Gene Symbol: Sox2
Description: SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2
Alias: Sox-2, lcc, ysb, transcription factor SOX-2, SRY-box containing gene 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Sox2

Top Publications

  1. Schrode N, Saiz N, Di Talia S, Hadjantonakis A. GATA6 levels modulate primitive endoderm cell fate choice and timing in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2014;29:454-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a framework for quantitative analyses of mammalian embryos and establishes GATA6 as a nodal point in the gene regulatory network driving ICM lineage specification. ..
  2. Adachi K, Nikaido I, Ohta H, Ohtsuka S, Ura H, Kadota M, et al. Context-dependent wiring of Sox2 regulatory networks for self-renewal of embryonic and trophoblast stem cells. Mol Cell. 2013;52:380-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Sox2 is a transcription factor required for the maintenance of pluripotency. It also plays an essential role in different types of multipotent stem cells, raising the possibility that Sox2 governs the common stemness phenotype...
  3. Volckaert T, Campbell A, Dill E, Li C, Minoo P, De Langhe S. Localized Fgf10 expression is not required for lung branching morphogenesis but prevents differentiation of epithelial progenitors. Development. 2013;140:3731-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that Fgf10 prevents the differentiation of distal epithelial progenitors into Sox2-expressing airway epithelial cells in part by activating epithelial ?-catenin signaling, which negatively regulates ..
  4. Boumahdi S, Driessens G, Lapouge G, Rorive S, Nassar D, Le Mercier M, et al. SOX2 controls tumour initiation and cancer stem-cell functions in squamous-cell carcinoma. Nature. 2014;511:246-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we find that Sox2, a transcription factor expressed in various types of embryonic and adult stem cells, was the most upregulated ..
  5. Chen J, Zhang Z, Li L, Chen B, Revyakin A, Hajj B, et al. Single-molecule dynamics of enhanceosome assembly in embryonic stem cells. Cell. 2014;156:1274-1285 pubmed publisher
    Enhancer-binding pluripotency regulators (Sox2 and Oct4) play a seminal role in embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific gene regulation...
  6. Krentz A, Murphy M, Zhang T, Sarver A, Jain S, Griswold M, et al. Interaction between DMRT1 function and genetic background modulates signaling and pluripotency to control tumor susceptibility in the fetal germ line. Dev Biol. 2013;377:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis suggested that DMRT1 controls pluripotency via transcriptional repression of Esrrb, Nr5a2/Lrh1, and Sox2. Given the strong evidence for involvement of DMRT1 in human TGCT, the downstream genes and pathways identified in ..
  7. Aksoy I, Jauch R, Chen J, Dyla M, Divakar U, Bogu G, et al. Oct4 switches partnering from Sox2 to Sox17 to reinterpret the enhancer code and specify endoderm. EMBO J. 2013;32:938-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here that genomic redistribution of Oct4 by alternative partnering with Sox2 and Sox17 is a fundamental regulatory event of endodermal specification...
  8. Fotaki V, Smith R, Pratt T, Price D. Foxg1 is required to limit the formation of ciliary margin tissue and Wnt/?-catenin signalling in the developing nasal retina of the mouse. Dev Biol. 2013;380:299-313 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a new role of Foxg1 in limiting CM development in the nasal peripheral retina and add a new molecular player in the developmental network involved in CM specification. ..
  9. Wu G, Han D, Gong Y, Sebastiano V, Gentile L, Singhal N, et al. Establishment of totipotency does not depend on Oct4A. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1089-97 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Driver E, Sillers L, Coate T, Rose M, Kelley M. The Atoh1-lineage gives rise to hair cells and supporting cells within the mammalian cochlea. Dev Biol. 2013;376:86-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that the Atoh1-lineage is established early in cochlear development, but also show that expression of Atoh1 does not absolutely result in commitment to a HC fate. ..
  2. Yoshida M, Uchikawa M, Rizzoti K, Lovell Badge R, Takemoto T, Kondoh H. Regulation of mesodermal precursor production by low-level expression of B1 Sox genes in the caudal lateral epiblast. Mech Dev. 2014;132:59-68 pubmed publisher
    High expression of the B1 Sox genes, Sox2 and Sox3, is associated with the development of definitive neural primordia, the neural plates, in early stage embryos...
