Gene Symbol: Spam1
Description: sperm adhesion molecule 1
Alias: AV039194, Ph-20, hyaluronidase PH-20, hyal-PH20, hyaluronoglucosaminidase PH-20, sperm surface protein PH-20
Species: mouse
Products:     Spam1

Top Publications

  1. Zheng Y, Deng X, Zhao Y, Zhang H, Martin DeLeon P. Spam1 (PH-20) mutations and sperm dysfunction in mice with the Rb(6.16) or Rb(6.15) translocation. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:822-9 pubmed directly related to the severity in the alteration of expression of the gene for the Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (Spam1), which maps to proximal mouse Chromosome 6 (Chr 6) near the translocation junction and encodes a sperm antigen ..
  2. Zhang H, Martin DeLeon P. Mouse epididymal Spam1 (pH-20) is released in the luminal fluid with its lipid anchor. J Androl. 2003;24:51-8 pubmed
    Previously we demonstrated that the murine sperm adhesion molecule 1 (Spam1 or PH-20) is synthesized by the epididymal epithelium, preferentially in the distal region, and is released into the luminal fluid...
  3. Zhang H, Martin DeLeon P. Mouse Spam1 (PH-20) is a multifunctional protein: evidence for its expression in the female reproductive tract. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:446-54 pubmed
    Sperm adhesion molecule 1 (Spam1) is a widely conserved sperm surface protein with multiple roles in mammalian fertilization...
  4. Deng X, Moran J, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Primakoff P, et al. The mouse Spam1 maps to proximal chromosome 6 and is a candidate for the sperm dysfunction in Rb(6.16)24Lub and Rb(6.15)1Ald heterozygotes. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:94-7 pubmed
    We have determined the chromosomal localization of the murine gene encoding the 68-kDa sperm adhesion molecule 1, Spam1 or Ph-20...
  5. Baba D, Kashiwabara S, Honda A, Yamagata K, Wu Q, Ikawa M, et al. Mouse sperm lacking cell surface hyaluronidase PH-20 can pass through the layer of cumulus cells and fertilize the egg. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30310-4 pubmed
  6. Zhang H, Morales C, Badran H, El Alfy M, Martin DeLeon P. Spam1 (PH-20) expression in the extratesticular duct and accessory organs of the mouse: a possible role in sperm fluid reabsorption. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:1101-7 pubmed
    A widely conserved sperm antigen, the sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1 or PH-20) is a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-linked protein with multiple roles in mammalian fertilization...
  7. Zhou C, Kang W, Baba T. Functional characterization of double-knockout mouse sperm lacking SPAM1 and ACR or SPAM1 and PRSS21 in fertilization. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:330-7 pubmed participate in the penetration process, our previous works revealed that neither of two sperm hyaluronidases, SPAM1 and HYAL5, are essential for fertilization...
  8. Kimura M, Kim E, Kang W, Yamashita M, Saigo M, Yamazaki T, et al. Functional roles of mouse sperm hyaluronidases, HYAL5 and SPAM1, in fertilization. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:939-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have shown that mouse sperm lacking SPAM1 are capable of penetrating the cumulus matrix despite a delayed dispersal of cumulus cells...
  9. Griffiths G, Miller K, Galileo D, Martin DeLeon P. Murine SPAM1 is secreted by the estrous uterus and oviduct in a form that can bind to sperm during capacitation: acquisition enhances hyaluronic acid-binding ability and cumulus dispersal efficiency. Reproduction. 2008;135:293-301 pubmed publisher
    Sperm uptake of epididymal sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) in vitro has recently been shown to be a marker of sperm maturation, since acquisition of this surface hyaluronidase increases cumulus dispersal efficiency...

