Sst

Summary

Gene Symbol: Sst
Description: somatostatin
Alias: SOM, SRIF, Smst, somatostatin, preprosomatostatin
Species: mouse
Products:     Sst

Top Publications

  1. García Moreno F, Pedraza M, Di Giovannantonio L, Di Salvio M, López Mascaraque L, Simeone A, et al. A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The diencephalic transcription factor OTP was necessary for this migratory behavior. ..
  2. Lee C, Sund N, Behr R, Herrera P, Kaestner K. Foxa2 is required for the differentiation of pancreatic alpha-cells. Dev Biol. 2005;278:484-95 pubmed
    ..By marker gene analysis, we show that the expression of the alpha-cell transcription factors Arx, Pax6, and Brn4 does not require Foxa2 in the transcriptional hierarchy governing alpha-cell differentiation. ..
  3. Sander M, Sussel L, Conners J, Scheel D, Kalamaras J, Dela Cruz F, et al. Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas. Development. 2000;127:5533-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these experiments reveal two independently controlled pathways for beta-cell differentiation, and place Nkx6.1 downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell differentiation. ..
  4. Robinson P, White A, Lewis D, Thornby J, David E, Weinstock J. Sequential expression of the neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin in granulomas associated with murine cysticercosis. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4534-8 pubmed
    ..Substance P (SP) induces Th1 cytokine expression and granuloma formation, whereas somatostatin inhibits the granulomatous response...
  5. Rakic S, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Faux C, Parnavelas J, Nikolic M. Cortical interneurons require p35/Cdk5 for their migration and laminar organization. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:1857-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We, therefore, propose that p35/Cdk5 plays a key role in guiding cortical interneurons to their final positions in the cortex. ..
  6. Petri A, Ahnfelt Rønne J, Frederiksen K, Edwards D, Madsen D, Serup P, et al. The effect of neurogenin3 deficiency on pancreatic gene expression in embryonic mice. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;37:301-16 pubmed
    ..Co-labelling established that Irx1 and Irx2 mRNA is located to glucagon-, but not insulin- or somatostatin-producing cells in mice and chicken...
  7. Heiser P, Lau J, Taketo M, Herrera P, Hebrok M. Stabilization of beta-catenin impacts pancreas growth. Development. 2006;133:2023-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a previously unappreciated temporal/spatial role for beta-catenin signaling in the regulation of pancreas organ growth. ..
  8. Low M, Otero Corchon V, Parlow A, Ramirez J, Kumar U, Patel Y, et al. Somatostatin is required for masculinization of growth hormone-regulated hepatic gene expression but not of somatic growth. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:1571-80 pubmed
    ..Because periventricular hypothalamic somatostatin (SST) expression is greater in males than in females, we generated knockout (Smst(-/-)) mice to investigate ..
  9. Nishimura W, Rowan S, Salameh T, Maas R, Bonner Weir S, Sell S, et al. Preferential reduction of beta cells derived from Pax6-MafB pathway in MafB deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2008;314:443-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Pax6 acts upstream of MafB, which in turn may trigger the expression of insulin and regulate the PDX-1 and MafA expression required for beta-cell maturation. ..

More Information

Publications79

  1. Gradwohl G, Dierich A, LeMeur M, Guillemot F. neurogenin3 is required for the development of the four endocrine cell lineages of the pancreas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1607-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, ngn3 is required for the specification of a common precursor for the four pancreatic endocrine cell types. ..
  2. Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Kim H, German M. Neurogenin3 inhibits proliferation in endocrine progenitors by inducing Cdkn1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a crucial role for Neurog3 in regulating the cell cycle during the differentiation of islet cells and demonstrate that the subsequent down-regulation of Neurog3 allows the mature islet cell population to expand. ..
  3. Zeyda T, Hochgeschwender U. Null mutant mouse models of somatostatin and cortistatin, and their receptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;286:18-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibitory factor, SRIF) and the related cortistatin (CST) are multifunctional peptide molecules attributed with neurohormone, neurotransmitter/modulator, and autocrine/paracrine actions...
  4. Collombat P, Mansouri A, Hecksher Sorensen J, Serup P, Krull J, Gradwohl G, et al. Opposing actions of Arx and Pax4 in endocrine pancreas development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2591-603 pubmed
    ..We propose that the antagonistic functions of Arx and Pax4 for proper islet cell specification are related to the pancreatic levels of the respective transcripts. ..
