Gene Symbol: Sptan1
Description: spectrin alpha, non-erythrocytic 1
Alias: 2610027H02Rik, Spna-2, Spna2, spectrin alpha chain, non-erythrocytic 1, alpha-II spectrin, alpha-spectrin 2, brain, alphaII-spectrin, fodrin alpha chain, spectrin alpha chain, brain, spectrin, non-erythroid alpha chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Sptan1

Top Publications

  1. Bennett P, Maggs A, Baines A, Pinder J. The transitional junction: a new functional subcellular domain at the intercalated disc. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2091-100 pubmed
    ..In particular, it provides a means for sarcomeres to be added to the ends of the cells during growth. This is of particular relevance to understanding myocyte elongation in dilated cardiomyopathy. ..
  2. Benz P, Blume C, Moebius J, Oschatz C, Schuh K, Sickmann A, et al. Cytoskeleton assembly at endothelial cell-cell contacts is regulated by alphaII-spectrin-VASP complexes. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:205-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that alphaII-spectrin-VASP complexes regulate cortical actin cytoskeleton assembly with implications for vascular permeability. ..
  3. Stankewich M, Cianci C, Stabach P, Ji L, Nath A, Morrow J. Cell organization, growth, and neural and cardiac development require ?II-spectrin. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3956-66 pubmed publisher
    Spectrin ?2 (?II-spectrin) is a scaffolding protein encoded by the Spna2 gene and constitutively expressed in most tissues. Exon trapping of Spna2 in C57BL/6 mice allowed targeted disruption of ?II-spectrin...
  4. Bennett P, Baines A, Lecomte M, Maggs A, Pinder J. Not just a plasma membrane protein: in cardiac muscle cells alpha-II spectrin also shows a close association with myofibrils. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2004;25:119-26 pubmed
    ..We suggest that alphaIIbetaII spectrin tetramers with ankyrin organise and/or stabilise cardiac muscle cell membrane components relative to the contractile apparatus. ..
  5. Ramser E, Buck F, Schachner M, Tilling T. Binding of alphaII spectrin to 14-3-3beta is involved in NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we show here that the cytoskeletal protein alphaII spectrin is a novel ligand of 14-3-3beta...
  6. Ursitti J, Petrich B, Lee P, Resneck W, Ye X, Yang J, et al. Role of an alternatively spliced form of alphaII-spectrin in localization of connexin 43 in cardiomyocytes and regulation by stress-activated protein kinase. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;42:572-81 pubmed
  7. Galiano M, Jha S, Ho T, Zhang C, Ogawa Y, Chang K, et al. A distal axonal cytoskeleton forms an intra-axonal boundary that controls axon initial segment assembly. Cell. 2012;149:1125-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the distal axonal cytoskeleton functions as an intra-axonal boundary restricting ankG to the AIS. ..
  8. Grossman G, Ebke L, Beight C, Jang G, Crabb J, Hagstrom S. Protein partners of dynamin-1 in the retina. Vis Neurosci. 2013;30:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is confirmed by western blot analysis. Results further implicate dynamin-1 in vesicular protein transport processes relevant to synaptic and post-Golgi pathways and indicate a possible role in photoreceptor stability. ..
  9. Zimmer W, Ma Y, Goodman S. Identification of a mouse brain beta-spectrin cDNA and distribution of its mRNA in adult tissues. Brain Res Bull. 1991;27:187-93 pubmed

More Information


  1. Walsh J, Cullen S, Sheridan C, Lüthi A, Gerner C, Martin S. Executioner caspase-3 and caspase-7 are functionally distinct proteases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12815-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations provide a molecular basis for the different phenotypes seen in mice lacking either caspase and indicate that these proteases occupy nonredundant roles within the cell death machinery. ..
  2. Sri Widada J, Asselin J, Colote S, Marti J, Ferraz C, Trave G, et al. Cloning and deletion mutagenesis using direct protein-protein interaction on an expression vector. Identification of the calmodulin binding domain of alpha-fodrin. J Mol Biol. 1989;205:455-8 pubmed
    ..The site is situated on repeat 11 of fodrin and probably on the extra arm of this repeat. The method we developed is widely applicable to site-directed mutagenesis of interacting proteins. ..
