Star

Summary

Gene Symbol: Star
Description: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
Alias: AV363654, D8Ertd419e, stARD1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial, START domain-containing protein 1, luteinizing hormone-induced protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Star

Top Publications

  1. Manna P, Cohen Tannoudji J, Counis R, Garner C, Huhtaniemi I, Kraemer F, et al. Mechanisms of action of hormone-sensitive lipase in mouse Leydig cells: its role in the regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8505-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) controls the rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis...
  2. Reinhart A, Williams S, Clark B, Stocco D. SF-1 (steroidogenic factor-1) and C/EBP beta (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta) cooperate to regulate the murine StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:729-41 pubmed
    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein mediates the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, which is the transfer of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane...
  3. Clark B, Wells J, King S, Stocco D. The purification, cloning, and expression of a novel luteinizing hormone-induced mitochondrial protein in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Characterization of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). J Biol Chem. 1994;269:28314-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this protein is required in the acute regulation of steroidogenesis and propose to call this protein the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR).
  4. Hiroi H, Christenson L, Chang L, Sammel M, Berger S, Strauss J. Temporal and spatial changes in transcription factor binding and histone modifications at the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (stAR) locus associated with stAR transcription. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:791-806 pubmed
    ..factors and histone modifications associated with expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene in cultured MA-10 Leydig cells and in granulosa cells isolated from mouse periovulatory follicles before and ..
  5. Duan H, Jefcoate C. The predominant cAMP-stimulated 3 x 5 kb StAR mRNA contains specific sequence elements in the extended 3'UTR that confer high basal instability. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;38:159-79 pubmed
    cAMP stimulation of rodent steroidogenic cells produces two StAR transcripts, a major 3.5 kb and a minor 1.6 kb mRNA, differing only in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTR)...
  6. Hauet T, Yao Z, Bose H, Wall C, Han Z, Li W, et al. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor-mediated action of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein on cholesterol entry into leydig cell mitochondria. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:540-54 pubmed
    ..Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) have been implicated in this rate-determining step of ..
  7. Christenson L, Strauss J. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the intramitochondrial translocation of cholesterol. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1529:175-87 pubmed
    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates the rate limiting step in steroidogenesis, the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane...
  8. Duan H, Cherradi N, Feige J, Jefcoate C. cAMP-dependent posttranscriptional regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein by the zinc finger protein ZFP36L1/TIS11b. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:497-509 pubmed publisher
    b>Star is expressed in steroidogenic cells as 3.5- and 1.6-kb transcripts that differ only in their 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR). In mouse MA10 testis and Y-1 adrenal lines, Br-cAMP preferentially stimulates 3.5-kb mRNA...
  9. Epstein L, Orme Johnson N. Acute action of luteinizing hormone on mouse Leydig cells: accumulation of mitochondrial phosphoproteins and stimulation of testosterone synthesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991;81:113-26 pubmed

More Information

Publications90

  1. Caron K, Ikeda Y, Soo S, Stocco D, Parker K, Clark B. Characterization of the promoter region of the mouse gene encoding the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:138-47 pubmed
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) delivers cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme carries out the first committed step in steroid hormone biosynthesis...
  2. Liu J, Rone M, Papadopoulos V. Protein-protein interactions mediate mitochondrial cholesterol transport and steroid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38879-93 pubmed
    ..protein kinase (PKARIalpha); and the hormone-induced PKA substrate, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)...
  3. Castillo A, Fan J, Papadopoulos V, Podesta E. Hormone-dependent expression of a steroidogenic acute regulatory protein natural antisense transcript in MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22822 pubmed publisher
    ..cholesterol transport is controlled by a protein complex that includes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Star is expressed as 3.5-, 2.8-, and 1.6-kb transcripts that differ only in their 3'-untranslated regions...
  4. Martin L, Boucher N, Brousseau C, Tremblay J. The orphan nuclear receptor NUR77 regulates hormone-induced StAR transcription in Leydig cells through cooperation with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2021-37 pubmed publisher
    ..step of steroid biosynthesis, is mediated by a protein complex containing the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein...
