16698-714 pubmed publisher
    ..4 and 2.5, respectively. This strongly suggests that priming and vesicle fusion share the same molecular stoichiometry, and are governed by highly related mechanisms. ..
  2. Mu X, Fu X, Sun H, Liang S, Maeda H, Frishman L, et al. Ganglion cells are required for normal progenitor- cell proliferation but not cell-fate determination or patterning in the developing mouse retina. Curr Biol. 2005;15:525-30 pubmed
    ..Intrinsic rather than extrinsic factors are likely to play the critical roles in determining retinal cell fate. ..
  3. Philips G, Stair C, Young Lee H, Wroblewski E, Berberoglu M, Brown N, et al. Precocious retinal neurons: Pax6 controls timing of differentiation and determination of cell type. Dev Biol. 2005;279:308-21 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, precocious neurons adopted a generic rather than a specific retinal neuron fate. Thus, Pax6 regulates the timing of retinal neurogenesis and couples it with specific neuron differentiation programs. ..
  4. Li S, Mo Z, Yang X, Price S, Shen M, Xiang M. Foxn4 controls the genesis of amacrine and horizontal cells by retinal progenitors. Neuron. 2004;43:795-807 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a model in which Foxn4 cooperates with other key retinogenic factors to mediate the multipotent differentiation of retinal progenitors. ..
  5. Faulkner Jones B, Godinho L, Reese B, Pasquini G, Ruefli A, Tan S. Cloning and expression of mouse Cadherin-7, a type-II cadherin isolated from the developing eye. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1999;14:1-16 pubmed
    ..This expression pattern suggests a role for Cadherin-7 in mouse retinal development, particularly in the formation and maintenance of the GCL. ..
  6. Riento K, Jantti J, Jansson S, Hielm S, Lehtonen E, Ehnholm C, et al. A sec1-related vesicle-transport protein that is expressed predominantly in epithelial cells. Eur J Biochem. 1996;239:638-46 pubmed
    ..When overexpressed in COS-1 cells, the protein appeared to be largely cytosolic. However, upon expression with syntaxin 1A, it displayed a shift to the plasma membrane, where the two proteins colocalized...
  7. Karunakaran D, Congdon S, Guerrette T, Banday A, Lemoine C, Chhaya N, et al. The expression analysis of Sfrs10 and Celf4 during mouse retinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, our data suggests an important role for AS and mRNA localization/translation in retinal neuron differentiation. ..
  8. Anderson D, Cannavino J, Li H, Anderson K, Nelson B, McAnally J, et al. Severe muscle wasting and denervation in mice lacking the RNA-binding protein ZFP106. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E4494-503 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a central role for Zfp106 in the maintenance of nerve-muscle signaling, and highlight the involvement of aberrant RNA processing in neuromuscular disease pathogenesis. ..
  9. Corradini I, Donzelli A, Antonucci F, Welzl H, Loos M, Martucci R, et al. Epileptiform activity and cognitive deficits in SNAP-25(+/-) mice are normalized by antiepileptic drugs. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:364-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that reduction of SNAP-25 expression is associated to generation of epileptiform discharges and cognitive dysfunctions, which can be effectively treated by antiepileptic drugs. ..
  10. Echarri A, Lai M, Robinson M, Pendergast A. Abl interactor 1 (Abi-1) wave-binding and SNARE domains regulate its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, lamellipodium localization, and wave-1 levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4979-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, Abi-1 undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and functions at the leading edge to regulate Wave-1 localization and protein levels. ..
  11. Groffen A, Jacobsen L, Schut D, Verhage M. Two distinct genes drive expression of seven tomosyn isoforms in the mammalian brain, sharing a conserved structure with a unique variable domain. J Neurochem. 2005;92:554-68 pubmed
    ..Their expression patterns support a role in regulating neuronal secretion. All isoforms share conserved WD40 and SNARE domains separated by a hypervariable module, the function of which remains to be clarified. ..
  12. Torii S, Takeuchi T, Nagamatsu S, Izumi T. Rab27 effector granuphilin promotes the plasma membrane targeting of insulin granules via interaction with syntaxin 1a. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22532-8 pubmed
    ..the exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules through a direct interaction with the plasma membrane syntaxin 1a in pancreatic beta cells...
  13. Kofuji T, Fujiwara T, Sanada M, Mishima T, Akagawa K. HPC-1/syntaxin 1A and syntaxin 1B play distinct roles in neuronal survival. J Neurochem. 2014;130:514-25 pubmed publisher
    Two types of syntaxin 1 isoforms, HPC-1/syntaxin 1A (STX1A) and syntaxin 1B (STX1B), are thought to have similar functions in exocytosis of synaptic vesicles...