  3. Barisoni L, Trudel M, Chretien N, Ward L, van Adelsberg J, D AGATI V. Analysis of the role of membrane polarity in polycystic kidney disease of transgenic SBM mice. Am J Pathol. 1995;147:1728-35 pubmed
  4. Birkenmeier C, McFarland Starr E, Barker J. Chromosomal location of three spectrin genes: relationship to the inherited hemolytic anemias of mouse and man. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8121-5 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the data from the chromosome 12 study defines a new order for the genes on that chromosome and delineates the largest mouse/human conserved chromosomal segment yet known. ..
  5. Peng W, Sung L. RGD-containing ankyrin externalized onto the cell surface triggers ?V?3 integrin-mediated erythrophagocytosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, externalization of ankyrin followed by RGD/integrin recognition may be a novel mechanism by which erythrocytes adhere to macrophages preceding phagocytosis. ..
  6. Siracusa L, Alvord W, Bickmore W, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Interspecific backcross mice show sex-specific differences in allelic inheritance. Genetics. 1991;128:813-21 pubmed
    ..These studies provide evidence for sex-specific differences in allelic inheritance for chromosome 2 and suggest biological explanations for this form of transmission distortion. ..
  7. Meary F, Metral S, Ferreira C, Eladari D, Colin Y, Lecomte M, et al. A mutant alphaII-spectrin designed to resist calpain and caspase cleavage questions the functional importance of this process in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14226-37 pubmed
    ..Our finding also argues against a critical role of this particular alphaII-spectrin cleavage in either major cellular functions or in normal development. ..
  8. Ponceau A, Albigès Rizo C, Colin Aronovicz Y, Destaing O, Lecomte M. αII-spectrin regulates invadosome stability and extracellular matrix degradation. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120781 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data highlight a new function for spectrins in the stability of invadosomes and the coupling between actin regulation and ECM degradation. ..
  9. Siracusa L, Silan C, Justice M, Mercer J, Bauskin A, Ben Neriah Y, et al. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1990;6:491-504 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between the mouse and the human genomes indicate that mouse chromosome 2 contains regions homologous to at least six human chromosomes. Mouse models for human diseases are discussed. ..
  10. Ren D, Kelly M, Kim S, Grimsley Myers C, Chi F, Chen P. Testin interacts with vangl2 genetically to regulate inner ear sensory cell orientation and the normal development of the female reproductive tract in mice. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:1454-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, its genetic interaction with Vangl2 implicated it as a potential molecular link, responsible for mediating the role of Vangl2-containing membranous PCP complexes in directing morphologic polarization. ..
  11. Kasahara M, Hayashi M, Tanaka K, Inoko H, Sugaya K, Ikemura T, et al. Chromosomal localization of the proteasome Z subunit gene reveals an ancient chromosomal duplication involving the major histocompatibility complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9096-101 pubmed
    ..3 and 9q33-q34). These observations have implications in understanding the genomic organization of the present-day MHC and offer insights into the origin of the MHC. ..
  12. Sipe C, Lu X. Kif3a regulates planar polarization of auditory hair cells through both ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms. Development. 2011;138:3441-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Hoopes C, Taketo M, Ozato K, Liu Q, Howard T, Linney E, et al. Mapping of the mouse Rxr loci encoding nuclear retinoid X receptors RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma. Genomics. 1992;14:611-7 pubmed
    ..Rxra mapped to Chr 2 near the centromere, Rxrb mapped to the H-2 region of Chr 17, and Rxrg was tightly linked to the Pbx gene on distal Chr 1. These results underscore that RXR genes are dispersed in the genome. ..
  14. Chang J, Scarpa A, Eddy R, Byers M, Harris A, Morrow J, et al. Cloning of a portion of the chromosomal gene and cDNA for human beta-fodrin, the nonerythroid form of beta-spectrin. Genomics. 1993;17:287-93 pubmed
    ..beta-Fodrin was assigned the gene symbol SPTBN1. ..
