Gene Symbol: Sos2
Description: SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2
Alias: SOS-2, mSOS-2, son of sevenless homolog 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Sos2

Top Publications

  1. Qian X, Esteban L, Vass W, Upadhyaya C, Papageorge A, Yienger K, et al. The Sos1 and Sos2 Ras-specific exchange factors: differences in placental expression and signaling properties. EMBO J. 2000;19:642-54 pubmed
    ..A sos1(-/-) cell line, which expressed readily detectable levels of the closely related Sos2 protein, formed complexes between Sos2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Shc efficiently, gave normal ..
  2. Arai J, Li S, Feig L. Sos2 is dispensable for NMDA-induced Erk activation and LTP induction. Neurosci Lett. 2009;455:22-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, contribution of each of the two Sos isoforms, Sos1 and Sos2, has not been clarified. In this study, Sos2 involvement in NMDA-induced Erk activation was examined...
  3. Yulug I, Egan S, Pollock P, Fisher E. A homologue of the Drosophila Son of sevenless gene maps to mouse chromosome 17. Genomics. 1993;18:733-4 pubmed
  4. Fan P, Goff S. Abl interactor 1 binds to sos and inhibits epidermal growth factor- and v-Abl-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7591-601 pubmed
    ..We have identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factors Sos1 and Sos2 as novel binding partners of Abi-1...
  5. Baltanás F, Perez Andres M, Ginel Picardo A, Diaz D, Jimeno D, Liceras Boillos P, et al. Functional redundancy of Sos1 and Sos2 for lymphopoiesis and organismal homeostasis and survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4562-78 pubmed publisher
    Sos1 and Sos2 are ubiquitously expressed, universal Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ras-GEFs) acting in multiple signal transduction pathways activated by upstream cellular kinases...
  6. Chardin P, Mattei M. Chromosomal localization of two genes encoding human ras exchange factors: SOS1 maps to the 2p22-->p16 region and SOS2 to the 14q21-->q22 region of the human genome. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1994;66:68-9 pubmed
    The human SOS1 and SOS2 genes encode proteins that control GDP-->GTP exchange on ras proteins and are involved in signal transduction by tyrosine kinase receptors...
  7. Bowtell D, Fu P, Simon M, Senior P. Identification of murine homologues of the Drosophila son of sevenless gene: potential activators of ras. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6511-5 pubmed
    ..We have characterized two widely expressed murine genes with a high degree of homology to Sos. Hybridization with human DNA and RNA indicates a high degree of conservation of these genes in other vertebrates. ..
  8. Wang D, Hammond V, Abud H, Bertoncello I, McAvoy J, Bowtell D. Mutation in Sos1 dominantly enhances a weak allele of the EGFR, demonstrating a requirement for Sos1 in EGFR signaling and development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:309-20 pubmed
    ..They also show that the genetic test of enhancement of weak receptor allele by heterozygous mutation in one component represents a powerful tool for analyzing the ras pathway in mammals. ..
  9. Findlay G, Smith M, Lanner F, Hsiung M, Gish G, Petsalaki E, et al. Interaction domains of Sos1/Grb2 are finely tuned for cooperative control of embryonic stem cell fate. Cell. 2013;152:1008-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This optimized system ensures that PrE lineage commitment occurs in a timely and selective manner during embryogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Kortum R, Sommers C, Pinski J, Alexander C, Merrill R, Li W, et al. Deconstructing Ras signaling in the thymus. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mouse models, we have assessed the independent and combined roles for the RasGEFs Sos1, Sos2, and RasGRP1 during thymocyte development...
  2. Aoki K, Nakamura T, Fujikawa K, Matsuda M. Local phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate accumulation recruits Vav2 and Vav3 to activate Rac1/Cdc42 and initiate neurite outgrowth in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2207-17 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrated for the first time that Vav2 and Vav3 are essential constituents of the positive feedback loop that is comprised of PI3-kinase and Rac1/Cdc42 and cycles locally with morphological changes. ..
  3. Weissman J, Ma J, Essex A, Gao Y, Burstein E. G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:241-9 pubmed
    ..A constitutively active mutant of Galphai2 also mediated Ras/rap-dependent responses. These data indicate that GPCRs coupled to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins activate Rap through a Galpha subunit, C3G, and Src-dependent pathway. ..
  4. Tremblay G, Tremblay A, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Labrie F, et al. Cloning, chromosomal localization, and functional analysis of the murine estrogen receptor beta. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:353-65 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that while ER beta shares many of the functional characteristics of ER alpha, the molecular mechanisms regulating the transcriptional activity of mER beta may be distinct from those of ER alpha. ..
