Gene Symbol: Sncg
Description: synuclein, gamma
Alias: C79089, persyn, gamma-synuclein
Species: mouse
Products:     Sncg

Top Publications

  1. Marsh J, Singh V, Jia Z, Forman Kay J. Sensitivity of secondary structure propensities to sequence differences between alpha- and gamma-synuclein: implications for fibrillation. Protein Sci. 2006;15:2795-804 pubmed
  2. Greten Harrison B, Polydoro M, Morimoto Tomita M, Diao L, Williams A, Nie E, et al. αβγ-Synuclein triple knockout mice reveal age-dependent neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that synucleins contribute importantly to the long-term operation of the nervous system and that alterations in their physiological function could contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. ..
  3. Robertson D, Schmidt O, Ninkina N, Jones P, Sharkey J, Buchman V. Developmental loss and resistance to MPTP toxicity of dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra pars compacta of gamma-synuclein, alpha-synuclein and double alpha/gamma-synuclein null mutant mice. J Neurochem. 2004;89:1126-36 pubmed
  4. Papachroni K, Ninkina N, Wanless J, Kalofoutis A, Gnuchev N, Buchman V. Peripheral sensory neurons survive in the absence of alpha- and gamma-synucleins. J Mol Neurosci. 2005;25:157-64 pubmed
    ..This suggests that other intraneuronal mechanisms and pathways effectively compensate the loss of synuclein function in null mutant animals. ..
  5. Lavedan C. The synuclein family. Genome Res. 1998;8:871-80 pubmed
    ..The present review offers a synopsis of the current state of knowledge of all synuclein family members in different species. ..
  6. Burré J, Sharma M, Tsetsenis T, Buchman V, Etherton M, Südhof T. Alpha-synuclein promotes SNARE-complex assembly in vivo and in vitro. Science. 2010;329:1663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synucleins may function to sustain normal SNARE-complex assembly in a presynaptic terminal during aging. ..
  7. Millership S, Ninkina N, Guschina I, Norton J, Brambilla R, Brambilla R, et al. Increased lipolysis and altered lipid homeostasis protect γ-synuclein-null mutant mice from diet-induced obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20943-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal γ-synuclein as a regulator of lipid handling in adipocytes, the function of which is particularly important in conditions of nutrient excess. ..
  8. Surgucheva I, Park B, Yue B, Tomarev S, Surguchov A. Interaction of myocilin with gamma-synuclein affects its secretion and aggregation. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2005;25:1009-33 pubmed
    ..Since myocilin and gamma-synuclein have partially overlapping intracellular localization in cell types that are implicated in glaucoma development, their interaction may play an important role in glaucoma. ..
  9. Buchman V, Hunter H, Pinon L, Thompson J, Privalova E, Ninkina N, et al. Persyn, a member of the synuclein family, has a distinct pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9335-41 pubmed
    ..We have cloned a new member of the synuclein family called persyn. In contrast to other synucleins, which are presynaptic proteins of CNS neurons, persyn is a cytosolic protein ..

More Information


  1. Ninkina N, Peters O, Millership S, Salem H, van der Putten H, Buchman V. Gamma-synucleinopathy: neurodegeneration associated with overexpression of the mouse protein. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1779-94 pubmed publisher
  2. Al Wandi A, Ninkina N, Millership S, Williamson S, Jones P, Buchman V. Absence of alpha-synuclein affects dopamine metabolism and synaptic markers in the striatum of aging mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:796-804 pubmed publisher
  3. Nguyen J, Soto I, Kim K, Bushong E, Oglesby E, Valiente Soriano F, et al. Myelination transition zone astrocytes are constitutively phagocytic and have synuclein dependent reactivity in glaucoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility that a newly discovered normal degradative pathway for axons might contribute to glaucomatous neurodegeneration. ..
  4. Oort P, Knotts T, Grino M, Naour N, Bastard J, Clément K, et al. Gamma-synuclein is an adipocyte-neuron gene coordinately expressed with leptin and increased in human obesity. J Nutr. 2008;138:841-8 pubmed
    ..0001; n = 44). Gamma-synuclein protein was observed in rodent and human WAT but not in negative control liver. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-synuclein plays an important role in adipocyte physiology. ..