  5. Wang Y, Song L, Cui L, Hong X, Zhang Z, Wang X. Monobutyl phthalate inhibits steroidogenesis by downregulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:947-55 pubmed
    ..These results were supported by the downregulated StAR expression seen with MBP administration, as StAR is a key factor in this process...
  6. Clark B, Soo S, Caron K, Ikeda Y, Parker K, Stocco D. Hormonal and developmental regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:1346-55 pubmed
    ..this acute response to hormone stimulation, recent studies suggest that the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) protein, a hormone-induced 30-kilodalton mitochondrial protein, plays an essential role...
  7. Pilon N, Daneau I, Brisson C, Ethier J, Lussier J, Silversides D. Porcine and bovine steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression during gestation. Endocrinology. 1997;138:1085-91 pubmed
    ..We have generated complete complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences for the porcine steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene, using a combination of genomic PCR amplification and reverse transcription-PCR amplification of pig ovarian ..
  8. Feng X, Wang X, Cao X, Xia Y, Zhou R, Chen L. Chronic Exposure of Female Mice to an Environmental Level of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Suppresses Estrogen Synthesis Through Reduced Histone H3K14 Acetylation of the StAR Promoter Leading to Deficits in Follicular Development and Ovulation. Toxicol Sci. 2015;148:368-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the level of ovarian steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA was decreased in PFOS-mice with the reduction of histone H3K14 acetylation in StAR promoter relative to ..
  9. Hauet T, Liu J, Li H, Gazouli M, Culty M, Papadopoulos V. PBR, StAR, and PKA: partners in cholesterol transport in steroidogenic cells. Endocr Res. 2002;28:395-401 pubmed
    ..protein kinase (PKA), peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), and the steroidogenesis acute regulatory (StAR) proteins. We investigated the respective role of these proteins in hormone-induced steroidogenesis...
  10. Qiu Y, Sui X, Cao S, Li X, Ning Y, Wang S, et al. Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR) Overexpression Reduces Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Obese Mice. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:3932-3942 pubmed publisher
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, plays a beneficial role in hyperlipidemia, NAFLD, and endothelial inflammation...
  11. Nishida H, Miyagawa S, Vieux Rochas M, Morini M, Ogino Y, Suzuki K, et al. Positive regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene expression through the interaction between Dlx and GATA-4 for testicular steroidogenesis. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of Dlx5 expression on the promoter activation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene, which is essential for gonadal and adrenal steroidogenesis, in a Leydig cell line...
  12. Kotula M, Kozieł E, Sadowska J, Gancarczyk M, Bilinska B. Immunofluorescent localization of the StAR protein in mitochondria of mouse Leydig cells in vitro. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2001;39:169-70 pubmed
    The Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) protein is assumed to enhance the rate-limiting step of the steroid biosynthesis...
  13. Büdefeld T, Jezek D, Rozman D, Majdic G. Initiation of steroidogenesis precedes expression of cholesterologenic enzymes in the fetal mouse testes. Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:461-6 pubmed publisher
    ..with the antibodies against cyp51, cytochrome P450 NADPH reductase, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I (3beta-HSD I) was used to determine the ontogeny of expression of these ..
  14. Manna P, Stocco D. Crosstalk of CREB and Fos/Jun on a single cis-element: transcriptional repression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;39:261-77 pubmed
    Transcriptional regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein gene by cAMP-dependent mechanisms occurs in the absence of a consensus cAMP-response element (CRE; TGACGTCA) and is mediated by several sequence-specific ..
  15. Cuffe J, O Sullivan L, Simmons D, Anderson S, Moritz K. Maternal corticosterone exposure in the mouse has sex-specific effects on placental growth and mRNA expression. Endocrinology. 2012;153:5500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has shown that maternal Cort exposure infers a sex-specific alteration to normal placental growth and growth factor expression, thus further adding to our understanding of the mechanisms of male dominance of programmed disease...
  16. Shridas P, Bailey W, Boyanovsky B, Oslund R, Gelb M, Webb N. Group X secretory phospholipase A2 regulates the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse adrenal glands. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20031-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the rate-limiting protein in corticosteroid production, was approximately 2-fold higher in adrenal glands of GX ..