  14. Vardar G, Chang S, Arancillo M, Wu Y, Trimbuch T, Rosenmund C. Distinct Functions of Syntaxin-1 in Neuronal Maintenance, Synaptic Vesicle Docking, and Fusion in Mouse Neurons. J Neurosci. 2016;36:7911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..loss of function studies for Stx1 have been elusive due to the functional redundancy between Stx1 isoforms Stx1A and Stx1B and the embryonic lethality of Stx1A/1B double knock-out (DKO) mice...
  15. Marchong M, Yurkowski C, Ma C, Spencer C, Pajovic S, Gallie B. Cdh11 acts as a tumor suppressor in a murine retinoblastoma model by facilitating tumor cell death. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000923 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Cdh11 displays tumor suppressor properties in vivo and in vitro in murine retinoblastoma through promotion of cell death. ..
  16. Watanabe Y, Katayama N, Takeuchi K, Togano T, Itoh R, Sato M, et al. Point mutation in syntaxin-1A causes abnormal vesicle recycling, behaviors, and short term plasticity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:34906-19 pubmed publisher
  17. Chao C, Liang T, Kang Y, Lin X, Xie H, Feng Z, et al. Syntaxin-1A inhibits KATP channels by interacting with specific conserved motifs within sulfonylurea receptor 2A. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;51:790-802 pubmed publisher
  18. Medrihan L, Rohlmann A, Fairless R, Andrae J, Döring M, Missler M, et al. Neurobeachin, a protein implicated in membrane protein traffic and autism, is required for the formation and functioning of central synapses. J Physiol. 2009;587:5095-106 pubmed publisher
  19. Tan G, Liu Y, Wang L, Li K, Zhang Z, Li H, et al. PRRT2 deficiency induces paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia by regulating synaptic transmission in cerebellum. Cell Res. 2018;28:90-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings identify PRRT2 as a novel regulator of the SNARE complex and provide a circuit mechanism underlying the PRRT2-related behaviors. ..
  20. de Luis O, Valero M, Jurado L. WBSCR14, a putative transcription factor gene deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome: complete characterisation of the human gene and the mouse ortholog. Eur J Hum Genet. 2000;8:215-22 pubmed
    ..23. Given that other bHLHZip proteins are dosage sensitive and based on the putative function of WBSCR14 as a transcription factor, hemizygosity at this locus could be involved in some features of WBS. ..
  21. Takasusuki T, Fujiwara T, Yamaguchi S, Fukushima T, Akagawa K, Hori Y. Enhancement of synaptic transmission and nociceptive behaviour in HPC-1/syntaxin 1A knockout mice following peripheral nerve injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2179-87 pubmed
    Our previous analysis of HPC-1/syntaxin 1A knockout (KO) mice indicated that HPC-1/syntaxin 1A plays an important role in the synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus in vitro and learning behaviour in vivo...
  22. Fujiwara T, Sanada M, Kofuji T, Akagawa K. Unusual social behavior in HPC-1/syntaxin1A knockout mice is caused by disruption of the oxytocinergic neural system. J Neurochem. 2016;138:117-23 pubmed publisher
    HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A), a neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor, contributes to neural function in the CNS by regulating transmitter release...
  23. Petkovic M, Jemaiel A, Daste F, Specht C, Izeddin I, Vorkel D, et al. The SNARE Sec22b has a non-fusogenic function in plasma membrane expansion. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:434-44 pubmed publisher
  24. Liang S, Motin L, Moussa C, Lavidis N, Phillips W. Spatial distribution and developmental appearance of postjunctional P2X1 receptors on smooth muscle cells of the mouse vas deferens. Synapse. 2001;42:1-11 pubmed
  25. Pertsinidis A, Mukherjee K, Sharma M, Pang Z, Park S, Zhang Y, et al. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging reveals formation of neuronal SNARE/Munc18 complexes in situ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our superresolution imaging method provides a framework for investigating interactions between the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery and other subcellular systems in situ. ..
  26. Sharma M, Burr J, S dhof T. CSP? promotes SNARE-complex assembly by chaperoning SNAP-25 during synaptic activity. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SNAP-25 function is maintained during rapid SNARE cycles by equilibrium between CSP?-dependent chaperoning and ubiquitin-dependent degradation, revealing unique protein quality-control machinery within the presynaptic compartment...