  15. Cai Y, Zhu H, Li J, Luo X, Patrylo P, Rose G, et al. Age-related intraneuronal elevation of ?II-spectrin breakdown product SBDP120 in rodent forebrain accelerates in 3×Tg-AD mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37599 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel neuronal alteration indicates that impairments in membrane protein metabolism, possibly due to neuronal calcium mishandling and/or enhancement of calcium sensitive proteolysis, occur during aging and in transgenic AD mice. ..
  16. Patel Hett S, Wang H, Begonja A, Thon J, Alden E, Wandersee N, et al. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton stabilizes mouse megakaryocyte membrane systems and is essential for proplatelet and platelet formation. Blood. 2011;118:1641-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study provide evidence for a role for spectrin in different steps of megakaryocyte development through its participation in the formation of invaginated membranes and in the maintenance of proplatelet structure...
  17. Ursitti J, Lee P, Resneck W, McNally M, Bowman A, O Neill A, et al. Cloning and characterization of cytokeratins 8 and 19 in adult rat striated muscle. Interaction with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41830-8 pubmed
    ..Together these results indicate that at least two cytokeratins are expressed in adult striated muscle, where they may contribute to the organization of both the myoplasm and sarcolemma. ..
  18. Kassa R, Monterroso V, Wentzell J, Ramos A, Couchi E, Lecomte M, et al. Proximal giant neurofilamentous axonopathy in mice genetically engineered to resist calpain and caspase cleavage of ?-II spectrin. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;47:631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..spinal cord proteome of rodents displaying 1,2-DAB PGNA suggests a reduction in the abundance of ?-II spectrin (Spna2), a key protein in the maintenance of axonal integrity...
  19. Sri Widada J, Asselin J, Colote S, Ferraz C, Trave G, Afshar M, et al. Identification of the calmodulin binding domain of alpha-fodrin and implications for folding. Biochimie. 1990;72:19-24 pubmed
    ..The folding we propose is in good agreement with digestion experiments and explains observations in diseases resulting from mutations of human spectrin. ..
  20. Ohara O, Ohara R, Yamakawa H, Nakajima D, Nakayama M. Characterization of a new beta-spectrin gene which is predominantly expressed in brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;57:181-92 pubmed
  21. Zoidl G, Blanchard A, Zoidl C, Dong Z, Brennan A, Parmantier E, et al. Identification of transcriptionally regulated mRNAs from mouse Schwann cell precursors using modified RNA fingerprinting methods. J Neurosci Res. 1997;49:32-42 pubmed
  22. Sihag R, Shea T, Wang F. Spectrin-actin interaction is required for neurite extension in NB 2a/dl neuroblastoma cells. J Neurosci Res. 1996;44:430-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that beta-spectrin-actin interaction may be required for neurite extension, which is critical for development of polarity in nerve cells. ..
  23. Bloom M, Lee B, Birkenmeier C, Ma Y, Zimmer W, Goodman S, et al. Brain beta spectrin isoform 235 (Spnb-2) maps to mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:293-5 pubmed
  24. Tsugita A, Kawakami T, Uchida T, Sakai T, Kamo M, Matsui T, et al. Proteome analysis of mouse brain: two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles of tissue proteins during the course of aging. Electrophoresis. 2000;21:1853-71 pubmed
    ..Twenty-seven new proteins were identified by sequence homology search. A mouse brain proteome database was constructed, which consists of the 2-DE map images and the respective spot data files with 15 related references. ..
  25. Saegusa K, Ishimaru N, Yanagi K, Mishima K, Arakaki R, Suda T, et al. Prevention and induction of autoimmune exocrinopathy is dependent on pathogenic autoantigen cleavage in murine Sjögren's syndrome. J Immunol. 2002;169:1050-7 pubmed
  26. Zimmer W, Ma Y, Zagon I, Goodman S. Developmental expression of brain beta-spectrin isoform messenger RNAs. Brain Res. 1992;594:75-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data from the present study demonstrates that the expression of these two neuronal beta-spectrin isoforms is regulated at the level of mRNA expression. ..
  27. Papal S, Cortese M, Legendre K, Sorusch N, Dragavon J, Sahly I, et al. The giant spectrin ?V couples the molecular motors to phototransduction and Usher syndrome type I proteins along their trafficking route. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:3773-88 pubmed publisher
  28. Zhadanov A, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Westphal H. Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse LIM/homeobox gene Lhx3. Genomics. 1995;27:27-32 pubmed
    ..The homeobox is shared by exons IV and V. We have mapped Lhx3 to the proximal region of mouse chromosome 2 in a region that shares homology with human chromosomes 9q and 10p. ..