  3. Wang C, Liang C, Bian Z, Zhu Y, Guan J. FIP200 is required for maintenance and differentiation of postnatal neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal that FIP200-mediated autophagy contributes to the maintenance and functions of NSCs through regulation of oxidative state. ..
  4. Campolo F, Gori M, Favaro R, Nicolis S, Pellegrini M, Botti F, et al. Essential role of Sox2 for the establishment and maintenance of the germ cell line. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1408-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Sox2 is a pluripotency-conferring gene expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and postnatal oocytes, but the role it plays during germ cell development and early embryogenesis is unknown...
  5. Li H, Collado M, Villasante A, Matheu A, Lynch C, Canamero M, et al. p27(Kip1) directly represses Sox2 during embryonic stem cell differentiation. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..the tumor suppressor p27 can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the absence of ectopic Sox2. Interestingly, cells and tissues from p27 null mice, including brain, lung, and retina, present an elevated basal ..
  6. Mizutari K, Fujioka M, Hosoya M, Bramhall N, Okano H, Okano H, et al. Notch inhibition induces cochlear hair cell regeneration and recovery of hearing after acoustic trauma. Neuron. 2013;77:58-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo prospective labeling of Sox2-expressing cells with a Cre-lox system unambiguously demonstrated that hair cell generation resulted from ..
  7. Frum T, Halbisen M, Wang C, Amiri H, Robson P, Ralston A. Oct4 cell-autonomously promotes primitive endoderm development in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2013;25:610-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Oct4 is required for the expression of multiple EPI and PE genes as well as multiple metabolic pathways essential for the continued growth of the preimplantation embryo. ..
  8. Andoniadou C, Matsushima D, Mousavy Gharavy S, Signore M, Mackintosh A, Schaeffer M, et al. Sox2(+) stem/progenitor cells in the adult mouse pituitary support organ homeostasis and have tumor-inducing potential. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:433-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Sox2(+) adult mouse pituitary cells can self-renew and terminally differentiate in vitro, but their physiological role in vivo and possible contribution to oncogenesis remain largely unknown...
  9. Rainger J, Keighren M, Keene D, Charbonneau N, Rainger J, Fisher M, et al. A trans-acting protein effect causes severe eye malformation in the Mp mouse. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003998 pubmed publisher
    ..The prediction of similar trans-acting protein effects will be an important challenge in the medical interpretation of human mutations from whole exome sequencing. ..
  10. Xie W, Lynch T, Liu X, Tyler S, Yu S, Zhou X, et al. Sox2 modulates Lef-1 expression during airway submucosal gland development. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L645-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that Sox2 expression is repressed as Lef-1 is induced within airway SMG placodes...
  11. Tateya T, Imayoshi I, Tateya I, Hamaguchi K, Torii H, Ito J, et al. Hedgehog signaling regulates prosensory cell properties during the basal-to-apical wave of hair cell differentiation in the mammalian cochlea. Development. 2013;140:3848-57 pubmed publisher
  12. Vogl M, Reiprich S, Küspert M, Kosian T, Schrewe H, Nave K, et al. Sox10 cooperates with the mediator subunit 12 during terminal differentiation of myelinating glia. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6679-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Sox10 functions during terminal differentiation of myelinating glia, at least in part by Med12-dependent recruitment of the Mediator complex. ..
  13. Marques Torrejon M, Porlan E, Banito A, Gómez Ibarlucea E, López Contreras A, Fernandez Capetillo O, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 controls adult neural stem cell expansion by regulating Sox2 gene expression. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;12:88-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a function of p21 in the direct regulation of the expression of pluripotency factor Sox2, a key regulator of the specification and maintenance of neural progenitors...
  14. Surzenko N, Crowl T, Bachleda A, Langer L, Pevny L. SOX2 maintains the quiescent progenitor cell state of postnatal retinal Muller glia. Development. 2013;140:1445-56 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SOX2, an HMG box transcription factor, plays an essential role in the maintenance of both embryonic and adult neural ..
  15. Hodge R, Garcia A, Elsen G, Nelson B, Mussar K, Reiner S, et al. Tbr2 expression in Cajal-Retzius cells and intermediate neuronal progenitors is required for morphogenesis of the dentate gyrus. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4165-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicate that Tbr2 is explicitly required for morphogenesis of the DG and participates in multiple aspects of the intricate developmental process of this structure. ..