  27. Bouwman J, Maia A, Camoletto P, Posthuma G, Roubos E, Oorschot V, et al. Quantification of synapse formation and maintenance in vivo in the absence of synaptic release. Neuroscience. 2004;126:115-26 pubmed
    ..These two observations suggest that secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulatory substances is required for synapse maintenance, not for synaptogenesis. Multivesicular structures may develop out of unstable synapses. ..
  28. Newman L, McKeever M, Okano H, Darnell R. Beta-NAP, a cerebellar degeneration antigen, is a neuron-specific vesicle coat protein. Cell. 1995;82:773-83 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which beta-NAP mediates vesicle transport between the soma and the axon terminus and suggest that beta-NAP may represent a general class of coat proteins that mediates apical transport in polarized cells. ..
  29. Gerst J. SNAREs and SNARE regulators in membrane fusion and exocytosis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;55:707-34 pubmed
    ..g. 'SNARE-masters') in mediating events leading to membrane fusion. A model to illustrate the dynamic cycling of SNAREs between fusion-incompetent and fusion-competent states, called the SNARE cycle, is presented. ..
  30. Pellet J, Haefliger J, Staple J, Widmann C, Welker E, Hirling H, et al. Spatial, temporal and subcellular localization of islet-brain 1 (IB1), a homologue of JIP-1, in mouse brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:621-32 pubmed
  31. Dai X, Manning Fox J, Chikvashvili D, Casimir M, Plummer G, Hajmrle C, et al. The voltage-dependent potassium channel subunit Kv2.1 regulates insulin secretion from rodent and human islets independently of its electrical function. Diabetologia. 2012;55:1709-20 pubmed publisher
    ..through direct interaction of its C-terminus with the soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) protein, syntaxin 1A. We hypothesised that this interaction mediates insulin secretion independently of Kv2.1 electrical function...
  32. Bumsted O Brien K, Hendrickson A, Haverkamp S, Ashery Padan R, Schulte D. Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Meis2 in the embryonic and postnatal retina. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:58-72 pubmed
  33. Kaneko Y, Suge R, Fujiwara T, Akagawa K, Watanabe S. Unusual retinal layer organization in HPC-1/syntaxin 1A knockout mice. J Mol Histol. 2011;42:483-9 pubmed publisher
    HPC-1/syntaxin 1A (STX1A) is abundantly expressed in neurons. STX1A is believed to regulate exocytosis in synaptic vesicles...
  34. Fukushima T, Takasusuki T, Tomitori H, Hori Y. Possible involvement of syntaxin 1A downregulation in the late phase of allodynia induced by peripheral nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2011;175:344-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Syntaxin 1A is a membrane protein playing an integral role in exocytosis and membrane trafficking. The superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, where nociceptive synaptic transmission is modulated, is rich in this protein...
  35. Chen C, Nelson C, Khauv D, Bennett S, Radisky E, Hirai Y, et al. Homology with vesicle fusion mediator syntaxin-1a predicts determinants of epimorphin/syntaxin-2 function in mammary epithelial morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6877-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a dramatic demonstration of the use of structural information about one molecule to define a functional motif of a second molecule that is related at the sequence level but highly divergent functionally...
  36. Park W, Lee S, Kwon N, Baek K, Kim D, Yun H. Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 3 associates with syntaxin 1. Neurosci Lett. 2008;444:240-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, LGI3 may play a regulatory role in neuronal exocytosis via its interaction with syntaxin 1. ..
  37. Sung U, Apparsundaram S, Galli A, Kahlig K, Savchenko V, Schroeter S, et al. A regulated interaction of syntaxin 1A with the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter establishes catecholamine clearance capacity. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1697-709 pubmed
    ..b>Syntaxin 1A, a presynaptic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, interacts ..
  38. Fujiwara T, Kofuji T, Akagawa K. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in STX1A knockout mice. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:1222-30 pubmed publisher
    HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) is considered to regulate exocytosis in neurones and endocrine cells...
  39. Sato S, Omori Y, Katoh K, Kondo M, Kanagawa M, Miyata K, et al. Pikachurin, a dystroglycan ligand, is essential for photoreceptor ribbon synapse formation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This may also advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the retinal electrophysiological abnormalities observed in muscular dystrophy patients. ..
  40. Kim B, Ueda M, Kominami E, Akagawa K, Kohsaka S, Akazawa C. Identification of mouse Vps16 and biochemical characterization of mammalian class C Vps complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;311:577-82 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this study provides biochemical characteristics of mVps16p in mammalian cells and the potential roles of mammalian Class C Vps proteins in membrane trafficking. ..