  5. Videau C, Hochgeschwender U, Kreienkamp H, Brennan M, Viollet C, Richter D, et al. Characterisation of [125I]-Tyr0DTrp8-somatostatin binding in sst1- to sst4- and SRIF-gene-invalidated mouse brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;367:562-71 pubmed
    Five somatostatin receptors (sst) have been cloned and mRNAs for the first four (sst1-4) are expressed in many brain regions...
  6. Magnuson M, Osipovich A. Pancreas-specific Cre driver lines and considerations for their prudent use. Cell Metab. 2013;18:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss preferred strategies for achieving high-fidelity driver lines and remind investigators of the continuing need for caution when interpreting results obtained from any Cre/LoxP-based experiment performed in mice. ..
  7. Du A, Hunter C, Murray J, Noble D, Cai C, Evans S, et al. Islet-1 is required for the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. 2009;58:2059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the requirement for Isl-1 in the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the second wave of hormone-producing islet cells. ..
  8. Bupesh M, Abellan A, Medina L. Genetic and experimental evidence supports the continuum of the central extended amygdala and a mutiple embryonic origin of its principal neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3507-31 pubmed publisher
    ..BST, but its ventrocaudal subdivision also produces an important subpopulation of projection neurons containing somatostatin for medial aspects of the central amygdala...
  9. Stevens H, Smith K, Maragnoli M, Fagel D, Borok E, Shanabrough M, et al. Fgfr2 is required for the development of the medial prefrontal cortex and its connections with limbic circuits. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that FGFR2 signaling expands the number of excitatory neurons in the mPFC and secondarily influences target neurons in subcortical stations of the limbic system. ..
  10. Henseleit K, Nelson S, Kuhlbrodt K, Hennings J, Ericson J, Sander M. NKX6 transcription factor activity is required for alpha- and beta-cell development in the pancreas. Development. 2005;132:3139-49 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that expression of Myt1 depends on overall Nkx6 gene dose, and therefore identify Myt1 as a possible downstream target of Nkx6 genes in the endocrine differentiation pathway. ..
  11. Gannon M, Ray M, Van Zee K, Rausa F, Costa R, Wright C. Persistent expression of HNF6 in islet endocrine cells causes disrupted islet architecture and loss of beta cell function. Development. 2000;127:2883-95 pubmed
  12. Kim S, Rane S. The Cdk4-E2f1 pathway regulates early pancreas development by targeting Pdx1+ progenitors and Ngn3+ endocrine precursors. Development. 2011;138:1903-12 pubmed publisher
  13. Anderson S, Marin O, Horn C, Jennings K, Rubenstein J. Distinct cortical migrations from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences. Development. 2001;128:353-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, by comparing the phenotypes of mouse mutants with differential effects on MGE and LGE migration, we provide evidence that the MGE and LGE may give rise to different subtypes of cortical interneurons. ..
  14. Seymour P, Freude K, Tran M, Mayes E, Jensen J, Kist R, et al. SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreatic progenitor cell pool. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1865-70 pubmed
    ..These findings will be of major significance for the development of in vitro protocols for cell replacement therapies. ..
  15. Nelson S, Schaffer A, Sander M. The transcription factors Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess equivalent activities in promoting beta-cell fate specification in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Development. 2007;134:2491-500 pubmed
    ..2 in endocrine differentiation are a consequence of their divergent spatiotemporal expression domains rather than their biochemical activities and implies that both Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess alpha- and beta-cell-specifying activities. ..
  16. Zeyda T, Diehl N, Paylor R, Brennan M, Hochgeschwender U. Impairment in motor learning of somatostatin null mutant mice. Brain Res. 2001;906:107-14 pubmed
    b>Somatostatin was first identified as a hypothalamic factor which inhibits the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary (somatotropin release inhibitory factor, SRIF)...
  17. Smith S, Qu H, Taleb N, Kishimoto N, Scheel D, Lu Y, et al. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010;463:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate a unique position for Rfx6 in the hierarchy of factors that coordinate pancreatic islet development in both mice and humans. Rfx6 could prove useful in efforts to generate beta-cells for patients with diabetes. ..