  17. Ning Y, Chen S, Li X, Ma Y, Zhao F, Yin L. Cholesterol, LDL, and 25-hydroxycholesterol regulate expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;342:1249-56 pubmed
    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein promotes intramitochondrial delivery of cholesterol to the cholesterol side-chain cleavage system...
  18. Bahat A, Perlberg S, Melamed Book N, Isaac S, Eden A, Lauria I, et al. Transcriptional activation of LON Gene by a new form of mitochondrial stress: A role for the nuclear respiratory factor 2 in StAR overload response (SOR). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;408:62-72 pubmed publisher
    ..cells of the adrenal cortex and the gonads requires the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) that facilitates cholesterol mobilization to the mitochondrial inner membrane where the CYP11A1/P450scc enzyme ..
  19. Manna P, Dyson M, Jo Y, Stocco D. Role of dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 in protein kinase A- and protein kinase C-mediated regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tu. Endocrinology. 2009;150:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor that has been demonstrated to be instrumental to the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein that regulates steroid biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells...
  20. Ishii T, Mitsui T, Suzuki S, Matsuzaki Y, Hasegawa T. A genome-wide expression profile of adrenocortical cells in knockout mice lacking steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2714-23 pubmed publisher
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates cholesterol transfer into the inner mitochondrial membrane in the acute phase of steroidogenesis...
  21. Tevosian S, Jiménez E, Hatch H, Jiang T, Morse D, Fox S, et al. Adrenal Development in Mice Requires GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2503-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates. ..
  22. Duarte A, Castillo A, Podesta E, Poderoso C. Mitochondrial fusion and ERK activity regulate steroidogenic acute regulatory protein localization in mitochondria. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e100387 pubmed publisher
    ..known as the transfer of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, is facilitated by StAR, the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein...
  23. Ishii T, Hasegawa T, Pai C, Yvgi Ohana N, Timberg R, Zhao L, et al. The roles of circulating high-density lipoproteins and trophic hormones in the phenotype of knockout mice lacking the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2297-309 pubmed
    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for the regulated production of steroid hormones, mediating the translocation of intracellular cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where steroidogenesis begins...
  24. Kaftanovskaya E, Lopez C, Ferguson L, Myhr C, Agoulnik A. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis. FASEB J. 2015;29:2327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation. ..
  25. Kim A, Reuter A, Zubair M, Else T, Serecky K, Bingham N, et al. Targeted disruption of beta-catenin in Sf1-expressing cells impairs development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex. Development. 2008;135:2593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define crucial roles for beta-catenin--presumably as part of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway--in both embryonic development of the adrenal cortex and in maintenance of the adult organ. ..
  26. Romanowski M, Soccio R, Breslow J, Burley S. Crystal structure of the Mus musculus cholesterol-regulated START protein 4 (StarD4) containing a StAR-related lipid transfer domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6949-54 pubmed
    ..Additional mechanistic and evolutionary studies should be facilitated by the availability of a second START domain structure from a distant relative of MLN64. ..
  27. Stocco D. Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein: what's new?. Bioessays. 1999;21:768-75 pubmed
    ..The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein is an indispensable component in the acute regulatory phase and functions by rapidly mediating the ..
  28. West Farrell E, Xu M, Gomberg M, Chow Y, Woodruff T, Shea L. The mouse follicle microenvironment regulates antrum formation and steroid production: alterations in gene expression profiles. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of genes (Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp19a1, Fshr, Lhcgr, Aqp7, Aqp8, Aqp9, and Hif1a) were measured and correlated to ..
  29. Aghazadeh Y, Rone M, Blonder J, Ye X, Veenstra T, Hales D, et al. Hormone-induced 14-3-3? adaptor protein regulates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein activity and steroid biosynthesis in MA-10 Leydig cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15380-94 pubmed publisher
    ..contains several mitochondrial and cytosolic components, including the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR)...