  5. Ninkina N, Papachroni K, Robertson D, Schmidt O, Delaney L, O Neill F, et al. Neurons expressing the highest levels of gamma-synuclein are unaffected by targeted inactivation of the gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8233-45 pubmed
    ..Nerve injury led to similar changes in sensory function in wild-type and mutant mice. Taken together, our data suggest that like alpha-synuclein, gamma-synuclein is dispensable for the development and function of the nervous system. ..
  6. Kuhn M, Haebig K, Bonin M, Ninkina N, Buchman V, Poths S, et al. Whole genome expression analyses of single- and double-knock-out mice implicate partially overlapping functions of alpha- and gamma-synuclein. Neurogenetics. 2007;8:71-81 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, neither alpha- (SNCA(-/-)), gamma- (SNCG(-/-)), nor alpha/gamma- (SNCA_G(-/-)) deficient mice are present with any obvious phenotype...
  7. Senior S, Ninkina N, Deacon R, Bannerman D, Buchman V, Cragg S, et al. Increased striatal dopamine release and hyperdopaminergic-like behaviour in mice lacking both alpha-synuclein and gamma-synuclein. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:947-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, we propose that loss of both alpha- and gamma-synuclein causes an increase in release probability from dopaminergic synapses. ..
  8. Anwar S, Peters O, Millership S, Ninkina N, Doig N, Connor Robson N, et al. Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7264-74 pubmed publisher
  9. Liu Y, Pu W, Jiang Y, Shi D, Dackour R, Shi Y. Chaperoning of estrogen receptor and induction of mammary gland proliferation by neuronal protein synuclein gamma. Oncogene. 2007;26:2115-25 pubmed
    ..However, synuclein gamma (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer specific gene (BCSG1), is also highly associated with breast cancer ..
  10. Wang Y, Takeda A, Osaka H, Hara Y, Furuta A, Setsuie R, et al. Accumulation of beta- and gamma-synucleins in the ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1-deficient gad mouse. Brain Res. 2004;1019:1-9 pubmed
    ..Given that UCH-L1 deficiency results in axonal degeneration and spheroid formation, our findings suggest that beta- and gamma-synuclein participate in the pathogenesis of axonal swelling in gad mice. ..
  11. Buchman V, Adu J, Pinon L, Ninkina N, Davies A. Persyn, a member of the synuclein family, influences neurofilament network integrity. Nat Neurosci. 1998;1:101-3 pubmed
  12. Ninkina N, Peters O, Connor Robson N, Lytkina O, Sharfeddin E, Buchman V. Contrasting effects of α-synuclein and γ-synuclein on the phenotype of cysteine string protein α (CSPα) null mutant mice suggest distinct function of these proteins in neuronal synapses. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:44471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the functions of α- and γ-synucleins in presynaptic terminals are not fully redundant. ..
  13. Soto I, Oglesby E, Buckingham B, Son J, Roberson E, Steele M, et al. Retinal ganglion cells downregulate gene expression and lose their axons within the optic nerve head in a mouse glaucoma model. J Neurosci. 2008;28:548-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking advantage of the fact that gamma-synuclein (Sncg) mRNA is expressed specifically and highly in adult mouse RGCs, we show in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma that ..
  14. Kokhan V, Bolkunov A, Ustiugov A, Van kin G, Shelkovnikova T, Redkozubova O, et al. [Targeted inactivation of gamma-synuclein gene affects anxiety and exploratory behaviour of mice]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2011;61:85-93 pubmed
    ..We have demonstrated for the first time that the loss of gamma-synuclein results in a significant increase in the level of orientation response in novel environment and decrease in the level of state anxiety. ..
  15. Connor Robson N, Peters O, Millership S, Ninkina N, Buchman V. Combinational losses of synucleins reveal their differential requirements for compensating age-dependent alterations in motor behavior and dopamine metabolism. Neurobiol Aging. 2016;46:107-12 pubmed publisher
  16. Shi Y, Chen Y, Dackour R, Potters L, Wang S, Ding Q, et al. Synuclein gamma stimulates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling by chaperoning estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha36, a variant of ER-alpha. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:964-73 pubmed publisher
    Synuclein gamma (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene, is highly expressed in malignant cancer cells but not in normal epithelium...
