Gene Symbol: Sstr2
Description: somatostatin receptor 2
Alias: SRIF-1, SS2R, SSTR-2, Smstr-2, Smstr2, sst2, somatostatin receptor type 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Sstr2

Top Publications

  1. Viollet C, Lanneau C, Faivre Bauman A, Zhang J, Djordjijevic D, Loudes C, et al. Distinct patterns of expression and physiological effects of sst1 and sst2 receptor subtypes in mouse hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes in culture. J Neurochem. 1997;68:2273-80 pubmed
    ..radioreceptor assays using [125I-Tyr0,D-Trp8]SRIF-14 as a ligand in ionic conditions discriminating between SRIF-1 (sst2, -3, and -5 receptors) and SRIF-2 (sst1 and -4 receptors) binding sites...
  2. Casini G, Dal Monte M, Petrucci C, Gambellini G, Grouselle D, Allen J, et al. Altered morphology of rod bipolar cell axonal terminals in the retinas of mice carrying genetic deletion of somatostatin subtype receptor 1 or 2. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:43-54 pubmed
    ..of mouse retinal neurons following genetic deletion of SRIF subtype receptor 1 [sst1 knockout (KO)] or 2 (sst2 KO)...
  3. Spier A, Fabre V, de Lecea L. Cortistatin radioligand binding in wild-type and somatostatin receptor-deficient mouse brain. Regul Pept. 2005;124:179-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the somatostatin receptor subtype-2 is responsible for somatostatin binding in cortical and amygdaloid regions and that cortistatin predominantly interacts with the same receptors as somatostatin. ..
  4. Lelouvier B, Tamagno G, Kaindl A, Roland A, Lelievre V, Le Verche V, et al. Dynamics of somatostatin type 2A receptor cargoes in living hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4336-49 pubmed publisher
  5. Cervia D, Martini D, Ristori C, Catalani E, Timperio A, Bagnoli P, et al. Modulation of the neuronal response to ischaemia by somatostatin analogues in wild-type and knock-out mouse retinas. J Neurochem. 2008;106:2224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that sst(2) activation protects against retinal ischaemia. However, in the presence of sst(2) over-expression sst(2) is functionally desensitised by agonists, possibly because of sustained RGS1 levels...
  6. Zheng H, Bailey A, Jiang M, Honda K, Chen H, Trumbauer M, et al. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 knockout mice are refractory to growth hormone-negative feedback on arcuate neurons. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:1709-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, GH-mediated negative feedback involves signaling between periventricular and arcuate neurons with the signal being transduced specifically through somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. ..
  7. Hannon J, Petrucci C, Fehlmann D, Viollet C, Epelbaum J, Hoyer D. Somatostatin sst2 receptor knock-out mice: localisation of sst1-5 receptor mRNA and binding in mouse brain by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridisation histochemistry and receptor autoradiography. Neuropharmacology. 2002;42:396-413 pubmed
    ..Finally, since the relative distribution of these two ligands were not entirely superimposable, it suggests that their respective selectivity profiles towards the different SRIF receptor subtypes in situ are not identical. ..
  8. Lepousez G, Mouret A, Loudes C, Epelbaum J, Viollet C. Somatostatin contributes to in vivo gamma oscillation modulation and odor discrimination in the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2010;30:870-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical experiments revealed that the sst2 receptor, the major somatostatin receptor subtype in the telencephalon, is expressed by mitral cells, the MOB ..
  9. Bodmer D, Brand Y, Radojevic V. Somatostatin receptor types 1 and 2 in the developing mammalian cochlea. Dev Neurosci. 2012;34:342-53 pubmed publisher
    ..the developing mouse cochlea, cells immunoreactive to somatostatin receptor 1 (SSTR1) and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) were located in the embryonic cochlear duct on Kolliker's organ as early as embryonic day (E) 14 (E14)...