  29. Garcia Fresco G, Sousa A, Pillai A, Moy S, Crawley J, Tessarollo L, et al. Disruption of axo-glial junctions causes cytoskeletal disorganization and degeneration of Purkinje neuron axons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5137-42 pubmed
    ..We also show that alphaII spectrin is part of the paranodal complex and that, although not properly targeted, this complex is still formed in ..
  30. Zahedi K, Seldin M, Rits M, Ezekowitz R, Whitehead A. Mouse IL-1 receptor antagonist protein. Molecular characterization, gene mapping, and expression of mRNA in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol. 1991;146:4228-33 pubmed
    ..The mouse Il 1rn gene was mapped to the proximal region of chromosome 2 between the centromere and Spna2; the other known members of the mouse IL-1 gene family, Il 1a and Il 1b, both map to the same chromosome, although ..
  31. Anderson D, Kumaki S, Ahdieh M, Bertles J, Tometsko M, Loomis A, et al. Functional characterization of the human interleukin-15 receptor alpha chain and close linkage of IL15RA and IL2RA genes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29862-9 pubmed
    ..However, the distribution of expression of the IL-15R alpha is much wider than that of the IL-2R alpha, suggesting a broader range of cellular targets for IL-15. ..
  32. Clark M, Ma Y, Bloom M, Barker J, Zagon I, Zimmer W, et al. Brain alpha erythroid spectrin: identification, compartmentalization, and beta spectrin associations. Brain Res. 1994;663:223-36 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  33. del Amo F, Gendron Maguire M, Swiatek P, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Gridley T. Cloning, analysis, and chromosomal localization of Notch-1, a mouse homolog of Drosophila Notch. Genomics. 1993;15:259-64 pubmed
    ..The Notch-1 gene was localized to the proximal portion of mouse chromosome 2 by mapping with an interspecific backcross panel. ..
  34. Benz P, Merkel C, Offner K, Abeßer M, Ullrich M, Fischer T, et al. Mena/VASP and ?II-Spectrin complexes regulate cytoplasmic actin networks in cardiomyocytes and protect from conduction abnormalities and dilated cardiomyopathy. Cell Commun Signal. 2013;11:56 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, Mena/VASP deficiency results in disrupted ?-actin assembly, Z- and intercalated disc malformation, and induces dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities. ..
  35. Pilz A, Moseley H, Peters J, Abbott C. Comparative mapping of mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 9q: the genes for gelsolin and dopamine beta-hydroxylase map to mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1992;12:715-9 pubmed
    ..The loci for gelsolin and dopamine beta-hydroxylase therefore form part of the conserved synteny between HSA9q and MMU2. ..
  36. Chiang P, Wang S, Smithivas P, Song W, Crombez E, Akhtar A, et al. Isolation and characterization of the human and mouse homologues (SUPT4H and Supt4h) of the yeast SPT4 gene. Genomics. 1996;34:368-75 pubmed
    ..g., such as most histones), in all fetal and adult tissues that we examined. ..
  37. Younes M, Paus R, Stenn K, Braverman I, Keh Yen A. Localization and abundance of fodrin during keratinocyte differentiation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1994;30A:69-74 pubmed
  38. Le Bras B, Fréal A, Czarnecki A, Legendre P, Bullier E, Komada M, et al. In vivo assembly of the axon initial segment in motor neurons. Brain Struct Funct. 2014;219:1433-50 pubmed publisher
    ..5 these nascent AISs are already able to generate spikes. Using knock-out mice, we demonstrated that neither ?4-spectrin nor Neurofascin control the distal-to-proximal restriction of AnkG. ..
  39. Lozovatsky L, Abayasekara N, Piawah S, Walther Z. CASK deletion in intestinal epithelia causes mislocalization of LIN7C and the DLG1/Scrib polarity complex without affecting cell polarity. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CASK expression and the appropriate localization of DLG1 are not essential for either epithelial polarity or intestinal homeostasis in vivo. ..