  30. Lee H, Ahn R, Kwon H, Soh J. Nucleotide sequence of rat steroidogenic acute regulatory protein complementary DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;230:528-32 pubmed
    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein is a key regulator for the steroidogenesis in acute response to trophic hormone. A rat complementary DNA of the StAR protein was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined...
  31. Cao G, Zhao L, Stangl H, Hasegawa T, Richardson J, Parker K, et al. Developmental and hormonal regulation of murine scavenger receptor, class B, type 1. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:1460-73 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that trophic hormones can override the suppressive effect of cholesterol on SR-BI expression, thus ensuring that steroidogenesis is maintained during stress. ..
  32. Wen Q, Wang Y, Tang J, Cheng C, Liu Y. Sertoli Cell Wt1 Regulates Peritubular Myoid Cell and Fetal Leydig Cell Differentiation during Fetal Testis Development. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167920 pubmed publisher
    ..Myh11 and Des, and interstitial progenitor cell marker gene Vcam1 were down-regulated, whereas FLC marker genes StAR, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Hsd3b1 were up-regulated, in neonatal Wt1SC-cKO testes...
  33. Wang X, Yin X, Schiffer R, King S, Stocco D, Grammas P. Inhibition of thromboxane a synthase activity enhances steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory gene expression in MA-10 mouse Leydig cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:851-7 pubmed
    ..inhibitor furegrelate induced a concentration-dependent increase in cAMP-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein in MA-10 mouse Leydig cells...
  34. Wang X, Pan L, Zou Z, Wang D, Lu Y, Dong Z, et al. Hypoxia reduces testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig cells by inhibiting NRF1-activated StAR expression. Oncotarget. 2017;8:16401-16413 pubmed publisher
    ..Software analysis reported that the promoter region of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) contained NRF1 binding sites, indicating NRF1 promoted testicular steroidogenesis...
  35. Geng X, Zhao D, Mao G, Tan L. MicroRNA-150 regulates steroidogenesis of mouse testicular Leydig cells by targeting STAR. Reproduction. 2017;154:229-236 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with negative control group, a significant increase of STAR expression was observed in miR-150 antagomir-treated Leydig cells...
  36. Jeyasuria P, Ikeda Y, Jamin S, Zhao L, de Rooij D, Themmen A, et al. Cell-specific knockout of steroidogenic factor 1 reveals its essential roles in gonadal function. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1610-9 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these studies establish definitively that SF-1 expression in the gonads is essential for normal reproductive development and function. ..
  37. Zhang L, Chen M, Wen Q, Li Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. Reprogramming of Sertoli cells to fetal-like Leydig cells by Wt1 ablation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4003-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus provides a novel concept for somatic cell fate determination in testis development that may also represent an etiology of male infertility in human patients. ..
  38. Kowalewski M, Dyson M, Manna P, Stocco D. Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in gonadal steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2009;21:909-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Although several of these enhance the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and steroid production, the role of PPARgamma in regulating STAR-mediated steroidogenesis remains unclear...
  39. Rao R, Jo Y, Babb Tarbox M, Syapin P, Stocco D. Regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis in R2C and MA-10 Leydig tumor cells: role of the cholesterol transfer proteins StAR and PBR. Endocr Res. 2002;28:387-94 pubmed
    ..We also determined that the affinity of ligand binding to the PBR is comparable in the two cell lines, suggesting that PBR is unlikely to be solely responsible for the constitutive nature of R2C cell steroidogenesis. ..
  40. Dou K, Li H, Lu Y, Wei Q, Yang Y, Dong Q. [The preparation of StAR gene probe and its expression in mice Leydig cells under stress]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;40:284-7, 301 pubmed
    To prepare the cDNA probe of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) gene, and to investigate the StAR mRNA expression in stressed C57BL/6 mice leydig cells...
  41. Pisarska M, Bae J, Klein C, Hsueh A. Forkhead l2 is expressed in the ovary and represses the promoter activity of the steroidogenic acute regulatory gene. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3424-33 pubmed
    ..of multiple putative forkhead DNA consensus sites, the promoter of the human steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) gene was used to test for regulation by FOXL2...