More Information


  1. Radojevic V, Hanusek C, Setz C, Brand Y, Kapfhammer J, Bodmer D. The somatostatinergic system in the mammalian cochlea. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:89 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, we have analyzed the cochlear expression of somatostatin receptor 1 (SST1) and somatostatin receptor 2 (SST2) at both the mRNA and the protein level in wild-type mice, as well as in SST1 and SST2 knock-out (KO) mice and in ..
  2. Dal Monte M, Cammalleri M, Martini D, Casini G, Bagnoli P. Antiangiogenic role of somatostatin receptor 2 in a model of hypoxia-induced neovascularization in the retina: results from transgenic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3480-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that sst(2) may be protective against angiogenesis. The immediate clinical importance lies in the establishment of a potential pharmacological target based on sst(2) pharmacology. ..
  3. Catalani E, Cervia D, Martini D, Bagnoli P, Simonetti E, Timperio A, et al. Changes in neuronal response to ischemia in retinas with genetic alterations of somatostatin receptor expression. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1447-59 pubmed
  4. Van Op den Bosch J, Lantermann K, Torfs P, Van Marck E, van Nassauw L, Timmermans J. Distribution and expression levels of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in the ileum of normal and acutely Schistosoma mansoni-infected SSTR2 knockout/lacZ knockin mice. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:798-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, no significant changes were observed in the SSTR2 expression during intestinal inflammation...
  5. Aerssens J, Hillsley K, Peeters P, de Hoogt R, Stanisz A, Lin J, et al. Alterations in the brain-gut axis underlying visceral chemosensitivity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected mice. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1375-87 pubmed
    ..Both stress and inflammation are implicated in visceral hypersensitivity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity are unknown...
  6. Rong W, Winchester W, Grundy D. Spontaneous hypersensitivity in mesenteric afferent nerves of mice deficient in the sst2 subtype of somatostatin receptor. J Physiol. 2007;581:779-86 pubmed
    ..Previous evidence suggested that the sst2 receptor mediates an inhibitory role of somatostatin on GI afferent nerve sensitivity...
  7. Gong A, Tietz P, Muff M, Splinter P, Huebert R, Strowski M, et al. Somatostatin stimulates ductal bile absorption and inhibits ductal bile secretion in mice via SSTR2 on cholangiocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;284:C1205-14 pubmed
    ..receptor (SSTR) subtype 2 knockout mice, we tested the effects of somatostatin, secretin, and a selective SSTR2 agonist (L-779976) on fluid movement across the bile duct epithelial cell layer...
  8. Xu X, Zhang L, Xie X. Somatostatin receptor type 2 contributes to the self-renewal of murine embryonic stem cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..mESCs lost the typical morphology of pluripotency, accompanied by markedly decreases in expression of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2), as well as the pluripotency biomarkers Oct4, Sox2, Rex1 and Nanog...
  9. Cammalleri M, Cervia D, Langenegger D, Liu Y, Dal Monte M, Hoyer D, et al. Somatostatin receptors differentially affect spontaneous epileptiform activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:2711-21 pubmed
    ..We have focused on the role of sst1 and sst2 in mediating SRIF modulation of epilepsy using hippocampal slices of wild-type (WT) and sst1 or sst2 knockout (KO) ..
  10. Allen J, Canty A, Schulz S, Humphrey P, Emson P, Young H. Identification of cells expressing somatostatin receptor 2 in the gastrointestinal tract of Sstr2 knockout/lacZ knockin mice. J Comp Neurol. 2002;454:329-40 pubmed
    ..lacZ "knockin" mice, in which the reporter gene lacZ was engineered into the genomic locus of Sstr2 by gene targeting, were used to examine the expression pattern of Sstr2 and identify potential targets for ..
  11. Riaz H, Liang A, Khan M, Dong P, Han L, Shahzad M, et al. Somatostatin and its receptors: functional regulation in the development of mice Sertoli cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;138:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Age-related real-time PCR of all somatostatin receptors identified abundance of SSTR2 and SSTR5 mRNA level during Sertoli cell developmental period...