  18. Eng S, Lanier J, Fedtsova N, Turner E. Coordinated regulation of gene expression by Brn3a in developing sensory ganglia. Development. 2004;131:3859-70 pubmed
  19. Fujitani Y, Fujitani S, Boyer D, Gannon M, Kawaguchi Y, Ray M, et al. Targeted deletion of a cis-regulatory region reveals differential gene dosage requirements for Pdx1 in foregut organ differentiation and pancreas formation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:253-66 pubmed
  20. Batista Brito R, Machold R, Klein C, Fishell G. Gene expression in cortical interneuron precursors is prescient of their mature function. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2306-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our work has revealed that many of the genes expressed in cortical interneuron precursors have been independently linked to neurological disorders in both mice and humans. ..
  21. Cocas L, Miyoshi G, Carney R, Sousa V, Hirata T, Jones K, et al. Emx1-lineage progenitors differentially contribute to neural diversity in the striatum and amygdala. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15933-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both the timing of neurogenesis and differential combinatorial gene expression appear to be key determinants of striatal versus amygdala fate decisions of Emx1-lineage cells. ..
  22. Acampora D, Postiglione M, Avantaggiato V, Di Bonito M, Vaccarino F, Michaud J, et al. Progressive impairment of developing neuroendocrine cell lineages in the hypothalamus of mice lacking the Orthopedia gene. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2787-800 pubmed
  23. Collombat P, Hecksher Sørensen J, Broccoli V, Krull J, Ponte I, Mundiger T, et al. The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas. Development. 2005;132:2969-80 pubmed
    ..alpha- and beta-cells occurs in the endocrine pancreas, concomitantly with a virtually exclusive generation of somatostatin-producing cells...
  24. Heller R, Stoffers D, Liu A, Schedl A, Crenshaw E, Madsen O, et al. The role of Brn4/Pou3f4 and Pax6 in forming the pancreatic glucagon cell identity. Dev Biol. 2004;268:123-34 pubmed
    ..At a later time point, E19, no Brn4 co-localization is observed with insulin or somatostatin but a rare pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-producing cell can be found, while Pax6 is found in all endocrine cells...
  25. Azim E, Jabaudon D, Fame R, Macklis J. SOX6 controls dorsal progenitor identity and interneuron diversity during neocortical development. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that SOX6 is a central regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development. ..
  26. Prado C, Pugh Bernard A, Elghazi L, Sosa Pineda B, Sussel L. Ghrelin cells replace insulin-producing beta cells in two mouse models of pancreas development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2924-9 pubmed
    ..2 and Pax4 are required to specify or maintain differentiation of the beta cell fate. This finding also suggests that there is a genetic component underlying the balance between insulin and ghrelin in regulating glucose metabolism. ..
  27. Real M, Heredia R, Labrador M, Dávila J, Guirado S. Expression of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the embryonic, postnatal, and adult mouse amygdalar complex. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:335-48 pubmed publisher
    Recent developmental studies indicate that distinct neuronal subpopulations in the amygdala, including somatostatin (SOM)-containing neurons, originate from progenitor domains in the anterior entopeduncular area, thus suggesting a ..
  28. Artner I, Hang Y, Mazur M, Yamamoto T, Guo M, Lindner J, et al. MafA and MafB regulate genes critical to beta-cells in a unique temporal manner. Diabetes. 2010;59:2530-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insight into the sequential manner by which MafA and MafB regulate islet ?-cell formation and maturation. ..
  29. Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan O Connor D, Meneses J, Pedersen R, Rubenstein J, et al. Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Development. 1998;125:2213-21 pubmed
    ..1. We propose that Nkx2.2 is required for the final differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, and in its absence, beta cells are trapped in an incompletely differentiated state. ..
  30. Soyer J, Flasse L, Raffelsberger W, Beucher A, Orvain C, Peers B, et al. Rfx6 is an Ngn3-dependent winged helix transcription factor required for pancreatic islet cell development. Development. 2010;137:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..studies in zebrafish revealed that rfx6 is required for the differentiation of glucagon-, ghrelin- and somatostatin-expressing cells, which, in the absence of rfx6, are blocked at the progenitor stage...
  31. Close J, Xu H, De Marco Garcia N, Batista Brito R, Rossignol E, Rudy B, et al. Satb1 is an activity-modulated transcription factor required for the terminal differentiation and connectivity of medial ganglionic eminence-derived cortical interneurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17690-705 pubmed publisher
    ..identified transcription factors crucial for the specification and migration of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing and somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons, the intrinsic factors required for the terminal differentiation, connectivity, ..
