Gene Symbol: Stk4
Description: serine/threonine kinase 4
Alias: AI447339, AU020804, Kas-2, Mst1, Ysk3, serine/threonine-protein kinase 4, STE20-like kinase MST1, Sps1/Ste20-related kinase 3, mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 1, sterile 20-like kinase 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Stk4

Top Publications

  1. Lin Y, Khokhlatchev A, Figeys D, Avruch J. Death-associated protein 4 binds MST1 and augments MST1-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47991-8001 pubmed
    The protein kinase MST1 is proapoptotic when overexpressed in an active form, however, its physiologic regulation and cellular targets are unknown...
  2. Katagiri K, Imamura M, Kinashi T. Spatiotemporal regulation of the kinase Mst1 by binding protein RAPL is critical for lymphocyte polarity and adhesion. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:919-28 pubmed
    ..Here we have identified the kinase Mst1 as a critical effector of RAPL. RAPL regulated the localization and kinase activity of Mst1...
  3. Wada K, Itoga K, Okano T, Yonemura S, Sasaki H. Hippo pathway regulation by cell morphology and stress fibers. Development. 2011;138:3907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This cell morphology (stress-fiber)-mediated mechanism probably cooperates with a cell-cell contact (adhesion)-mediated mechanism involving the Hippo pathway to achieve density-dependent control of cell proliferation...
  4. Lee K, Ohyama T, Yajima N, Tsubuki S, Yonehara S. MST, a physiological caspase substrate, highly sensitizes apoptosis both upstream and downstream of caspase activation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19276-85 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that MST1 and MST2 are direct substrates of caspase-3 both in vivo and in vitro...
  5. Yamamoto S, Yang G, Zablocki D, Liu J, Hong C, Kim S, et al. Activation of Mst1 causes dilated cardiomyopathy by stimulating apoptosis without compensatory ventricular myocyte hypertrophy. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1463-74 pubmed
    Activation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) by genotoxic compounds is known to stimulate apoptosis in some cell types. The importance of Mst1 in cell death caused by clinically relevant pathologic stimuli is unknown, however...
  6. Dong Y, Du X, Ye J, Han M, Xu T, Zhuang Y, et al. A cell-intrinsic role for Mst1 in regulating thymocyte egress. J Immunol. 2009;183:3865-72 pubmed publisher
    The MST1 kinase was recently identified as playing an essential role in the promotion of lymphocyte polarization and adhesion stimulated by chemokines and TCR signaling...
  7. Zhou D, Conrad C, Xia F, Park J, Payer B, Yin Y, et al. Mst1 and Mst2 maintain hepatocyte quiescence and suppress hepatocellular carcinoma development through inactivation of the Yap1 oncogene. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:425-38 pubmed publisher
    Hippo-Lats-Yorkie signaling regulates tissue overgrowth and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. We show that the Mst1 and Mst2 protein kinases, the mammalian Hippo orthologs, are cleaved and constitutively activated in the mouse liver...
  8. Khokhlatchev A, Rabizadeh S, Xavier R, Nedwidek M, Chen T, Zhang X, et al. Identification of a novel Ras-regulated proapoptotic pathway. Curr Biol. 2002;12:253-65 pubmed
    ..3. We find that all three NORE-related polypeptides bind selectively to the proapoptotic protein kinase MST1, a member of the Group II GC kinases...
  9. Glantschnig H, Rodan G, Reszka A. Mapping of MST1 kinase sites of phosphorylation. Activation and autophosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42987-96 pubmed
    b>MST1 is a member of the Sterile-20 family of cytoskeletal, stress, and apoptotic kinases. MST1 is activated by phosphorylation at previously unidentified sites...

More Information


  1. Yun H, Yoon J, Lee J, Noh K, Yoon K, Oh S, et al. Daxx mediates activation-induced cell death in microglia by triggering MST1 signalling. EMBO J. 2011;30:2465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Daxx and mammalian Ste20-like kinase-1 (MST1) mediate apoptosis elicited by interferon-? (IFN-?) in microglia...