  12. Zeyda T, Hochgeschwender U. Null mutant mouse models of somatostatin and cortistatin, and their receptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;286:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We will review here the mouse models generated, the studies undertaken with them, and what has been learned so far. ..
  13. Prévôt T, Gastambide F, Viollet C, Henkous N, Martel G, Epelbaum J, et al. Roles of Hippocampal Somatostatin Receptor Subtypes in Stress Response and Emotionality. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42:1647-1656 pubmed publisher
    ..Such results are to be accounted for in development of pathway-specific somatostatin receptor agents in the treatment of hypercortisolism (Cushing's disease) and stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
  14. Ramirez J, Mouchantaf R, Kumar U, Otero Corchon V, Rubinstein M, Low M, et al. Brain somatostatin receptors are up-regulated in somatostatin-deficient mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1951-63 pubmed
    ..SST-like immunoreactivity, however, was induced in the proximal midgut in SSTKO animals, suggesting intestinal expression of a novel SST-like gene. ..
  15. Solomou K, Ritter M, Palmer D. Somatostatin is expressed in the murine thymus and enhances thymocyte development. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1550-9 pubmed
    ..It is believed that SOM along with one of its receptors, SSTR2, is expressed in the murine thymus, although their exact localization is unresolved...
  16. Zhao C, Martinez V, Piqueras L, Wang L, TACHE Y, Chen D. Control of gastric acid secretion in somatostatin receptor 2 deficient mice: shift from endocrine/paracrine to neurocrine pathways. Endocrinology. 2008;149:498-505 pubmed
    ..Somatostatin, acting on somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR(2)), interferes with this axis by suppressing the activity of the gastrin cells, ECL cells, and ..
  17. Sharif N, Gendron L, Wowchuk J, Sarret P, Mazella J, Beaudet A, et al. Coexpression of somatostatin receptor subtype 5 affects internalization and trafficking of somatostatin receptor subtype 2. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2095-105 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the presence of sst(5) in the same cells modulates trafficking and cell surface regulation of sst(2A) and cellular desensitization to the effects of SRIF. ..
  18. Bigiani A, Petrucci C, Ghiaroni V, Dal Monte M, Cozzi A, Kreienkamp H, et al. Functional correlates of somatostatin receptor 2 overexpression in the retina of mice with genetic deletion of somatostatin receptor 1. Brain Res. 2004;1025:177-85 pubmed
    ..The level of expression of sst(2) receptors may therefore represent a key step in the regulation of sst(2) receptor-mediated responses, at least in the retina. ..
  19. Vanetti M, Ziolkowska B, Wang X, Horn G, Hollt V. mRNA distribution of two isoforms of somatostatin receptor 2 (mSSTR2A and mSSTR2B) in mouse brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994;27:45-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, in situ hybridization indicated that mSSTR2A is predominantly expressed in mouse brain, and mSSTR2B is never expressed independently from mSSTR2A. ..
  20. Dutar P, Vaillend C, Viollet C, Billard J, Potier B, Carlo A, et al. Spatial learning and synaptic hippocampal plasticity in type 2 somatostatin receptor knock-out mice. Neuroscience. 2002;112:455-66 pubmed
    ..These effects are elicited through the activation of at least five receptor subtypes. Among them, sst2 receptors appear the most widely expressed in the cortex and hippocampal region...
  21. Bouyer K, Faivre Bauman A, Robinson I, Epelbaum J, Loudes C. Sexually dimorphic distribution of sst2A receptors on growth hormone-releasing hormone neurones in mice: modulation by gonadal steroids. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:1278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ventromedial-arcuate region, GHRH and sst2-R, as well as GHRH and somatostatin expression as measured by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, were ..
  22. Kraus J, Wöltje M, Schönwetter N, Hollt V. Alternative promoter usage and tissue specific expression of the mouse somatostatin receptor 2 gene. FEBS Lett. 1998;428:165-70 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it contains putative DNA elements for regulation by glucocorticoids, estradiol and cAMP. A third promoter, located in exon 3, is additionally used in lung, kidney and spleen. ..