  16. Clavel C, Grisanti L, Zemla R, Rezza A, Barros R, Sennett R, et al. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning BMP signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Dev Cell. 2012;23:981-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Tbx18(Cre) to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting in diminished hair shaft outgrowth...
  17. Kopecky B, Jahan I, Fritzsch B. Correct timing of proliferation and differentiation is necessary for normal inner ear development and auditory hair cell viability. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:132-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data indicate that Myc is an integral component of the evolutionary transformation process that resulted in the organ of Corti development. ..
  18. Vanner R, Remke M, Gallo M, Selvadurai H, Coutinho F, Lee L, et al. Quiescent sox2(+) cells drive hierarchical growth and relapse in sonic hedgehog subgroup medulloblastoma. Cancer Cell. 2014;26:33-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that quiescent, therapy-resistant Sox2(+) cells propagate sonic hedgehog subgroup medulloblastoma by a mechanism that mirrors a neurogenic program...
  19. Juuri E, Jussila M, Seidel K, Holmes S, Wu P, Richman J, et al. Sox2 marks epithelial competence to generate teeth in mammals and reptiles. Development. 2013;140:1424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed expression patterns of the transcription factor Sox2 in two different modes of successional tooth formation: tooth replacement and serial addition of primary teeth...
  20. DeVeale B, Brokhman I, Mohseni P, Babak T, Yoon C, Lin A, et al. Oct4 is required ~E7.5 for proliferation in the primitive streak. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003957 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ~E7...
  21. Puligilla C, Dabdoub A, Brenowitz S, Kelley M. Sox2 induces neuronal formation in the developing mammalian cochlea. J Neurosci. 2010;30:714-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the high-mobility-group type transcription factor Sox2, which is also known to play a role in neurogenesis, is expressed in otocyst-derived neural precursor cells and ..
  22. Suzuki Y, Ikeda K, Kawakami K. Development of gustatory papillae in the absence of Six1 and Six4. J Anat. 2011;219:710-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The foliate papillae elevated initially, and showed stunted trenches. Therefore, Six1 and Six4 function synergistically to form gustatory papillae during development of the tongue. ..
  23. Bani Yaghoub M, Tremblay R, Lei J, Zhang D, Zurakowski B, Sandhu J, et al. Role of Sox2 in the development of the mouse neocortex. Dev Biol. 2006;295:52-66 pubmed
    ..Here, we examined the mechanism of Sox2 action during neocortical neurogenesis and gliogenesis...
  24. Müller Smith K, Williamson T, Schwartz M, Vaccarino F. Impaired motor coordination and disrupted cerebellar architecture in Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 double knockout mice. Brain Res. 2012;1460:12-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The disrupted cerebellar size and laminar architecture resulting from loss of FGFR signaling impair motor learning and coordination in FGFR DKO mice. ..
  25. Yu H, Kunarso G, Hong F, Stanton L. Zfp206, Oct4, and Sox2 are integrated components of a transcriptional regulatory network in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Presented here are data showing that Zfp206 works together with two other transcription factors, Oct4 and Sox2, which are also essential regulators of ESC pluripotency...
  26. Basu Roy U, Ambrosetti D, Favaro R, Nicolis S, Mansukhani A, Basilico C. The transcription factor Sox2 is required for osteoblast self-renewal. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Sox2 is essential for embryonic development and maintains pluripotency and self-renewal in embryonic stem cells...
  27. Pan N, Jahan I, Kersigo J, Kopecky B, Santi P, Johnson S, et al. Conditional deletion of Atoh1 using Pax2-Cre results in viable mice without differentiated cochlear hair cells that have lost most of the organ of Corti. Hear Res. 2011;275:66-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Afferents focus their projections on patches that express the prosensory specifying gene, Sox2. This pattern of innervation by sensory neurons is maintained at least until P14, but fibers target the few Myo7a ..
  28. Polajeva J, Swartling F, Jiang Y, Singh U, Pietras K, Uhrbom L, et al. miRNA-21 is developmentally regulated in mouse brain and is co-expressed with SOX2 in glioma. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:378 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to investigate SOX2 expression. LNA-modified siRNA was used for irreversible depletion of miR-21...