  5. Zhang J, Lautar S. A yeast three-hybrid method to clone ternary protein complex components. Anal Biochem. 1996;242:68-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, the three-hybrid system is useful for characterizing and cloning components of ternary protein complexes. ..
  6. Oliver G, Wehr R, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Cheyette B, Hartenstein V, et al. Homeobox genes and connective tissue patterning. Development. 1995;121:693-705 pubmed
    ..Six 1 and Six 2 also are expressed in skeletal and smooth muscle, respectively. These genes may participate in the patterning of the distal tendons of the limb phalanges by setting positional values along the limb axes. ..
  7. Kortum R, Rouquette Jazdanian A, Miyaji M, Merrill R, Markegard E, Pinski J, et al. A phospholipase C-γ1-independent, RasGRP1-ERK-dependent pathway drives lymphoproliferative disease in linker for activation of T cells-Y136F mutant mice. J Immunol. 2013;190:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..of LAT-dependent phospholipase C-γ1 binding and activation, genetic analysis revealed RasGRP1, and not Sos1 or Sos2, to be the major Ras guanine exchange factor responsible for ERK activation and the lymphoproliferative phenotype ..
  8. Guittard G, Kortum R, Balagopalan L, Çuburu N, Nguyen P, Sommers C, et al. Absence of both Sos-1 and Sos-2 in peripheral CD4(+) T cells leads to PI3K pathway activation and defects in migration. Eur J Immunol. 2015;45:2389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway led to downregulation of the surface receptor CD62L in Sos-1/2dKO T cells and a subsequent impairment in T-cell migration. ..
  9. Halupa A, Chohan M, Stickle N, Beattie B, Miller B, Barber D. Erythropoietin receptor Y479 couples to ERK1/2 activation via recruitment of phospholipase Cgamma. Exp Cell Res. 2005;309:1-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate interaction of PLCgamma1 with Grb2 and SOS2. Hence, we have identified a novel adapter function for PLCgamma1 in EPO signaling in which recruitment of ..
  10. Esteban L, Fernandez Medarde A, Lopez E, Yienger K, Guerrero C, Ward J, et al. Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor sos2 is dispensable for mouse growth and development. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6410-3 pubmed
    The mammalian sos1 and sos2 genes encode highly homologous members of the Son-of-sevenless family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors...
  11. Jacobs S, Schurmann A, Becker W, Bockers T, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. The mouse ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4 gene: two separate promoters direct specific transcription in tissues and testicular germ cell. Biochem J. 1998;335 ( Pt 2):259-65 pubmed
    ..269, 15683-15688]. The Arl4 gene maps to the proximal region of mouse chromosome 12 linked to Lamb1-1, Hfhbf1 and Sos2. Compared with all other known genes of Ras-related GTPases, the genomic organization of Arl4 is unusual in that ..
  12. Reynolds L, de Bettignies C, Norton T, Beeser A, Chernoff J, Tybulewicz V. Vav1 transduces T cell receptor signals to the activation of the Ras/ERK pathway via LAT, Sos, and RasGRP1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18239-46 pubmed
    ..We propose that reduced LAT phosphorylation is the key reason for defective TCR-induced calcium flux and ERK activation in Vav1-deficient cells. ..
  13. Nielsen K, Papageorge A, Vass W, Willumsen B, Lowy D. The Ras-specific exchange factors mouse Sos1 (mSos1) and mSos2 are regulated differently: mSos2 contains ubiquitination signals absent in mSos1. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:7132-8 pubmed
    ..By contrast, an isogenic myr-sos2 plasmid, which was made by fusing the first 102 codons from myr-sos1 at homologous sequences to an intact msos2 ..
  14. Webb G, Jenkins N, Largaespada D, Copeland N, Fernandez C, Bowtell D. Mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Son of sevenless gene map to murine chromosomes 17 and 12 and to human chromosomes 2 and 14, respectively. Genomics. 1993;18:14-9 pubmed
    ..investigate this possibility, we have determined the chromosomal locations of both the mouse and the human Sos1 and Sos2 genes, using a combination of genetic linkage analysis and in situ hybridization to chromosomal spreads...
  15. Wang C, Brodnicki T, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Harvey R. Conserved linkage of NK-2 homeobox gene pairs Nkx2-2/2-4 and Nkx2-1/2-9 in mammals. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:466-8 pubmed