  23. Aourz N, Portelli J, Coppens J, De Bundel D, Di Giovanni G, Van Eeckhaut A, et al. Cortistatin-14 mediates its anticonvulsant effects via sst2 and sst3 but not ghrelin receptors. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014;20:662-70 pubmed publisher
    ..anticonvulsive effects of CST-14 in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model in rats and mice and for the involvement of sst2 and sst3 receptors in these anticonvulsant actions of CST-14...
  24. Chalabi Dchar M, Cassant Sourdy S, Duluc C, Fanjul M, Lulka H, Samain R, et al. Loss of Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2 Promotes Growth of KRAS-Induced Pancreatic Tumors in Mice by Activating PI3K Signaling and Overexpression of CXCL16. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:1452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) inhibits PI3K, but sst2 expression is lost during the development of human PDAC...
  25. Dörflinger U, Pscherer A, Moser M, Rümmele P, Schule R, Buettner R. Activation of somatostatin receptor II expression by transcription factors MIBP1 and SEF-2 in the murine brain. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3736-47 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data for the first time define a regulatory role for the transcription factor MIBP1 in mediating spatially and temporally regulated SSTR-2 expression in the brain. ..
  26. Fitzpatrick V, Vandlen R. 6agonist selectivity determinants in somatostatin receptor subtypes I and II. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24621-6 pubmed
    ..We find that the regions about the second and third extracellular loops of these two receptors contain the determinants for MK-678 selectivity and affinity. ..
  27. Singh V, Grotzinger C, Nowak K, Zacharias S, Göncz E, Pless G, et al. Somatostatin receptor subtype-2-deficient mice with diet-induced obesity have hyperglycemia, nonfasting hyperglucagonemia, and decreased hepatic glycogen deposition. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3887-99 pubmed
    ..SST) inhibits murine glucagon secretion from isolated pancreatic islets via somatostatin receptor subtype-2 (sst2). Here, we characterize the role of sst2 in controlling glucose homeostasis in mice with diet-induced obesity...
  28. Vanetti M, Kouba M, Wang X, Vogt G, Hollt V. Cloning and expression of a novel mouse somatostatin receptor (SSTR2B). FEBS Lett. 1992;311:290-4 pubmed
    ..The sequence is almost identical to that of the mouse SSTR2 receptor [(1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci...
  29. Gray P, Hayes J, Ling G, Llona I, Tupal S, Picardo M, et al. Developmental origin of preBötzinger complex respiratory neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Dbx1-derived neurons are essential for the expression and, we hypothesize, are responsible for the generation of respiratory behavior both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  30. Baragli A, Alturaihi H, Watt H, Abdallah A, Kumar U. Heterooligomerization of human dopamine receptor 2 and somatostatin receptor 2 Co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2304-16 pubmed
    ..In contrast, cultured striatal neurons display constitutive heterodimerization between D2R and SSTR2, which were agonist-independent...
  31. Brinkmeier M, Stahl J, Gordon D, Ross B, Sarapura V, Dowding J, et al. Thyroid hormone-responsive pituitary hyperplasia independent of somatostatin receptor 2. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:2129-36 pubmed
    ..To test the involvement of SMST receptor 2 (SMSTR2) in pituitary tumor progression and thyroid hormone responsiveness in alphaGsu(-/-) mutants, we generated Smstr2(-/..
  32. Videau C, Hochgeschwender U, Kreienkamp H, Brennan M, Viollet C, Richter D, et al. Characterisation of [125I]-Tyr0DTrp8-somatostatin binding in sst1- to sst4- and SRIF-gene-invalidated mouse brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;367:562-71 pubmed
    ..For sst2 KO mice, a general decrease (>75%) was observed in most regions, with the noticeable exception of the olfactory ..