  29. Zhao L, Zevallos S, Rizzoti K, Jeong Y, Lovell Badge R, Epstein D. Disruption of SoxB1-dependent Sonic hedgehog expression in the hypothalamus causes septo-optic dysplasia. Dev Cell. 2012;22:585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In rare instances, SOD is caused by mutations in Sox2, Sox3, or Hesx1, but how this manifests in disease is not entirely certain...
  30. Bergsland M, Ramsköld D, Zaouter C, Klum S, Sandberg R, Muhr J. Sequentially acting Sox transcription factors in neural lineage development. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterize the genome-wide binding for Sox2, Sox3, and Sox11, which have vital functions in ES cells, neural precursor cells (NPCs), and maturing neurons, ..
  31. Smith A, Miller L, Radice G, Ashery Padan R, Lang R. Stage-dependent modes of Pax6-Sox2 epistasis regulate lens development and eye morphogenesis. Development. 2009;136:2977-85 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factors Pax6 and Sox2 have been implicated in early events in lens induction and have been proposed to cooperate functionally...
  32. Murakami A, Shen H, Ishida S, Dickson C. SOX7 and GATA-4 are competitive activators of Fgf-3 transcription. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28564-73 pubmed
    ..At least five SOX genes, Sox2, Sox6, Sox7, Sox13, and Sox17, were expressed in F9 cells, and of these, Sox7 and Sox17 were dramatically induced ..
  33. Rizzoti K, Lovell Badge R. SOX3 activity during pharyngeal segmentation is required for craniofacial morphogenesis. Development. 2007;134:3437-48 pubmed
    ..We also show that Sox3 genetically interacts both with FgfR1 and with Sox2, another member of the Soxb1 family, to fulfil its function in the pharyngeal region...
  34. Sunabori T, Tokunaga A, Nagai T, Sawamoto K, Okabe M, Miyawaki A, et al. Cell-cycle-specific nestin expression coordinates with morphological changes in embryonic cortical neural progenitors. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate precisely orchestrated gene regulation that correlates with the 3D morphological changes in neural progenitor cells in vivo. ..
  35. Western P, Maldonado Saldivia J, van den Bergen J, Hajkova P, Saitou M, Barton S, et al. Analysis of Esg1 expression in pluripotent cells and the germline reveals similarities with Oct4 and Sox2 and differences between human pluripotent cell lines. Stem Cells. 2005;23:1436-42 pubmed
    ..Although PGCs are specialized cells, they express several key pluripotency-related genes, such as Oct4 and Sox2. We have analyzed Esg1 expression in mouse and human cells and shown that in the mouse the gene is specifically ..
  36. Boulet A, Capecchi M. Signaling by FGF4 and FGF8 is required for axial elongation of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2012;371:235-45 pubmed publisher
  37. Gao Z, Cox J, Gilmore J, Ormsbee B, Mallanna S, Washburn M, et al. Determination of protein interactome of transcription factor Sox2 in embryonic stem cells engineered for inducible expression of four reprogramming factors. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11384-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies employed multidimensional protein identification technology to identify the Sox2-interactome in embryonic stem cells (ESC) undergoing differentiation in response to a small increase in the ..
  38. Parrinello S, Napoli I, Ribeiro S, Wingfield Digby P, Fedorova M, Parkinson D, et al. EphB signaling directs peripheral nerve regeneration through Sox2-dependent Schwann cell sorting. Cell. 2010;143:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we find that cell-sorting downstream of EphB2 is mediated by the stemness factor Sox2 through N-cadherin relocalization to Schwann cell-cell contacts...
  39. Das G, Choi Y, Sicinski P, Levine E. Cyclin D1 fine-tunes the neurogenic output of embryonic retinal progenitor cells. Neural Dev. 2009;4:15 pubmed publisher
  40. Dominguez Frutos E, López Hernández I, Vendrell V, Neves J, Gallozzi M, Gutsche K, et al. N-myc controls proliferation, morphogenesis, and patterning of the inner ear. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that N-myc regulates growth, morphogenesis, and pattern formation during the development of the inner ear. ..
  41. Miyagi S, Saito T, Mizutani K, Masuyama N, Gotoh Y, Iwama A, et al. The Sox-2 regulatory regions display their activities in two distinct types of multipotent stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4207-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, SRR2 is the first example of an enhancer in which a single regulatory core sequence is involved in multipotent-state-specific expression in two different stem cells, i.e., ES and neural stem cells. ..