  32. Seymour P, Freude K, Dubois C, Shih H, Patel N, Sander M. A dosage-dependent requirement for Sox9 in pancreatic endocrine cell formation. Dev Biol. 2008;323:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore suggest that defective endocrine specification might underlie the pancreatic phenotype of individuals with CD. ..
  33. Lepousez G, Csaba Z, Bernard V, Loudes C, Videau C, Lacombe J, et al. Somatostatin interneurons delineate the inner part of the external plexiform layer in the mouse main olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1976-94 pubmed publisher
    Neuropeptides play a major role in the modulation of information processing in neural networks. Somatostatin, one of the most concentrated neuropeptides in the brain, is found in many sensory systems including the olfactory pathway...
  34. Sosa Pineda B, Chowdhury K, Torres M, Oliver G, Gruss P. The Pax4 gene is essential for differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells in the mammalian pancreas. Nature. 1997;386:399-402 pubmed
    ..four endocrine cell types found in the adult pancreas-(alpha, beta, delta and PP-synthesize glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively...
  35. Yang Y, Thorel F, Boyer D, Herrera P, Wright C. Context-specific ?- to-?-cell reprogramming by forced Pdx1 expression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1680-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that Pdx1 can work single-handedly as a potent context-dependent autonomous reprogramming agent, and suggest a postnatal differentiation evaluation stage involved in normal endocrine maturation. ..
  36. Marin O, Anderson S, Rubenstein J. Origin and molecular specification of striatal interneurons. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6063-76 pubmed
    ..1 into adulthood, most of the interneurons expressing somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and neural nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appear to downregulate the expression of ..
  37. Brissova M, Shostak A, Shiota M, Wiebe P, Poffenberger G, Kantz J, et al. Pancreatic islet production of vascular endothelial growth factor--a is essential for islet vascularization, revascularization, and function. Diabetes. 2006;55:2974-85 pubmed
    ..Factors modulating VEGF-A expression may influence islet vascularity and, consequently, the amount of insulin delivered into the systemic circulation. ..
  38. Krapp A, Knöfler M, Ledermann B, Burki K, Berney C, Zoerkler N, et al. The bHLH protein PTF1-p48 is essential for the formation of the exocrine and the correct spatial organization of the endocrine pancreas. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3752-63 pubmed
  39. Pleasure S, Anderson S, Hevner R, Bagri A, Marin O, Lowenstein D, et al. Cell migration from the ganglionic eminences is required for the development of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Neuron. 2000;28:727-40 pubmed
    ..Loss of hippocampal interneurons does not appear to have major effects on the early development of hippocampal projection neurons nor on the pathfinding of afferrent tracts. ..
  40. Xu Q, Guo L, Moore H, Waclaw R, Campbell K, Anderson S. Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates. Neuron. 2010;65:328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..cerebral cortex regulate cortical functions through the actions of distinct subgroups that express parvalbumin, somatostatin, or calretinin. The genesis of the first two subgroups requires the expression of NKX2...
  41. Schaffer A, Taylor B, Benthuysen J, Liu J, Thorel F, Yuan W, et al. Nkx6.1 controls a gene regulatory network required for establishing and maintaining pancreatic Beta cell identity. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003274 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the lack of Nkx6.1 expression and aberrant activation of non-beta endocrine hormones in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived insulin(+) cells, our study has significant implications for developing cell replacement therapies. ..
  42. Anderson K, Torres C, Solomon K, Becker T, Newgard C, Wright C, et al. Cooperative transcriptional regulation of the essential pancreatic islet gene NeuroD1 (beta2) by Nkx2.2 and neurogenin 3. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31236-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings further define the conserved regulatory networks involved in islet beta cell formation and function. ..
  43. Gannon M, Ables E, Crawford L, Lowe D, OFFIELD M, Magnuson M, et al. pdx-1 function is specifically required in embryonic beta cells to generate appropriate numbers of endocrine cell types and maintain glucose homeostasis. Dev Biol. 2008;314:406-17 pubmed
    ..islets showed a dramatic reduction in the number of insulin(+) cells and an increase in both glucagon(+) and somatostatin(+) cells...
  44. Desgraz R, Herrera P. Pancreatic neurogenin 3-expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors. Development. 2009;136:3567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby Ngn3(+) cells are monotypic (i.e. unipotent) precursors, and use this paradigm to refocus ideas on how cell number and type must be regulated in building complete islets of Langerhans. ..