  33. Aguado Llera D, Puebla Jiménez L, Yébenes Gregorio L, Arilla Ferreiro E. Alteration of the somatostatinergic system in the striatum of rats with acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neuroscience. 2007;148:238-49 pubmed
    ..A selective reduction in the protein levels of the SRIF receptor subtype sst2, analyzed by Western blotting, was detected in the EAE rats, which correlated with decreased sst2 mRNA levels...
  34. Albert Y, Whitehead J, Eldredge L, Carter J, Gao X, Tourtellotte W. Transcriptional regulation of myotube fate specification and intrafusal muscle fiber morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:257-68 pubmed
    ..Hence, Egr3 is a target gene that is regulated by sensory innervation and that mediates gene expression involved in myotube fate specification and intrafusal muscle fiber morphogenesis. ..
  35. Radojevic V, Bodmer D. Expression and localization of somatostatin receptor types 3, 4 and 5 in the wild-type, SSTR1 and SSTR1/SSTR2 knockout mouse cochlea. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..of the three receptors (SSTR3-SSTR5) in wild-type (WT), single-knockout (SSTR1 KO) and double-knockout SSTR1/SSTR2 (DKO) mice...
  36. Ben Shlomo A, Pichurin O, Barshop N, Wawrowsky K, Taylor J, Culler M, et al. Selective regulation of somatostatin receptor subtype signaling: evidence for constitutive receptor activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2565-78 pubmed
    ..We therefore differentially silenced endogenous SST2, SST3, and SST5 in somatostatin-sensitive ACTH-secreting mouse AtT-20 pituitary corticotroph cells using small ..
  37. Moneta D, Richichi C, Aliprandi M, Dournaud P, Dutar P, Billard J, et al. Somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 4 affect seizure susceptibility and hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;16:843-9 pubmed
    We have investigated the role of somatostatin receptor subtypes sst2 and sst4 in limbic seizures and glutamate-mediated neurotransmission in mouse hippocampus...
  38. Elliott A, Ustione A, Piston D. Somatostatin and insulin mediate glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion in the pancreatic α-cell by lowering cAMP. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015;308:E130-43 pubmed publisher
    ..the combination of somatostatin, which inhibits adenylyl cyclase production of cAMP via the Gαi subunit of the SSTR2, and insulin, which acts via its receptor to activate phosphodiesterase 3B and degrade cytosolic cAMP...
  39. Gougeon A, Delangle A, Arouche N, Stridsberg M, Gotteland J, Loumaye E. Kit ligand and the somatostatin receptor antagonist, BIM-23627, stimulate in vitro resting follicle growth in the neonatal mouse ovary. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1299-309 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, extraovarian SST, acting through its receptors 2 and 5 present on granulosa cells, may be involved in mouse folliculogenesis by reducing recruitment of resting follicles. ..
  40. Stumm R, Zhou C, Schulz S, Endres M, Kronenberg G, Allen J, et al. Somatostatin receptor 2 is activated in cortical neurons and contributes to neurodegeneration after focal ischemia. J Neurosci. 2004;24:11404-15 pubmed
    Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) mediates neuromodulatory signals of somatostatin and cortistatin in the cerebral cortex...
  41. Elliott D, Metwali A, Blum A, Sandor M, Lynch R, Weinstock J. T lymphocytes isolated from the hepatic granulomas of schistosome-infected mice express somatostatin receptor subtype II (SSTR2) messenger RNA. J Immunol. 1994;153:1180-6 pubmed
    ..Amplification of mRNA by reverse transcription PCR shows SSTR1, SSTR2, and SSTR3 mRNA in normal mouse brain and other tissues...
  42. Gastambide F, Lepousez G, Viollet C, Loudes C, Epelbaum J, Guillou J. Cooperation between hippocampal somatostatin receptor subtypes 4 and 2: functional relevance in interactive memory systems. Hippocampus. 2010;20:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible neural mechanisms and functional significances for interaction between memory systems in relationship with stress-induced changes in hippocampal functions are discussed. ..