  2. George N, Day C, Boerner B, Johnson R, SARVETNICK N. Hippo signaling regulates pancreas development through inactivation of Yap. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:5116-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that Hippo signaling plays a crucial role in pancreas development and provide novel routes to a better understanding of pathological conditions that affect this organ. ..
  3. Mou F, Praskova M, Xia F, Van Buren D, Hock H, Avruch J, et al. The Mst1 and Mst2 kinases control activation of rho family GTPases and thymic egress of mature thymocytes. J Exp Med. 2012;209:741-59 pubmed publisher
    The Mst1 kinase is an important regulator of murine T cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. In this study, we analyze mice lacking both Mst1 and Mst2 in hematopoietic cells...
  4. Ueda Y, Katagiri K, Tomiyama T, Yasuda K, Habiro K, Katakai T, et al. Mst1 regulates integrin-dependent thymocyte trafficking and antigen recognition in the thymus. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1098 pubmed publisher
    Thymocyte trafficking has an important role in thymic selection. Here we show that the Hippo homologue Mst1 is required for thymocyte migration and antigen recognition by LFA-1 and ICAM-1 within the medulla...
  5. Heallen T, Zhang M, Wang J, Bonilla Claudio M, Klysik E, Johnson R, et al. Hippo pathway inhibits Wnt signaling to restrain cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart size. Science. 2011;332:458-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the Hippo effector Yap interacts with β-catenin on Sox2 and Snai2 genes. These data uncover a nuclear interaction between Hippo and Wnt signaling that restricts cardiomyocyte proliferation and controls heart size. ..
  6. Lu L, Li Y, Kim S, Bossuyt W, Liu P, Qiu Q, et al. Hippo signaling is a potent in vivo growth and tumor suppressor pathway in the mammalian liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1437-42 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of hippo signaling in regulation of mammalian organ size we have generated conditional alleles of Sav1, mst1, and mst2, orthologs of Drosophila Salvador and hippo, respectively...
  7. Song H, Mak K, Topol L, Yun K, Hu J, Garrett L, et al. Mammalian Mst1 and Mst2 kinases play essential roles in organ size control and tumor suppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Mst1 and Mst2, the two mouse homologs of the Drosophila Hpo, control the sizes of some, but not all organs, in mice, and ..
  8. Choi J, Oh S, Lee D, Oh H, Park J, Lee S, et al. Mst1-FoxO signaling protects Naïve T lymphocytes from cellular oxidative stress in mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8011 pubmed publisher
    ..In C. elegans, Hippo homolog also regulates longevity. The mammalian Ste20-like protein kinase, Mst1, plays a role in apoptosis induced by various types of apoptotic stress...
  9. Densham R, O Neill E, Munro J, König I, Anderson K, Kolch W, et al. MST kinases monitor actin cytoskeletal integrity and signal via c-Jun N-terminal kinase stress-activated kinase to regulate p21Waf1/Cip1 stability. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of MST1 or MST2 was sufficient to stabilize p21 in a JNK- and Thr57-dependent manner, while the stabilization of p21 by ..
  10. Lee J, Shin J, Hwang S, Gwag B, McKee A, Lee J, et al. MST1 functions as a key modulator of neurodegeneration in a mouse model of ALS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12066-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that genetic deficiency of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) delays disease onset and extends survival in mice expressing the ALS-associated G93A mutant of human SOD1...
  11. Katagiri K, Katakai T, Ebisuno Y, Ueda Y, Okada T, Kinashi T. Mst1 controls lymphocyte trafficking and interstitial motility within lymph nodes. EMBO J. 2009;28:1319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Mst1 plays crucial roles in lymphocyte trafficking in vivo...
  12. Zhou D, Medoff B, Chen L, Li L, Zhang X, Praskova M, et al. The Nore1B/Mst1 complex restrains antigen receptor-induced proliferation of naïve T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20321-6 pubmed publisher
    The Mst1 and Mst2 protein kinases are the mammalian homologs of hippo, a major inhibitor of cell proliferation in Drosophila. Mst1 is most abundant in lymphoid tissues...
  13. Lee J, Kim T, Yang T, Koo B, Oh S, Lee K, et al. A crucial role of WW45 in developing epithelial tissues in the mouse. EMBO J. 2008;27:1231-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the MST1 signalling pathway is specifically activated in differentiating epithelial cells...