  42. Beites C, Hollenbeck P, Kim J, Lovell Badge R, Lander A, Calof A. Follistatin modulates a BMP autoregulatory loop to control the size and patterning of sensory domains in the developing tongue. Development. 2009;136:2187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..FST limits expansion and differentiation of Sox2-expressing taste progenitor cells and negatively regulates the development of taste papillae in the lingual ..
  43. Zou D, Erickson C, Kim E, Jin D, Fritzsch B, Xu P. Eya1 gene dosage critically affects the development of sensory epithelia in the mammalian inner ear. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3340-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that Eya1 co-localizes with Sox2 in the sensory progenitors and both proteins physically interact...
  44. Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Ohinata Y, Shigeta M, Yamanaka K, Saitou M. Complex genome-wide transcription dynamics orchestrated by Blimp1 for the specification of the germ cell lineage in mice. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1617-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Blimp1 is not a single initiator but a dominant coordinator of the transcriptional program for the establishment of the germ cell fate in mice. ..
  45. Shaham O, Smith A, Robinson M, Taketo M, Lang R, Ashery Padan R. Pax6 is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Development. 2009;136:2567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the transcription factors Pax6 and Sox2 have been shown to be essential for lens induction, their later roles during lens fiber differentiation remain ..
  46. Kele J, Simplicio N, Ferri A, Mira H, Guillemot F, Arenas E, et al. Neurogenin 2 is required for the development of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Development. 2006;133:495-505 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that Ngn2 is required for the differentiation of Sox2(+) ventricular zone progenitors into Nurr1(+) postmitotic dopaminergic neuron precursors in the intermediate zone, ..
  47. Liber D, Domaschenz R, Holmqvist P, Mazzarella L, Georgiou A, Leleu M, et al. Epigenetic priming of a pre-B cell-specific enhancer through binding of Sox2 and Foxd3 at the ESC stage. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:114-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the ESC factor Sox2 targets H3K4 methylation to monovalent and bivalent domains...
  48. Nichols J, Zevnik B, Anastassiadis K, Niwa H, Klewe Nebenius D, Chambers I, et al. Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4. Cell. 1998;95:379-91 pubmed
    ..Expansion of trophoblast precursors is restored, however, by an Oct4 target gene product, fibroblast growth factor-4. Therefore, Oct4 also determines paracrine growth factor signaling from stem cells to the trophectoderm. ..
  49. Ahmed M, Xu J, Xu P. EYA1 and SIX1 drive the neuronal developmental program in cooperation with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and SOX2 in the mammalian inner ear. Development. 2012;139:1965-77 pubmed publisher
    ..BRG1 and BAF170 to drive neurogenesis cooperatively in 3T3 cells and cochlear nonsensory epithelial cells, and that SOX2 cooperates with these factors to mediate neuronal differentiation...
  50. Inoue M, Kamachi Y, Matsunami H, Imada K, Uchikawa M, Kondoh H. PAX6 and SOX2-dependent regulation of the Sox2 enhancer N-3 involved in embryonic visual system development. Genes Cells. 2007;12:1049-61 pubmed
    b>Sox2 is universally expressed in the neural and placodal primordia in early stage embryos, and this expression depends on various phylogenetically conserved enhancers having different regional and temporal specificities...
  51. Yamada R, Mizutani Koseki Y, Hasegawa T, Osumi N, Koseki H, Takahashi N. Cell-autonomous involvement of Mab21l1 is essential for lens placode development. Development. 2003;130:1759-70 pubmed
    ..with delayed and insufficient expression of Foxe3, which is also required for lens development, while Maf, Sox2, Six3 and PAX6 levels are not significantly affected...
  52. Ikeda K, Ookawara S, Sato S, Ando Z, Kageyama R, Kawakami K. Six1 is essential for early neurogenesis in the development of olfactory epithelium. Dev Biol. 2007;311:53-68 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that Six1 plays critical roles in early neurogenesis by regulating Ngn1, NeuroD, Hes1, and Hes5. ..
  53. Fauquier T, Rizzoti K, Dattani M, Lovell Badge R, Robinson I. SOX2-expressing progenitor cells generate all of the major cell types in the adult mouse pituitary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2907-12 pubmed publisher
    ..05%) population of progenitor cells in the adult pituitary gland. We show that these cells express SOX2, a marker of several early embryonic progenitor and stem cell types, and form "pituispheres" in culture, ..