  43. Lin X, Janovick J, Cardenas R, Conn P, Peter R. Molecular cloning and expression of a type-two somatostatin receptor in goldfish brain and pituitary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;166:75-87 pubmed
    ..The decrease in pituitary sst(2) mRNA levels following estradiol implantation suggests the presence of a negative feedback mechanism on sst(2) gene expression. ..
  44. Ha T, Swanson D, Kirova R, Yeung J, Choi K, Tong Y, et al. Genome-wide microarray comparison reveals downstream genes of Pax6 in the developing mouse cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2888-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The candidate genes identified in this way represent direct or indirect Pax6-downstream genes involved in cerebellar development. ..
  45. Yamada Y, Post S, Wang K, Tager H, Bell G, Seino S. Cloning and functional characterization of a family of human and mouse somatostatin receptors expressed in brain, gastrointestinal tract, and kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:251-5 pubmed
    ..SSTR1 and SSTR2 contain 391 and 369 amino acids, respectively, and are members of the superfamily of receptors having seven ..
  46. Perez J, Viollet C, Doublier S, Videau C, Epelbaum J, Baud L. Somatostatin binds to murine macrophages through two distinct subsets of receptors. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;138:38-44 pubmed
    ..Evidence for the involvement of SSTR1 and SSTR2 in the binding of SRIF to the high and low affinity sites, respectively, was obtained by the demonstration that (1)..
  47. Hashemi S, Li J, Faigle R, Dahlstrom A. Adrenergic differentiation and SSR2a receptor expression in CAD-cells cultured in serum-free medium. Neurochem Int. 2003;42:9-17 pubmed
    ..After serum deprivation, all three methods showed that SSR(2(a)) was up-regulated in the cells. Thus, the CAD cell line after differentiation may be suitable for studying dynamics of SSR(2(a)). ..
  48. Wöltje M, Kraus J, Hollt V. Identification of a functional 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element within the second promoter of the mouse somatostatin receptor type 2 gene. FEBS Lett. 1998;440:107-10 pubmed
    Important physiological actions of somatostatin are mediated by the somatostatin receptor type 2. Its transcription is regulated by three tissue specific, alternative promoters...
  49. Takeshita S, Moritani M, Kunika K, Inoue H, Itakura M. Diabetic modifier QTLs identified in F2 intercrosses between Akita and A/J mice. Mamm Genome. 2006;17:927-40 pubmed
    ..Identification of the genes responsible for these QTLs would provide new drug development targets for human T2D. ..
  50. Matsumoto K, Yokogoshi Y, Fujinaka Y, Zhang C, Saito S. Molecular cloning and sequencing of porcine somatostatin receptor 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;199:298-305 pubmed
    ..5%, similarity 99.2%) in amino acid sequence from human somatostatin receptor 2. The data indicate that the amino acid sequence is highly conserved in pig, human, rat and mouse somatostatin receptor 2. ..
  51. Qiu C, Zeyda T, Johnson B, Hochgeschwender U, de Lecea L, Tallent M. Somatostatin receptor subtype 4 couples to the M-current to regulate seizures. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..SST(4) receptors could therefore be an important novel target for developing new antiepileptic and antiepileptogenic drugs. ..
  52. Vanetti M, Vogt G, Hollt V. The two isoforms of the mouse somatostatin receptor (mSSTR2A and mSSTR2B) differ in coupling efficiency to adenylate cyclase and in agonist-induced receptor desensitization. FEBS Lett. 1993;331:260-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that alternative splicing may be a physiological mechanism to modulate receptor desensitization and G-protein coupling of mSSTR2. ..
  53. Strowski M, Parmar R, Blake A, Schaeffer J. Somatostatin inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion via two receptors subtypes: an in vitro study of pancreatic islets from somatostatin receptor 2 knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2000;141:111-7 pubmed
    ..Five distinct membrane receptors (SSTR1-5) for SST are known, and at least two (SSTR2 and SSTR5) have been proposed to regulate pancreatic endocrine function...