  14. Du X, Dong Y, Shi H, Li J, Kong S, Shi D, et al. Mst1 and mst2 are essential regulators of trophoblast differentiation and placenta morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90701 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2), key components of the mammalian hpo/Mst signaling pathway, encode two highly conserved Ser/Thr ..
  15. Reginensi A, Scott R, Gregorieff A, Bagherie Lachidan M, Chung C, Lim D, et al. Yap- and Cdc42-dependent nephrogenesis and morphogenesis during mouse kidney development. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003380 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Yap responds to Cdc42-dependent signals in nephron progenitor cells to activate a genetic program required to shape the functioning nephron. ..
  16. Xu X, Jaeger E, Wang X, Lagler Ferrez E, Batalov S, Mathis N, et al. Mst1 directs Myosin IIa partitioning of low and higher affinity integrins during T cell migration. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105561 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mst1 kinase is a key signal mediator required for both of these processes; however, its molecular mechanism remains ..
  17. Kurz A, Pruenster M, Rohwedder I, Ramadass M, Schäfer K, Harrison U, et al. MST1-dependent vesicle trafficking regulates neutrophil transmigration through the vascular basement membrane. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:4125-4139 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings have associated mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) loss of function with a human primary immunodeficiency disorder, suggesting that MST1 may be involved in immune ..
  18. Volckaert T, Yuan T, Chao C, Bell H, Sitaula A, Szimmtenings L, et al. Fgf10-Hippo Epithelial-Mesenchymal Crosstalk Maintains and Recruits Lung Basal Stem Cells. Dev Cell. 2017;43:48-59.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Epithelial-derived Wnt7b, then in turn, induces Fgf10 expression in ASMCs, which extends the BSC niche to promote regeneration. ..
  19. Meng F, Zhou R, Wu S, Zhang Q, Jin Q, Zhou Y, et al. Mst1 shuts off cytosolic antiviral defense through IRF3 phosphorylation. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1086-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Through a functional screen of the human kinome, we found that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), but not Mst2, profoundly inhibited cytosolic nucleic acid sensing...
  20. Li P, Chen Y, Mak K, Wong C, Wang C, Yuan P. Functional role of Mst1/Mst2 in embryonic stem cell differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79867 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mst1 and Mst2 are central components of this pathway that are essential for embryonic development, though their role in ..
  21. Lin C, Yao E, Chuang P. A conserved MST1/2-YAP axis mediates Hippo signaling during lung growth. Dev Biol. 2015;403:101-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The current model of Hippo signaling postulates a cascade of kinase activity initiated by the MST1/2 kinases in response to external stimuli...
  22. Su T, Bondar T, Zhou X, Zhang C, He H, Medzhitov R. Two-signal requirement for growth-promoting function of Yap in hepatocytes. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Yap activation is insufficient to promote growth in the absence of a second signal thus coordinating tissue homeostasis and repair. ..
  23. Tian Y, Liu Y, Wang T, Zhou N, Kong J, Chen L, et al. A microRNA-Hippo pathway that promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac regeneration in mice. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:279ra38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate the ability of microRNA-based therapeutic approaches to promote mammalian cardiac repair and regeneration through the transient activation of cardiomyocyte proliferation. ..
  24. Kim T, Lee D, Kim S, Shin S, Seo E, Lim D. Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 suppresses lymphoma development by promoting faithful chromosome segregation. Cancer Res. 2012;72:5386-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1), the core component of the Hippo signaling pathway, is highly expressed in hematopoietic cells...
  25. Fukuhara T, Tomiyama T, Yasuda K, Ueda Y, Ozaki Y, Son Y, et al. Hypermethylation of MST1 in IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;463:968-74 pubmed publisher
    The serine/threonine kinase Mst1 plays important roles in the control of immune cell trafficking, proliferation, and differentiation...
  26. Geng J, Sun X, Wang P, Zhang S, Wang X, Wu H, et al. Kinases Mst1 and Mst2 positively regulate phagocytic induction of reactive oxygen species and bactericidal activity. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 functioned to control ROS production by regulating mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrion-phagosome ..