  45. Cobos I, Long J, Thwin M, Rubenstein J. Cellular patterns of transcription factor expression in developing cortical interneurons. Cereb Cortex. 2006;16 Suppl 1:i82-8 pubmed
    ..This study is a first step to define the combinatorial codes of transcription factors that participate in regulating the specification and function of cortical interneuron subtypes. ..
  46. Luque R, Kineman R. Gender-dependent role of endogenous somatostatin in regulating growth hormone-axis function in mice. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5998-6006 pubmed
    It has been previously reported that male and female somatostatin (SST) knockout mice (Sst-/-) release more GH, compared with Sst+/+ mice, due to enhanced GH-secretory vesicle release...
  47. Mukhopadhyay A, McGuire T, Peng C, Kessler J. Differential effects of BMP signaling on parvalbumin and somatostatin interneuron differentiation. Development. 2009;136:2633-42 pubmed publisher
    Several different populations of interneurons in the murine cortex, including somatostatin (SST)- or parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells, are born in the ventral ganglionic eminences during mid-gestation and then migrate tangentially to the ..
  48. Fu L, van den Pol A. GABA excitation in mouse hilar neuropeptide Y neurons. J Physiol. 2007;579:445-64 pubmed
    ..mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of neurons that colocalized neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SST), and GABA for whole-cell, perforated, and cell-attached recording in 240 neurons...
  49. Cammalleri M, Cervia D, Dal Monte M, Martini D, Langenegger D, Fehlmann D, et al. Compensatory changes in the hippocampus of somatostatin knockout mice: upregulation of somatostatin receptor 2 and its function in the control of bursting activity and synaptic transmission. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:2404-22 pubmed
    b>Somatostatin-14 (SRIF) co-localizes with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the hippocampus and regulates neuronal excitability...
  50. Artner I, Le Lay J, Hang Y, Elghazi L, Schisler J, Henderson E, et al. MafB: an activator of the glucagon gene expressed in developing islet alpha- and beta-cells. Diabetes. 2006;55:297-304 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MafB is not only important to islet alpha-cell function but may also be involved in regulating genes required in both endocrine alpha- and beta-cell differentiation. ..
  51. Wilson N, Runyan C, Wang F, Sur M. Division and subtraction by distinct cortical inhibitory networks in vivo. Nature. 2012;488:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PV) neurons principally divide responses but preserve stimulus selectivity, whereas dendrite-targeting, somatostatin-expressing (SOM) neurons principally subtract from excitatory responses and sharpen selectivity...
  52. Taniguchi H, He M, Wu P, Kim S, Paik R, Sugino K, et al. A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2011;71:995-1013 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, this approach will accelerate the study of GABAergic circuits throughout the mammalian brain. ..
  53. Batista Brito R, Rossignol E, Hjerling Leffler J, Denaxa M, Wegner M, Lefebvre V, et al. The cell-intrinsic requirement of Sox6 for cortical interneuron development. Neuron. 2009;63:466-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In both Lhx6 and Sox6 null animals, the expression of PV and SST and the position of both basket and Martinotti neurons are abnormal. We find that Sox6 functions downstream of Lhx6...
  54. Hauge Evans A, King A, Carmignac D, Richardson C, Robinson I, Low M, et al. Somatostatin secreted by islet delta-cells fulfills multiple roles as a paracrine regulator of islet function. Diabetes. 2009;58:403-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Somatostatin (SST) is secreted by islet delta-cells and by extraislet neuroendocrine cells...
  55. Wang W, Lufkin T. The murine Otp homeobox gene plays an essential role in the specification of neuronal cell lineages in the developing hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2000;227:432-49 pubmed
    ..The Otp null hypothalamus fails to secrete neuropeptides somatostatin, arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in an ..
  56. Gelman D, Griveau A, Dehorter N, Teissier A, Varela C, Pla R, et al. A wide diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons derives from the embryonic preoptic area. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with earlier findings, our results also suggest that the POA generates nearly 10% of the GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex of the mouse. ..
  57. Pfeffer C, Xue M, He M, Huang Z, Scanziani M. Inhibition of inhibition in visual cortex: the logic of connections between molecularly distinct interneurons. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, somatostatin-expressing interneurons avoid inhibiting one another yet strongly inhibit all other populations...