  40. Isayama T, Goodman S, Zagon I. Localization of spectrin isoforms in the adult mouse heart. Cell Tissue Res. 1993;274:127-33 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of two different alpha-spectrin subunits in the mammalian heart. ..
  41. Legendre K, Safieddine S, Küssel Andermann P, Petit C, El Amraoui A. alphaII-betaV spectrin bridges the plasma membrane and cortical lattice in the lateral wall of the auditory outer hair cells. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the cortical network involved in the sound-induced electromotility of OHCs contains alphaII-betaV spectrin, and not the conventional alphaII-betaII spectrin. ..
  42. Grimsley Myers C, Sipe C, Géléoc G, Lu X. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle...
  43. Lane P, Birkenmeier C. Urogenital syndrome (us): a developmental mutation on chromosome 2 of the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:481-4 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic similarities between the two syndromes suggest the possibility that they are caused by mutations at homologous loci. ..
  44. Ma Y, Zimmer W, Riederer B, Bloom M, Barker J, Goodman S, et al. The complete amino acid sequence for brain beta spectrin (beta fodrin): relationship to globin sequences. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1993;18:87-99 pubmed
    ..In vitro analysis has demonstrated that heme is capable of specific attachment to brain spectrin, suggesting possible new functions in electron transfer, oxygen binding, nitric oxide binding or heme scavenging. ..
  45. Birkenmeier C, Bodine D, Repasky E, Helfman D, Hughes S, Barker J. Remarkable homology among the internal repeats of erythroid and nonerythroid spectrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:5671-5 pubmed
    ..In this respect, the degree of homology found between them was unexpected. Our data suggest a common evolutionary origin for these two alpha-spectrins and allow some predictions concerning spectrin gene structure. ..
  46. Uusi Rauva K, Luiro K, Tanhuanpää K, Kopra O, Martín Vasallo P, Kyttälä A, et al. Novel interactions of CLN3 protein link Batten disease to dysregulation of fodrin-Na+, K+ ATPase complex. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:2895-905 pubmed publisher
  47. Takano J, Mihira N, Fujioka R, Hosoki E, Chishti A, Saido T. Vital role of the calpain-calpastatin system for placental-integrity-dependent embryonic survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Triple-knockout mice exhibited early embryonic lethality, a finding consistent with the notion that this protease system is vital for embryonic survival. ..
  48. Deans M, Antic D, Suyama K, Scott M, Axelrod J, Goodrich L. Asymmetric distribution of prickle-like 2 reveals an early underlying polarization of vestibular sensory epithelia in the inner ear. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3139-47 pubmed
  49. Pilz A, Prohaska R, Peters J, Abbott C. Genetic linkage analysis of the Ak1, Col5a1, Epb7.2, Fpgs, Grp78, Pbx3, and Notch1 genes in the region of mouse chromosome 2 homologous to human chromosome 9q. Genomics. 1994;21:104-9 pubmed
    ..Fpgs, and Pbx3 genes were mapped with respect to the genes for Grp78, Rxra, Notch1 (the mouse homologue of TAN1), Spna2, Abl, and Hc (the mouse homologue of C5), all of which have previously been mapped by linkage analysis on MMU2 and ..
  50. Robledo R, Ciciotte S, Gwynn B, Sahr K, Gilligan D, Mohandas N, et al. Targeted deletion of alpha-adducin results in absent beta- and gamma-adducin, compensated hemolytic anemia, and lethal hydrocephalus in mice. Blood. 2008;112:4298-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that adducin plays a role in RBC membrane stability and in cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis...
  51. Shashikala S, Kumar R, Thomas N, Sivadasan D, James J, Sengupta S. Fodrin in centrosomes: implication of a role of fodrin in the transport of gamma-tubulin complex in brain. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76613 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates towards a role of fodrin as a regulatory transporter of ?-tubulin to the centrosomes for normal progression of mitosis. ..
  52. Taketo M, Parker K, Howard T, Tsukiyama T, Wong M, Niwa O, et al. Homologs of Drosophila Fushi-Tarazu factor 1 map to mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 9q33. Genomics. 1995;25:565-7 pubmed
    ..The mouse and human genes are located in the homologous regions of mouse Chr 2 and human Chr 9, respectively. ..