  27. Li J, Du X, Shi H, Deng K, Chi H, Tao W. Mammalian Sterile 20-like Kinase 1 (Mst1) Enhances the Stability of Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3) and the Function of Regulatory T Cells by Modulating Foxp3 Acetylation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:30762-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Mst1 can enhance Foxp3 stability, its transcriptional activity, and Treg function by modulating the Foxp3 protein at the ..
  28. Kim W, Khan S, Gvozdenovic Jeremic J, Kim Y, Dahlman J, Kim H, et al. Hippo signaling interactions with Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling repress liver tumorigenesis. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:137-152 pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of the mammalian Hippo kinases Mst1 and Mst2 in liver led to rapid HCC formation and activated Yes-associated protein/WW domain containing ..
  29. Salojin K, Hamman B, Chang W, Jhaver K, Al Shami A, Crisostomo J, et al. Genetic deletion of Mst1 alters T cell function and protects against autoimmunity. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98151 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is a MAPK kinase kinase kinase which is involved in a wide range of cellular responses, including apoptosis, lymphocyte adhesion and trafficking...
  30. Osada S, Izawa M, Saito R, Mizuno K, Suzuki A, Hirai S, et al. YSK1, a novel mammalian protein kinase structurally related to Ste20 and SPS1, but is not involved in the known MAPK pathways. Oncogene. 1997;14:2047-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that YSK1 may be involved in the regulation of a novel intracellular signaling pathway. ..
  31. Tomiyama T, Ueda Y, Katakai T, Kondo N, Okazaki K, Kinashi T. Antigen-specific suppression and immunological synapse formation by regulatory T cells require the Mst1 kinase. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73874 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the Mst1 kinase plays a critical role in the suppressor function of Treg cells through regulation of cell contact dependent ..
  32. Song H, Oh S, Oh H, Lim D. Role of the tumor suppressor RASSF2 in regulation of MST1 kinase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:969-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that MST1 (mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1) regulates RASSF2 protein stability...
  33. Qi Q, Li D, Luo H, Guan K, Ye K. Netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activities through enhancing Yes-associated protein stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:7255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..abrogating cancer cell progression by netrin-1, whereas knockdown of mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 1/2 (MST1/2) or large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (Lats1/2), two sets of upstream core kinases of the Hippo pathway, has no ..
  34. Zhou Y, Adolfs Y, Pijnappel W, Fuller S, van der Schors R, Li K, et al. MICAL-1 is a negative regulator of MST-NDR kinase signaling and apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3603-15 pubmed publisher
    ..NDR1/2 kinases are known to mediate apoptosis downstream of the mammalian Ste-20-like kinase MST1, and ablation of NDR1 in mice predisposes the mice to cancer as a result of compromised apoptosis...
  35. Bagrodia S, Taylor S, Creasy C, Chernoff J, Cerione R. Identification of a mouse p21Cdc42/Rac activated kinase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22731-7 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility of an additional level of regulation of the PAK family in vivo. ..
  36. Sasaki H. Position- and polarity-dependent Hippo signaling regulates cell fates in preimplantation mouse embryos. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015;47-48:80-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, I discuss how these mechanisms cooperate with the Hippo signaling pathway during cell fate-specification processes. ..
  37. Anguera M, Liu M, Avruch J, Lee J. Characterization of two Mst1-deficient mouse models. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3424-34 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase belonging to the family of Sterile 20-like kinases...
  38. Park B, Kim D, Won G, Jeon H, Oh B, Lee Y, et al. Mammalian ste20-like kinase and SAV1 promote 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by activation of PPAR?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30983 pubmed publisher
    ..MST2 and MST1 stimulated the binding of SAV1 to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a transcription factor that ..
  39. Ardestani A, Paroni F, Azizi Z, Kaur S, Khobragade V, Yuan T, et al. MST1 is a key regulator of beta cell apoptosis and dysfunction in diabetes. Nat Med. 2014;20:385-397 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified mammalian sterile 20-like kinase-1 (MST1) as a critical regulator of apoptotic beta cell death and function...