  42. Ferrell J, Boehme S, Li F, Chiang J. Cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase-deficient mice are protected from high-fat/high-cholesterol diet-induced metabolic disorders. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:1144-54 pubmed publisher
  43. Fukushima M, Villar J, Tsai Morris C, Dufau M. Gonadotropin-regulated testicular RNA helicase (GRTH/DDX25), a negative regulator of luteinizing/chorionic gonadotropin hormone-induced steroidogenesis in Leydig cells: central role of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29932-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Basal protein levels of SREBP2, HMG-CoA reductase, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR; a protein that transports cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane) were markedly increased in LCs of GRTH(-..
  44. Ning Y, Xu L, Ren S, Pandak W, Chen S, Yin L. StAR overexpression decreases serum and tissue lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Lipids. 2009;44:511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..increasing expression of the mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), is able to lower lipid accumulation in liver, aortic wall, as well as in serum in a well-documented animal model, ..
  45. Martin L, Tremblay J. The nuclear receptors NUR77 and SF1 play additive roles with c-JUN through distinct elements on the mouse Star promoter. J Mol Endocrinol. 2009;42:119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Star gene expression in testicular Leydig cells is regulated by the pituitary LH through the cAMP signaling pathway...
  46. Kowalewski M, Gram A, Boos A. The role of hypoxia and HIF1α in the regulation of STAR-mediated steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;401:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of hypoxia and HIF1α in regulating steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) expression and steroidogenesis in immortalized (KK1) mouse granulosa cells under progressively lowering O2 ..
  47. Vanhoutteghem A, Messiaen S, Hervé F, Delhomme B, Moison D, Petit J, et al. The zinc-finger protein basonuclin 2 is required for proper mitotic arrest, prevention of premature meiotic initiation and meiotic progression in mouse male germ cells. Development. 2014;141:4298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the extreme evolutionary conservation of BNC2, the findings described here are likely to apply to many species. ..
  48. Korytowski W, Pilat A, Schmitt J, Girotti A. Deleterious cholesterol hydroperoxide trafficking in steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein-expressing MA-10 Leydig cells: implications for oxidative stress-impaired steroidogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation of mouse MA-10 Leydig cells with dibutyryl-cAMP (Bt2cAMP) resulted in strong expression of StarD1 and StarD4 proteins over insignificant levels in nonstimulated controls...
  49. Castillo A, Orlando U, Helfenberger K, Poderoso C, Podesta E. The role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation in the regulation of StAR activity and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;408:73-9 pubmed publisher
    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, i.e. the delivery of cholesterol from the outer (OMM) to the inner (IMM) mitochondrial membrane...
  50. Guan S, Xie L, Ma T, Lv D, Jing W, Tian X, et al. Effects of Melatonin on Early Pregnancy in Mouse: Involving the Regulation of StAR, Cyp11a1, and Ihh Expression. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..5), melatonin not only elevated progesterone (P) secretion, but also upregulated expressions of StAR and Cyp11a1, the two marker genes of corpus luteum in ovaries (p < 0.05)...
  51. Clem B, Hudson E, Clark B. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) enhances cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation and phospho-CREB interaction with the mouse steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1348-56 pubmed
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transcription is regulated through cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms that involve multiple transcription factors including the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family ..
  52. Shi Z, Feng Y, Wang J, Zhang H, Ding L, Dai J. Perfluorododecanoic acid-induced steroidogenic inhibition is associated with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and reactive oxygen species in cAMP-stimulated Leydig cells. Toxicol Sci. 2010;114:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..PFDoA inhibited steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) promoter activity and StAR expression at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels but did not affect mRNA ..
  53. Cisternas C, Tome K, Caeiro X, Dadam F, Garcia Segura L, Cambiasso M. Sex chromosome complement determines sex differences in aromatase expression and regulation in the stria terminalis and anterior amygdala of the developing mouse brain. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;414:99-110 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, sex chromosomes determine sex dimorphisms in aromatase expression and regulation in the developing mouse brain. ..