  54. Okubo T, Knoepfler P, Eisenman R, Hogan B. Nmyc plays an essential role during lung development as a dosage-sensitive regulator of progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2005;132:1363-74 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Nmyc is essential in the developing lung for maintaining a distal population of undifferentiated, proliferating progenitor cells. ..
  55. Engelen E, Akinci U, Bryne J, Hou J, Gontan C, Moen M, et al. Sox2 cooperates with Chd7 to regulate genes that are mutated in human syndromes. Nat Genet. 2011;43:607-11 pubmed publisher
    The HMG-box transcription factor Sox2 plays a role throughout neurogenesis and also acts at other stages of development, as illustrated by the multiple organs affected in the anophthalmia syndrome caused by SOX2 mutations...
  56. Garcia C, Huang J, Madakashira B, Liu Y, Rajagopal R, Dattilo L, et al. The function of FGF signaling in the lens placode. Dev Biol. 2011;351:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..formation were present at normal levels in the remaining placode cells, including the transcription factors Pax6, Sox2 and FoxE3 and the lens-preferred protein ?A-crystallin...
  57. Chen B, Kim E, Xu P. Initiation of olfactory placode development and neurogenesis is blocked in mice lacking both Six1 and Six4. Dev Biol. 2009;326:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and it overlaps with Sox2 expression. Both genes are expressed in the basal and apical neuronal progenitors in the OE...
  58. Breunig J, Sarkisian M, Arellano J, Morozov Y, Ayoub A, Sojitra S, et al. Primary cilia regulate hippocampal neurogenesis by mediating sonic hedgehog signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest these organelles are cellular "antennae" critically required to modulate ALNP behavior. ..
  59. Falk S, Wurdak H, Ittner L, Ille F, Sumara G, Schmid M, et al. Brain area-specific effect of TGF-beta signaling on Wnt-dependent neural stem cell expansion. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;2:472-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TGF-beta signaling controls the size of a specific brain area, the dorsal midbrain, by antagonizing canonical Wnt signaling and negatively regulating self-renewal of neuroepithelial stem cells. ..
  60. Le N, Nagarajan R, Wang J, Araki T, Schmidt R, Milbrandt J. Analysis of congenital hypomyelinating Egr2Lo/Lo nerves identifies Sox2 as an inhibitor of Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2596-601 pubmed
    ..One of the abnormally elevated genes in Egr2Lo/Lo Schwann cells, Sox2, encodes a transcription factor that is crucial for maintenance of neural stem cell pluripotency...
  61. Ferri A, Cavallaro M, Braida D, Di Cristofano A, Canta A, Vezzani A, et al. Sox2 deficiency causes neurodegeneration and impaired neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain. Development. 2004;131:3805-19 pubmed
    In many species, the Sox2 transcription factor is a marker of the nervous system from the beginning of its development, and we have previously shown that Sox2 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells...
  62. Wood H, Episkopou V. Comparative expression of the mouse Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 genes from pre-gastrulation to early somite stages. Mech Dev. 1999;86:197-201 pubmed
    ..mount in situ hybridisation was used to study the embryonic expression of the mouse HMG box-containing genes Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 between 6.5 and 9.0 days post coitum (dpc)...
  63. Scott C, Wynn S, Sesay A, Cruz C, Cheung M, Gomez Gaviro M, et al. SOX9 induces and maintains neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a functional link between extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms of NSCs specification and maintenance, and establish a central role for SOX9 in the process. ..
  64. Paik J, Ding Z, Narurkar R, Ramkissoon S, Muller F, Kamoun W, et al. FoxOs cooperatively regulate diverse pathways governing neural stem cell homeostasis. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5:540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the FoxO family coordinately regulates diverse genes and pathways to govern key aspects of NSC homeostasis in the mammalian brain. ..
  65. Nowotschin S, Ferrer Vaquer A, CONCEPCION D, Papaioannou V, Hadjantonakis A. Interaction of Wnt3a, Msgn1 and Tbx6 in neural versus paraxial mesoderm lineage commitment and paraxial mesoderm differentiation in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2012;367:1-14 pubmed publisher
  66. Burns C, Zhang J, Brown E, Van Bibber A, van Es J, Clevers H, et al. Investigation of Frizzled-5 during embryonic neural development in mouse. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1614-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the function of Fzd5 during eye development appears to be species-dependent. ..