  40. Schlegelmilch K, Mohseni M, Kirak O, Pruszak J, Rodriguez J, Zhou D, et al. Yap1 acts downstream of ?-catenin to control epidermal proliferation. Cell. 2011;144:782-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data identify Yap1 as a determinant of the proliferative capacity of epidermal stem cells and as an important effector of a "crowd control" molecular circuitry in mammalian skin. ..
  41. Li W, Xiao J, Zhou X, Xu M, Hu C, Xu X, et al. STK4 regulates TLR pathways and protects against chronic inflammation-related hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:4239-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrated that the tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 (STK4) differentially regulates TLR3/4/9-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages and thereby is protective against ..
  42. Wang P, Xu D, Zhang Y, Liu X, Xia Y, Zhou P, et al. Deletion of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 attenuates neuronal loss and improves locomotor function in a mouse model of spinal cord trauma. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;431:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of our work was to delineate the function of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), a pro-apoptotic kinase and key mediator of apoptotic signaling, in the pathogenesis of an experimental mouse ..
  43. Deng Y, Wu A, Li P, Li G, Qin L, Song H, et al. Yap1 Regulates Multiple Steps of Chondrocyte Differentiation during Skeletal Development and Bone Repair. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2224-2237 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work provides insights into the mechanism by which Yap1 regulates endochondral ossification, which may help the development of therapeutic treatment for bone regeneration. ..
  44. Yasuda K, Ueda Y, Ozawa M, Matsuda T, Kinashi T. Enhanced cytotoxic T-cell function and inhibition of tumor progression by Mst1 deficiency. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:68-75 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian ste-20 like kinase Mst1 plays important roles during apoptosis, proliferation, cell polarity, and migration. Here, we report a novel role of Mst1 for cytotoxic T-cell responses and tumor suppression...
  45. Wilkinson D, Jariwala J, Anderson E, Mitra K, Meisenhelder J, Chang J, et al. Phosphorylation of LC3 by the Hippo kinases STK3/STK4 is essential for autophagy. Mol Cell. 2015;57:55-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that LC3 is phosphorylated at threonine 50 (Thr(50)) by the mammalian Sterile-20 kinases STK3 and STK4. Loss of phosphorylation at this site blocks autophagy by impairing fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and ..
  46. Lee K, Yonehara S. Phosphorylation and dimerization regulate nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of mammalian STE20-like kinase (MST). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12351-8 pubmed
  47. Wu H, Wei L, Fan F, Ji S, Zhang S, Geng J, et al. Integration of Hippo signalling and the unfolded protein response to restrain liver overgrowth and tumorigenesis. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6239 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we find that loss of Mst1/2, the mammalian Hippo orthologues, or their regulator WW45, leads to a remarkably enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (..
  48. Kim M, Kim M, Lee S, Kuninaka S, Saya H, Lee H, et al. cAMP/PKA signalling reinforces the LATS-YAP pathway to fully suppress YAP in response to actin cytoskeletal changes. EMBO J. 2013;32:1543-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We also implicate neurofibromin 2 as an AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) scaffold protein that facilitates the function of the cAMP/PKA-LATS-YAP pathway. Our study thus incorporates PKA as novel component of the Hippo pathway. ..
  49. Mirus J, Zhang Y, Hollingsworth M, Solan J, Lampe P, Hingorani S. Spatiotemporal proteomic analyses during pancreas cancer progression identifies serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) as a novel candidate biomarker for early stage disease. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:3484-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) increased between preinvasive and invasive stages, suggesting its potential as a tissue biomarker, and perhaps its ..
  50. Geng C, Zhang Y, Gao Y, Tao W, Zhang H, Liu X, et al. Mst1 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism by inhibiting Sirt1 ubiquitination in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;471:444-9 pubmed publisher
    Previous study showed mammalian Ste20-like kinase (Mst1) may serve as target for the development of new therapies for diabetes. However, the function of Mst1 involved in liver lipid metabolism has remained elusive...