  54. Ren Y, Cowan R, Migone F, Quirk S. Overactivation of hedgehog signaling alters development of the ovarian vasculature in mice. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:174 pubmed publisher
  55. Odet F, Guyot R, Leduque P, le Magueresse Battistoni B. Evidence for similar expression of protein C inhibitor and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system during mouse testis development. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1481-9 pubmed
    ..It will be important to determine how this role is linked to the phenotype of sterility reported elsewhere in male mice with pci deleted. ..
  56. Anuka E, Yivgi Ohana N, Eimerl S, Garfinkel B, Melamed Book N, Chepurkol E, et al. Infarct-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein: a survival role in cardiac fibroblasts. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:1502-17 pubmed publisher
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is indispensable for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonadal tissues...
  57. Houk C, Pearson E, Martinelle N, Donahoe P, Teixeira J. Feedback inhibition of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in vitro and in vivo by androgens. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1269-75 pubmed
    ..MA-10 cells, MIS also enhances the cAMP-induced expression of mRNA for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which transports cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone...
  58. Liang G, Chen M, Pan X, Zheng J, Wang H. Ethanol-induced inhibition of fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis due to prenatal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid in mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011;63:607-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc) both in maternal and fetal adrenal, and placental 11?..
  59. Li W, Pandey A, Yin X, Chen J, Stocco D, Grammas P, et al. Effects of apigenin on steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory gene expression in mouse Leydig cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..decline in testosterone biosynthesis is associated with a decrease in the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein which regulates the rate-limiting step of testosterone biosynthesis...
  60. Stocco D. The role of the StAR protein in steroidogenesis: challenges for the future. J Endocrinol. 2000;164:247-53 pubmed
    The steroidogenic acute regulatory or StAR protein has been shown to be instrumental in the acute regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis through its action in mediating cholesterol transfer to the inner mitochondrial membrane and the ..
  61. Caron K, Soo S, Wetsel W, Stocco D, Clark B, Parker K. Targeted disruption of the mouse gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein provides insights into congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11540-5 pubmed
    ..studies showed that a 30-kDa mitochondrial phosphoprotein, designated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), is essential for this translocation...
  62. King S, Ginsberg S, Ishii T, Smith R, Parker K, Lamb D. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein is expressed in steroidogenic cells of the day-old brain. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4775-80 pubmed
    ..Steroid production in peripheral tissues is acutely regulated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, which mediates the rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis: the intramitochondrial delivery of ..
  63. Pihlajoki M, Gretzinger E, Cochran R, Kyrönlahti A, Schrade A, Hiller T, et al. Conditional mutagenesis of Gata6 in SF1-positive cells causes gonadal-like differentiation in the adrenal cortex of mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1754-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer genetic proof that GATA6 regulates the differentiation of steroidogenic progenitors into adrenocortical cells. ..
  64. Warita K, Mitsuhashi T, Fukui S, Ohta K, Suzuki S, Miki T, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and StAR-binding protein (SBP) expressions in the testes of mice during fetal development. Reprod Biol. 2013;13:92-5 pubmed publisher
    The expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and StAR-binding protein (SBP) in fetal Leydig cells were compared by using immunohistochemistry...
  65. Chen L, Xin Z, Li X, Tian L, Yuan Y, Liu G, et al. Cox7a2 mediates steroidogenesis in TM3 mouse Leydig cells. Asian J Androl. 2006;8:589-94 pubmed
    ..To elicit the mechanism of this effect, expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by Western blot and fluorometer, respectively...
  66. Banerjee A, Anuradha -, Mukherjee K, Krishna A. Testicular glucose and its transporter GLUT 8 as a marker of age-dependent variation and its role in steroidogenesis in mice. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2014;321:490-502 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluated and compared with the testicular steroidogenic parameters such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3?-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) and circulating testosterone levels...
  67. Chouhan S, Yadav S, Prakash J, Westfall S, Ghosh A, Agarwal N, et al. Increase in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase on exposure to bisphenol A: a possible cause for decline in steroidogenesis in male mice. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;39:405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..its effect on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and steriodogenic acute regulatoryprotein (StAR) in male mice testis. Swiss albino mice were treated with a range BPA concentrations of 0...