  58. Sander M, Neubüser A, Kalamaras J, Ee H, Martin G, German M. Genetic analysis reveals that PAX6 is required for normal transcription of pancreatic hormone genes and islet development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1662-73 pubmed
    ..Biochemical studies identify wild-type PAX6 protein as the transcription factor that binds to a common element in the glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin promoters, and show that PAX6 transactivates the glucagon and insulin promoters.
  59. Goshu E, Jin H, Lovejoy J, Marion J, Michaud J, Fan C. Sim2 contributes to neuroendocrine hormone gene expression in the anterior hypothalamus. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1251-62 pubmed
    ..PVN and supraoptic nuclei contain five major cell types: oxytocin-, vasopressin-, CRH-, somatostatin-, and TRH-secreting neurons...
  60. Wang Q, Elghazi L, Martin S, Martins I, Srinivasan R, Geng X, et al. Ghrelin is a novel target of Pax4 in endocrine progenitors of the pancreas and duodenum. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:51-61 pubmed
    ..have a severe gastrointestinal endocrine deficiency: they lack most pancreatic cells that produce insulin or somatostatin and various duodenal endocrine cell types...
  61. García López M, Abellan A, Legaz I, Rubenstein J, Puelles L, Medina L. Histogenetic compartments of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdala based on gene expression patterns during development. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:46-74 pubmed
    ..Our study provides a molecular and morphological foundation for understanding the complex embryonic origins and adult organization of the centromedial and extended amygdala. ..
  62. CHAO C, Loomis Z, Lee J, Sussel L. Genetic identification of a novel NeuroD1 function in the early differentiation of islet alpha, PP and epsilon cells. Dev Biol. 2007;312:523-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this study reveals a previously unappreciated early function of NeuroD1 in regulating the specification of alpha, PP and epsilon cells. ..
  63. Chiu C, Lur G, Morse T, Carnevale N, Ellis Davies G, Higley M. Compartmentalization of GABAergic inhibition by dendritic spines. Science. 2013;340:759-62 pubmed publisher
    ..cell type-specific optical stimulation in combination with two-photon calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging, we show that somatostatin-expressing interneurons exert compartmentalized control over postsynaptic Ca(2+) signals within individual ..
  64. Johansson J, Voss U, Kesavan G, Kostetskii I, Wierup N, Radice G, et al. N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreas development but required for beta-cell granule turnover. Genesis. 2010;48:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of insulin secretory granules is significantly reduced in N-cadherin-deficient beta-cells, and as a consequence insulin secretion is decreased. ..
  65. Wang S, Jensen J, Seymour P, Hsu W, Dor Y, Sander M, et al. Sustained Neurog3 expression in hormone-expressing islet cells is required for endocrine maturation and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that Neurog3 is required not only for initiating endocrine cell differentiation, but also for promoting islet cell maturation and maintaining islet function. ..
  66. Lynn F, Skewes Cox P, Kosaka Y, McManus M, Harfe B, German M. MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse. Diabetes. 2007;56:2938-45 pubmed
    ..The expression of a unique profile of miRNAs is required during pancreas development and is necessary for beta-cell formation. ..
  67. Harrison K, Thaler J, Pfaff S, Gu H, Kehrl J. Pancreas dorsal lobe agenesis and abnormal islets of Langerhans in Hlxb9-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 1999;23:71-5 pubmed
    ..Hlxb9-/- beta-cells express low levels of the glucose transporter Glut2 and homeodomain factor Nkx 6-1. Thus, Hlxb9 is key to normal pancreas development and function. ..
  68. Kokubu H, Ohtsuka T, Kageyama R. Mash1 is required for neuroendocrine cell development in the glandular stomach. Genes Cells. 2008;13:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..which is known to regulate formation of subsets of gastric neuroendocrine cells (gastrin-, glucagon- and somatostatin-producing cells), is expressed normally in the Mash1-null stomach...
  69. Mastracci T, Wilcox C, Arnés L, Panea C, Golden J, MAY C, et al. Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression. Dev Biol. 2011;359:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..2 becomes essential for the repression of somatostatin gene expression. Interestingly, the dysregulation of ghrelin and somatostatin expression in the Nkx2...
  70. Jenny M, Uhl C, Roche C, Duluc I, Guillermin V, Guillemot F, et al. Neurogenin3 is differentially required for endocrine cell fate specification in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. EMBO J. 2002;21:6338-47 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in the glandular stomach, the differentiation of the gastrin- (G cells) and somatostatin (D cells)-secreting cells is impaired whereas serotonin- (enterochromaffin EC cells), histamine- (..