  51. Kim S, Kim H, Koh G, Lim D, Yu D, Kim M, et al. Mouse Hepatic Tumor Vascular Imaging by Experimental Selective Angiography. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131687 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective latex angiography applied to certain mouse tumor models (both ectopic and spontaneous) closely simulated typical characteristics of human HCC vascular imaging. ..
  52. Matsumoto H, Murakami Y, Kataoka K, Lin H, Connor K, Miller J, et al. Mammalian STE20-like kinase 2, not kinase 1, mediates photoreceptor cell death during retinal detachment. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1269 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to date the role of MST in neurodegeneration has not been fully explored. Utilizing MST1(-/-) and MST2(-/-) mice we identified MST2, but not MST1, as a regulator of photoreceptor cell death in a mouse ..
  53. Fitamant J, Kottakis F, Benhamouche S, Tian H, Chuvin N, Parachoniak C, et al. YAP Inhibition Restores Hepatocyte Differentiation in Advanced HCC, Leading to Tumor Regression. Cell Rep. 2015;: pubmed publisher
  54. Hu J, Man W, Shen M, Zhang M, Lin J, Wang T, et al. Luteolin alleviates post-infarction cardiac dysfunction by up-regulating autophagy through Mst1 inhibition. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) knockout abolished the protective effects of Luteolin administration...
  55. Zhou D, Zhang Y, Wu H, Barry E, Yin Y, Lawrence E, et al. Mst1 and Mst2 protein kinases restrain intestinal stem cell proliferation and colonic tumorigenesis by inhibition of Yes-associated protein (Yap) overabundance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1312-20 pubmed publisher
    Ablation of the kinases Mst1 and Mst2, orthologs of the Drosophila antiproliferative kinase Hippo, from mouse intestinal epithelium caused marked expansion of an undifferentiated stem cell compartment and loss of secretory cells ..
  56. Wei B, Dui W, Liu D, Xing Y, Yuan Z, Ji G. MST1, a key player, in enhancing fast skeletal muscle atrophy. BMC Biol. 2013;11:12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>MST1 (Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1) is identified as a central component of the Hippo signaling pathway...
  57. Kondo N, Ueda Y, Kita T, Ozawa M, Tomiyama T, Yasuda K, et al. NDR1-Dependent Regulation of Kindlin-3 Controls High-Affinity LFA-1 Binding and Immune Synapse Organization. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..Rap1 was essential for T cell attachment, whereas deficiencies of ste20-like kinases, Mst1/Mst2, diminished high-affinity binding and abrogated central SMAC (cSMAC) formation with mislocalized kindlin-3 and ..
  58. Du X, Shi H, Li J, Dong Y, Liang J, Ye J, et al. Mst1/Mst2 regulate development and function of regulatory T cells through modulation of Foxo1/Foxo3 stability in autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2014;192:1525-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Human MST1 deficiency causes a novel primary immunodeficiency syndrome accompanied by autoimmune manifestations...
  59. Oh H, Kim M, Song S, Kim T, Lee D, Kwon S, et al. MST1 limits the kinase activity of aurora B to promote stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Curr Biol. 2010;20:416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Although MST1 (mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1) has been implicated in many aspects of cell cycle regulation and tumor ..
  60. Maejima Y, Kyoi S, Zhai P, Liu T, Li H, Ivessa A, et al. Mst1 inhibits autophagy by promoting the interaction between Beclin1 and Bcl-2. Nat Med. 2013;19:1478-88 pubmed publisher
    Here we show that Mst1, a proapoptotic kinase, impairs protein quality control mechanisms in the heart through inhibition of autophagy...
  61. Gao T, Zhou D, Yang C, Singh T, Penzo Méndez A, Maddipati R, et al. Hippo signaling regulates differentiation and maintenance in the exocrine pancreas. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:1543-53, 1553.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of the core Hippo kinases-Mst1 and Mst2-in pancreatic development and homeostasis...
  62. Zhang M, Tao W, Yuan Z, Liu Y. Mst-1 deficiency promotes post-traumatic spinal motor neuron survival via enhancement of autophagy flux. J Neurochem. 2017;143:244-256 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Mst-1 deficiency promotes post-traumatic spinal motor neuron survival via enhancement of autophagy flux. ..