  67. Tokuzawa Y, Kaiho E, Maruyama M, Takahashi K, Mitsui K, Maeda M, et al. Fbx15 is a novel target of Oct3/4 but is dispensable for embryonic stem cell self-renewal and mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2699-708 pubmed
    ..The 18-bp fragment became active in NIH 3T3 cells when Oct3/4 and Sox2 were coexpressed...
  68. Cook M, Munger S, Nadeau J, Capel B. Regulation of male germ cell cycle arrest and differentiation by DND1 is modulated by genetic background. Development. 2011;138:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..many mutant germ cells fail to enter mitotic arrest in G0 and do not downregulate the pluripotency markers NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4...
  69. Valenta T, Gay M, Steiner S, Draganova K, Zemke M, Hoffmans R, et al. Probing transcription-specific outputs of ?-catenin in vivo. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model animals thus allow dissecting signaling and structural functions of ?-catenin in vivo and provide the first genetic tool to generate cells and tissues that entirely and exclusively lack canonical Wnt pathway activity. ..
  70. Mansukhani A, Ambrosetti D, Holmes G, Cornivelli L, Basilico C. Sox2 induction by FGF and FGFR2 activating mutations inhibits Wnt signaling and osteoblast differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:1065-76 pubmed
    ..down-regulation of the expression of many Wnt target genes and a concomitant induction of the transcription factor Sox2. Most of these changes could be reproduced by treatment of osteoblasts with exogenous FGF...
  71. Munnamalai V, Hayashi T, Bermingham McDonogh O. Notch prosensory effects in the Mammalian cochlea are partially mediated by Fgf20. J Neurosci. 2012;32:12876-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of exogenous FGF20 compensated for the block in Notch signaling and rescued Sox2, a prosensory marker, and Gfi1, an early hair cell marker in explant cultures...
  72. Fujimura N, Taketo M, Mori M, Korinek V, Kozmik Z. Spatial and temporal regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dev Biol. 2009;334:31-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in development of RPE by maintaining or inducing expression of Mitf and Otx2. ..
  73. Fritzsch B, Dillard M, Lavado A, Harvey N, Jahan I. Canal cristae growth and fiber extension to the outer hair cells of the mouse ear require Prox1 activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9377 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify a dual role of Prox1 during inner ear development; growth of the canal cristae and fiber guidance of Type II fibers along supporting cells in the cochlea. ..
  74. Remenyi A, Lins K, Nissen L, Reinbold R, Scholer H, Wilmanns M. Crystal structure of a POU/HMG/DNA ternary complex suggests differential assembly of Oct4 and Sox2 on two enhancers. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2048-59 pubmed
    ..In this study, we focus on two transcription factors, Oct4 and Sox2, as their combination on DNA is considered to direct the establishment of the first three lineages in the mammalian ..
  75. Cavallaro M, Mariani J, Lancini C, Latorre E, Caccia R, Gullo F, et al. Impaired generation of mature neurons by neural stem cells from hypomorphic Sox2 mutants. Development. 2008;135:541-57 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor Sox2 is active in neural stem cells, and Sox2 'knockdown' mice show defects in neural stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus and eye, and possibly some neurons...
  76. Pan W, Jin Y, STANGER B, Kiernan A. Notch signaling is required for the generation of hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15798-803 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Notch specifies sensory progenitors in the inner ear, and that induction of Notch may be important for regenerating or replacing hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. ..
  77. Donner A, Episkopou V, Maas R. Sox2 and Pou2f1 interact to control lens and olfactory placode development. Dev Biol. 2007;303:784-99 pubmed
    b>Sox2, which encodes an SRY-like HMG box transcription factor, is critical for vertebrate development. Sox2 mediates its transcriptional effects through the formation of complexes with specific co-factors, many of which are unknown...
  78. Kawauchi S, Kim J, Santos R, Wu H, Lander A, Calof A. Foxg1 promotes olfactory neurogenesis by antagonizing Gdf11. Development. 2009;136:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the pro-neurogenic effects of Foxg1 are likely to be mediated through different signaling pathways in different parts of the nervous system. ..
  79. GARCIA GARCIA M, Shibata M, Anderson K. Chato, a KRAB zinc-finger protein, regulates convergent extension in the mouse embryo. Development. 2008;135:3053-62 pubmed publisher