  41. Naik A, Kulkarni S, Lewis K, Taatjes D, Jena B. Functional Reconstitution of the Insulin-Secreting Porosome Complex in Live Cells. Endocrinology. 2016;157:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, establish a new paradigm in porosome-mediated insulin secretion in β-cells. ..
  42. Meng J, Dolly J, Wang J. Selective cleavage of SNAREs in sensory neurons unveils protein complexes mediating peptide exocytosis triggered by different stimuli. Mol Neurobiol. 2014;50:574-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, unlike SNAP-25, syntaxin 1 and VAMP 1 are more suitable targets to abolish functional SNARE complexes and pain peptide release evoked by any stimuli. ..
  43. Burré J, Sharma M, Tsetsenis T, Buchman V, Etherton M, Südhof T. Alpha-synuclein promotes SNARE-complex assembly in vivo and in vitro. Science. 2010;329:1663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synucleins may function to sustain normal SNARE-complex assembly in a presynaptic terminal during aging. ..
  44. Binda F, Dipace C, Bowton E, Robertson S, Lute B, Fog J, et al. Syntaxin 1A interaction with the dopamine transporter promotes amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:1101-8 pubmed publisher
    The soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein syntaxin 1A (SYN1A) interacts with and regulates the function of transmembrane proteins, including ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters...
  45. Imig C, Min S, Krinner S, Arancillo M, Rosenmund C, Südhof T, et al. The morphological and molecular nature of synaptic vesicle priming at presynaptic active zones. Neuron. 2014;84:416-31 pubmed publisher
  46. Mishima T, Fujiwara T, Sanada M, Kofuji T, Kanai Azuma M, Akagawa K. Syntaxin 1B, but not syntaxin 1A, is necessary for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and of the readily releasable pool at central synapses. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90004 pubmed publisher
    Two syntaxin 1 (STX1) isoforms, HPC-1/STX1A and STX1B, are coexpressed in neurons and function as neuronal target membrane (t)-SNAREs. However, little is known about their functional differences in synaptic transmission...
  47. Pigino G, Morfini G, Pelsman A, Mattson M, Brady S, Busciglio J. Alzheimer's presenilin 1 mutations impair kinesin-based axonal transport. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4499-508 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that mutations in PS1 may compromise neuronal function by affecting GSK-3 activity and kinesin-I-based motility. ..
  48. Zylbersztejn K, Petkovic M, Burgo A, Deck M, Garel S, Marcos S, et al. The vesicular SNARE Synaptobrevin is required for Semaphorin 3A axonal repulsion. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Reconstitution of Sema3A receptor in nonneuronal cells revealed that Sema3A further inhibited the exocytosis of Syb2. Therefore, Sema3A-mediated signaling and axonal repulsion require Syb2-dependent vesicular traffic. ..
  49. Poche R, Kwan K, Raven M, Furuta Y, Reese B, Behringer R. Lim1 is essential for the correct laminar positioning of retinal horizontal cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14099-107 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to describe a cell type-specific genetic program that is essential for targeting a discrete retinal neuron population to the proper lamina. ..
  50. Pontoriero G, Deschamps P, Ashery Padan R, Wong R, Yang Y, Zavadil J, et al. Cell autonomous roles for AP-2alpha in lens vesicle separation and maintenance of the lens epithelial cell phenotype. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:602-17 pubmed publisher
    ..wild-type littermates revealed differential expression of 415 mRNAs, including reduced expression of genes important for maintaining the lens epithelial cell phenotype, such as E-cadherin. ..
  51. Zhou P, Bacaj T, Yang X, Pang Z, Sudhof T. Lipid-anchored SNAREs lacking transmembrane regions fully support membrane fusion during neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 2013;80:470-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that SNARE proteins function during fusion primarily as force generators, consistent with the notion that forcing lipid membranes close together suffices to induce membrane fusion. ..
  52. Williams A, Bielopolski N, Meroz D, Lam A, Passmore D, Ben Tal N, et al. Structural and functional analysis of tomosyn identifies domains important in exocytotic regulation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14542-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results suggest that multiple domains outside the R-SNARE of tomosyn are critical to the efficacy of inhibition by tomosyn on exocytotic secretion. ..
  53. Borisovska M, Zhao Y, Tsytsyura Y, Glyvuk N, Takamori S, Matti U, et al. v-SNAREs control exocytosis of vesicles from priming to fusion. EMBO J. 2005;24:2114-26 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that dynamics of fusion pore dilation are regulated by v-SNAREs, indicating their action throughout exocytosis from priming to fusion of vesicles. ..