  54. Palii S, Afzal A, Shaw L, Pan H, Caballero S, Miller R, et al. Nonpeptide somatostatin receptor agonists specifically target ocular neovascularization via the somatostatin type 2 receptor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5094-102 pubmed publisher
    ..intravitreal or transscleral route of administration should be seriously considered for future clinical studies of SSTR2 agonists used for treatment of ocular neovascularization to ensure efficacious concentrations in the target ..
  55. Rauly I, Saint Laurent N, Delesque N, Buscail L, Esteve J, Vaysse N, et al. Induction of a negative autocrine loop by expression of sst2 somatostatin receptor in NIH 3T3 cells. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:1874-83 pubmed
    The somatostatin receptor subtype sst2 mediates both activation of a tyrosine phosphatase activity and inhibition of cell proliferation induced by somatostatin analogues...
  56. Puente E, Saint Laurent N, Torrisani J, Furet C, Schally A, Vaysse N, et al. Transcriptional activation of mouse sst2 somatostatin receptor promoter by transforming growth factor-beta. Involvement of Smad4. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:13461-8 pubmed
    The sst2 somatostatin receptor is an inhibitory G protein-coupled receptor, which exhibits anti-tumor properties. Expression of sst2 is lost in most human pancreatic cancers...
  57. Mei S, Cammalleri M, Azara D, Casini G, Bagnoli P, Dal Monte M. Mechanisms underlying somatostatin receptor 2 down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in response to hypoxia in mouse retinal explants. J Pathol. 2012;226:519-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may have implications in designing therapies targeting STAT3 and/or HIF-1 aimed at preventing retinal neovascularization. ..
  58. Zhang L, Yu S, Duan Z, Wang Q, Tian G, Tian Y, et al. Treatment of liver cancer in mice by the intratumoral injection of an octreotide-based temperature?sensitive gel. Int J Mol Med. 2014;33:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Although ethanol is more effective in certain aspects, its tumor inhibitory effects are similar to OCT?P407 and as such, OCT?P407 may be a suitable alternative. ..
  59. Ben Shlomo A, Wawrowsky K, Proekt I, Wolkenfeld N, Ren S, Taylor J, et al. Somatostatin receptor type 5 modulates somatostatin receptor type 2 regulation of adrenocorticotropin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24011-21 pubmed
    ..To assess the contribution of somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SST5) to somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SST2) action in these cells, we assessed multipathway responses to novel highly monoreceptor-selective peptide agonists ..
  60. Fasciani A, Quilici P, Biscaldi E, Flamini M, Fioravanti A, Orlandi P, et al. Overexpression and functional relevance of somatostatin receptor-1, -2, and -5 in endometrium and endometriotic lesions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:5315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to describe the expression and the functional relevance of three human somatostatin receptors (sst1, sst2, and sst5) in tissues of women with and without endometriosis...
  61. Zhao P, Canals M, Murphy J, Klingler D, Eriksson E, Pelayo J, et al. Agonist-biased trafficking of somatostatin receptor 2A in enteric neurons. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:25689-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic SST analogs are ECE-1-resistant and retain SSTR2A in endosomes, which may explain their long-lasting actions. ..
  62. Peineau S, Potier B, Petit F, Dournaud P, Epelbaum J, Gardette R. AMPA-sst2 somatostatin receptor interaction in rat hypothalamus requires activation of NMDA and/or metabotropic glutamate receptors and depends on intracellular calcium. J Physiol. 2003;546:101-17 pubmed
    ..Activation of the hypothalamic somatostatin sst2 receptor subtype by octreotide decreases AMPA glutamate responses, indicating a central link between a ..
  63. Kumar U. Immunohistochemical distribution of somatostatin and somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5) in hypothalamus of ApoD knockout mice brain. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:684-95 pubmed
    ..SSTR1-like immunoreactivity increases in hypothalamus except in paraventricular nucleus of ApoD(-/-) mice. SSTR2 was well expressed in most of the hypothalamic regions whereas it decreases significantly in ventromedial and ..