  68. Poderoso C, Cornejo Maciel F, Gorostizaga A, Bey P, Paz C, Podesta E. The obligatory action of protein tyrosine phosphatases in ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis is exerted at the level of StAR protein. Endocr Res. 2002;28:413-7 pubmed
    ..step in the steroidogenic hormones signaling pathway is the synthesis of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)...
  69. Bland M, Fowkes R, Ingraham H. Differential requirement for steroidogenic factor-1 gene dosage in adrenal development versus endocrine function. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:941-52 pubmed
    ..Our findings underscore the need for full SF-1 gene dosage early in adrenal development, but not in the adult adrenal, where compensatory mechanisms restore near normal function. ..
  70. Manna P, Chandrala S, Jo Y, Stocco D. cAMP-independent signaling regulates steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells in the absence of StAR phosphorylation. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;37:81-95 pubmed
    In the regulation of steroid biosynthesis, a process mediated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, both cAMP-dependent and -independent pathways are involved...
  71. Chu Q, Chi Z, Zhang X, Liang D, Wang X, Zhao Y, et al. A potential role for zinc transporter 7 in testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig tumor cells. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:1619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ZnT7 was principally expressed and colocalized with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the Leydig cells of male CD-1 mice...
  72. Fahrenkrug J, Georg B, Hannibal J, Jørgensen H. Altered rhythm of adrenal clock genes, StAR and serum corticosterone in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:584-96 pubmed
    ..clock linked to the rhythmic corticosteroid production by regulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Clock cells contain an autonomous molecular oscillator based on a group of clock genes and their protein products...
  73. Lee J, Tong T, Takemori H, Jefcoate C. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;408:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)...
  74. Guan Y, Hao P, Tang C, Li P, Li S, Cheng X, et al. [Effect of fluoride on the expression of StAR mRNA and P450scc mRNA in the progesterone synthesis of mouse Leydig tumor cells]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2012;41:105-8 pubmed
    To observe the effect of sodium fluoride on the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) mRNA in the testosterone synthesis of mouse Leydig tumor ..
  75. Ren S, Hylemon P, Marques D, Gurley E, Bodhan P, Hall E, et al. Overexpression of cholesterol transporter StAR increases in vivo rates of bile acid synthesis in the rat and mouse. Hepatology. 2004;40:910-7 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have shown that overexpression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a mitochondrial cholesterol transport protein, increases bile acid biosynthesis more than 5-fold via the acidic ..
  76. Hasegawa T, Zhao L, Caron K, Majdic G, Suzuki T, Shizawa S, et al. Developmental roles of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) as revealed by StAR knockout mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2000;14:1462-71 pubmed
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis, stimulating the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where steroidogenesis commences...
  77. Hu Y, Dong C, Chen M, Lu J, Han X, Qiu L, et al. Low-dose monobutyl phthalate stimulates steroidogenesis through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein regulated by SF-1, GATA-4 and C/EBP-beta in mouse Leydig tumor cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:72 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that MBP increased progesterone production and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA and protein levels...
  78. Schrick K, Bruno M, Khosla A, Cox P, Marlatt S, Roque R, et al. Shared functions of plant and mammalian StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domains in modulating transcription factor activity. BMC Biol. 2014;12:70 pubmed publisher
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer (START) domains were first identified from mammalian proteins that bind lipid/sterol ligands via a hydrophobic pocket...
  79. Manna P, Eubank D, Lalli E, Sassone Corsi P, Stocco D. Transcriptional regulation of the mouse steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene by the cAMP response-element binding protein and steroidogenic factor 1. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003;30:381-97 pubmed
    ..The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein gene is regulated by cAMP-mediated signaling in steroidogenic cells even though its promoter lacks a ..
  80. Samson W. Hypothalamic localization of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein: the missing piece of the puzzle is found. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003;14:99-100 pubmed
  81. Ji Y, Wang H, Liu P, Wang Q, Zhao X, Meng X, et al. Pubertal cadmium exposure impairs testicular development and spermatogenesis via disrupting testicular testosterone synthesis in adult mice. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;29:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, pubertal Cd exposure markedly reduced mRNA and protein levels of testicular StAR, P450scc, P450(17alpha) and 17beta-HSD...