More Information


  1. Kim E, Baba D, Kimura M, Yamashita M, Kashiwabara S, Baba T. Identification of a hyaluronidase, Hyal5, involved in penetration of mouse sperm through cumulus mass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18028-33 pubmed
    ..PH-20 may compensate in part for the functional roles of Hyal5. ..
  2. Kang W, Zhou C, Koga Y, Baba T. Hyaluronan-degrading activity of mouse sperm hyaluronidase is not required for fertilization?. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:140-4 pubmed
    ..However, our previous works using male mice lacking either one of two sperm hyaluronidases, SPAM1 and HYAL5, conclusively showed that neither of these hyaluronidases is essential for fertilization...
  3. Grigorieva A, Griffiths G, Zhang H, Laverty G, Shao M, Taylor L, et al. Expression of SPAM1 (PH-20) in the murine kidney is not accompanied by hyaluronidase activity: evidence for potential roles in fluid and water reabsorption. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2007;30:145-55 pubmed
    A role for Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (SPAM1) hyaluronidase in murine kidney, where Spam1 transcript levels have been reported to be higher in males, has not been clarified...
  4. Chen H, Griffiths G, Galileo D, Martin DeLeon P. Epididymal SPAM1 is a marker for sperm maturation in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:923-30 pubmed
    Sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1), is a glycosyl phoshatidylinositol-linked sperm membrane protein that is dually expressed in testis and epididymis...
  5. Deng X, Czymmek K, Martin DeLeon P. Biochemical maturation of Spam1 (PH-20) during epididymal transit of mouse sperm involves modifications of N-linked oligosaccharides. Mol Reprod Dev. 1999;52:196-206 pubmed
    ..b>Spam1 is uniformly distributed over the surface of the head of caput sperm while in caudal sperm, light and confocal ..
  6. Reitinger S, Laschober G, Fehrer C, Greiderer B, Lepperdinger G. Mouse testicular hyaluronidase-like proteins SPAM1 and HYAL5 but not HYALP1 degrade hyaluronan. Biochem J. 2007;401:79-85 pubmed
    Besides SPAM1 (sperm adhesion molecule 1; formerly named PH-20), further hyaluronidase-like proteins, HYAL5 (hyaluronoglucosaminidase 5) and HYALP1 (hyaluronoglucosaminidase pseudogene 1) are also expressed in murine testicular tissue...
  7. Zhang H, Barnoski B, Sol Church K, Stabley D, Martin DeLeon P. Murine Spam1 mRNA: involvement of AU-rich elements in the 3'UTR and antisense RNA in its tight post-transcriptional regulation in spermatids. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:247-55 pubmed
    Sperm adhesion molecule1 (SPAM1), the best characterized hyaluronidase gene, is abundantly expressed in the testis...
  8. Martin DeLeon P, Zhang H, Morales C, Zhao Y, Rulon M, Barnoski B, et al. Spam1-associated transmission ratio distortion in mice: elucidating the mechanism. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:32 pubmed
    ..Our earlier studies on carriers of spontaneous mutations of mouse Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (Spam1) suggested that TRD results from biochemically different sperm, due to a lack of transcript sharing through the ..
  9. Dunn C, Mager D. Transcription of the human and rodent SPAM1 / PH-20 genes initiates within an ancient endogenous retrovirus. BMC Genomics. 2005;6:47 pubmed
    Sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) is the major mammalian testicular hyaluronidase and is expressed at high levels in sperm cells...
  10. Reese K, Aravindan R, Griffiths G, Shao M, Wang Y, Galileo D, et al. Acidic hyaluronidase activity is present in mouse sperm and is reduced in the absence of SPAM1: evidence for a role for hyaluronidase 3 in mouse and human sperm. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:759-72 pubmed publisher
    ..neutral-active or "reproductive" hyaluronidases (hyases), exemplified by Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (SPAM1), are thought to be responsible for hyaluronan digestion in the egg vestments and for sperm-zona binding, their ..
  11. Thaler C, Cardullo R. Biochemical characterization of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked hyaluronidase on mouse sperm. Biochemistry. 1995;34:7788-95 pubmed
    ..Both forms may be necessary for successful penetration of the extracellular vestments that surround the egg prior to fertilization. ..
  12. Miranda P, Allaire A, Sosnik J, Visconti P. Localization of low-density detergent-resistant membrane proteins in intact and acrosome-reacted mouse sperm. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:897-904 pubmed publisher, a subset of these proteins (TEX101, basigin, hexokinase 1, facilitated glucose transporter 3, IZUMO, and SPAM1) and other molecules known to be enriched in membrane rafts (caveolin 2, flotillin 1, flotillin 2, and the ..
  13. Zhang H, Shertok S, Miller K, Taylor L, Martin DeLeon P. Sperm dysfunction in the Rb(6.16)- and Rb(6.15)-bearing mice revisited: involvement of Hyalp1 and Hyal5. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005;72:404-10 pubmed
    Earlier we showed that Sperm adhesion molecule1 (Spam1), the best studied sperm hyaluronidase, is involved in the sperm dysfunction associated with Robertsonian translocations (Rb)...
  14. Preston M, Gong X, Su W, Matsumoto S, Banine F, Winkler C, et al. Digestion products of the PH20 hyaluronidase inhibit remyelination. Ann Neurol. 2013;73:266-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological inhibition of PH20 may therefore be an effective way to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis and related conditions. ..
  15. Griffiths G, Galileo D, Reese K, Martin DeLeon P. Investigating the role of murine epididymosomes and uterosomes in GPI-linked protein transfer to sperm using SPAM1 as a model. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1627-36 pubmed publisher "uterosomes," in the murine estrous female reproductive fluid; and use Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (SPAM1/PH-20), a well-known hyaluronidase found in male and female fluids, as a model to investigate vesicle-mediated GPI-..
  16. Griffiths G, Galileo D, Aravindan R, Martin DeLeon P. Clusterin facilitates exchange of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked SPAM1 between reproductive luminal fluids and mouse and human sperm membranes. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanism of uptake of these proteins from the soluble fraction of LFs using sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) as a model...