  64. Fottner C, Mettler E, Goetz M, Schirrmacher E, Anlauf M, Strand D, et al. In vivo molecular imaging of somatostatin receptors in pancreatic islet cells and neuroendocrine tumors by miniaturized confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..was synthesized via Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis and purified by HPLC showing high-affinity binding to the sstr2 (IC(50) 6.2 nmol)...
  65. Allen J, Hathway G, Clarke N, Jowett M, Topps S, Kendrick K, et al. Somatostatin receptor 2 knockout/lacZ knockin mice show impaired motor coordination and reveal sites of somatostatin action within the striatum. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:1881-95 pubmed
    ..acts as a neuromodulator via a family of five 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, SSTR1-5, one of which, SSTR2, is known to be functional in the striatum...
  66. Abdu F, Hicks G, Hennig G, Allen J, Grundy D. Somatostatin sst(2) receptors inhibit peristalsis in the rat and mouse jejunum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;282:G624-33 pubmed
    ..sst(2) Receptors mediate inhibition of peristalsis in both rat and mouse jejunum, but a non-sst(2) component also exists in the mouse. Nitrergic mechanisms are differentially involved in rat and mouse jejunum. ..
  67. Bates C, Kegg H, Grady S. Expression of somatostatin receptors 1 and 2 in the adult mouse kidney. Regul Pept. 2004;119:11-20 pubmed
    ..G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), SSTR1 is expressed in human kidney collecting ducts and SSTR2 is expressed in rat and human collecting ducts and glomeruli...
  68. Singh S, Han L, Murali R, Solis L, Roth J, Ji L, et al. SSTR2-based reporters for assessing gene transfer into non-small cell lung cancer: evaluation using an intrathoracic mouse model. Hum Gene Ther. 2011;22:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Human somatostatin receptor subtype-2 (SSTR2)-based reporters can be used to follow gene expression in vivo using ligands with greater affinity for this ..
  69. Martinez V, Curi A, Torkian B, Schaeffer J, Wilkinson H, Walsh J, et al. High basal gastric acid secretion in somatostatin receptor subtype 2 knockout mice. Gastroenterology. 1998;114:1125-32 pubmed
    Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) agonists inhibit gastric secretion. The role of sst2 in the regulation of acid secretion was assessed using sst2 knockout mice and urethane to induce somatostatin release...
  70. Rubio A, Perez M, de Lecea L, Avila J. Effect of cortistatin on tau phosphorylation at Ser262 site. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:2462-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest an important role for cortistatin in the regulation of tau phosphorylation that may be associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease in regions such as the cerebral cortex. ..
  71. Dal Monte M, Latina V, Cupisti E, Bagnoli P. Protective role of somatostatin receptor 2 against retinal degeneration in response to hypoxia. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385:481-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that sst(2) may protect retinal cells from hypoxia, thus implementing the background to establish potential pharmacological targets based on sst(2) pharmacology. ..
  72. Brand Y, Radojevic V, Sung M, Wei E, Setz C, Glutz A, et al. Role of somatostatin receptor-2 in gentamicin-induced auditory hair cell loss in the Mammalian inner ear. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108146 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that octreotide affects auditory hair cells, enhances spiral ganglion neurite number, and decreases spiral ganglion neurite length. ..
  73. Abdel Hamid N, Mohafez O, Zakaria S, Thabet K. Hepatic somatostatin receptor 2 expression during premalignant stages of hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:2497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibits the secretion of many growth factors engaged to tumors through a group of receptors, including somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2). Caspase-3 is a transcription factor which is elevated in liver cancers...
  74. Chereau E, Durand L, Frati A, Prignon A, Talbot J, Rouzier R. Correlation of immunohistopathological expression of somatostatin receptor-2 in breast cancer and tumor detection with 68Ga-DOTATOC and 18F-FDG PET imaging in an animal model. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:3015-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to validate an animal model expressing SSTR2 and to correlate the immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis with (18)F-FDG and (68)Ga-DOTATOC uptake in vivo...