  17. Lytkina O, Tarasova T, Khritankova I, Anokhin P, Kukharsky M, Ustyugov A, et al. Gamma-synuclein binds synaptic vesicles but does not interact with SNARE-complex proteins. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2014;456:108-10 pubmed publisher
  18. Ludtmann M, Angelova P, Ninkina N, Gandhi S, Buchman V, Abramov A. Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein Exerts a Physiological Role on Brain ATP Synthase. J Neurosci. 2016;36:10510-10521 pubmed
    ..The ability of monomeric ?-synuclein to enhance ATP synthase efficiency under physiological conditions may be of importance when ?-synuclein undergoes the misfolding and aggregation reported in PD. ..
  19. Pla P, Hirsch M, Le Crom S, Reiprich S, Harley V, Goridis C. Identification of Phox2b-regulated genes by expression profiling of cranial motoneuron precursors. Neural Dev. 2008;3:14 pubmed publisher
  20. Su X, Maguire Zeiss K, Giuliano R, Prifti L, Venkatesh K, Federoff H. Synuclein activates microglia in a model of Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:1690-701 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that the CD36 scavenger receptor and downstream kinases are involved in SYN-mediated microglial activation. Together, our data suggest an early role for SYN and inflammation in PD pathogenesis. ..
  21. Mu X, Fu X, Sun H, Liang S, Maeda H, Frishman L, et al. Ganglion cells are required for normal progenitor- cell proliferation but not cell-fate determination or patterning in the developing mouse retina. Curr Biol. 2005;15:525-30 pubmed
    ..Intrinsic rather than extrinsic factors are likely to play the critical roles in determining retinal cell fate. ..
  22. Alimova Kost M, Ninkina N, Imreh S, Gnuchev N, Adu J, Davies A, et al. Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse persyn gene. Genomics. 1999;56:224-7 pubmed
    ..Further studies including generation of animals with modified persyn expression are necessary to clarify the functions of these proteins and the mechanisms of their involvement in ..
  23. Mao C, Tsai W, Cho J, Pan P, Barton M, Klein W. Neuronal transcriptional repressor REST suppresses an Atoh7-independent program for initiating retinal ganglion cell development. Dev Biol. 2011;349:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an Atoh7-independent program for initial activation of RGC genes and suggest a novel role for REST in preventing premature expression in RPCs. ..
  24. Lambertsen K, Gramsbergen J, Sivasaravanaparan M, Ditzel N, Sevelsted Møller L, Oliván Viguera A, et al. Genetic KCa3.1-deficiency produces locomotor hyperactivity and alterations in cerebral monoamine levels. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47744 pubmed publisher
    ..The tranquilizing effects of low-dose SKA-31 raise the possibility to use KCa3.1/KCa2 channels as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric hyperactivity disorders. ..
  25. Quina L, Pak W, Lanier J, Banwait P, Gratwick K, Liu Y, et al. Brn3a-expressing retinal ganglion cells project specifically to thalamocortical and collicular visual pathways. J Neurosci. 2005;25:11595-604 pubmed
    ..Brn3a is coexpressed extensively with the closely related factor Brn3b in the embryonic retina, and the effects of the loss of Brn3a in retinal development are not severe, suggesting partial redundancy of function in this gene class. ..
  26. Logan T, Bendor J, Toupin C, THORN K, Edwards R. ?-Synuclein promotes dilation of the exocytotic fusion pore. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:681-689 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, mutations that cause Parkinson's disease abrogate this property of ?-synuclein without impairing its ability to inhibit exocytosis when overexpressed, indicating a selective defect in normal function. ..
  27. Mu X, Fu X, Beremand P, Thomas T, Klein W. Gene regulation logic in retinal ganglion cell development: Isl1 defines a critical branch distinct from but overlapping with Pou4f2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6942-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reveal that identical RGC expression patterns are achieved by different combinations of divergent inputs from upstream transcription factors. ..
  28. Specht C, Tigaret C, Rast G, Thalhammer A, Rudhard Y, Schoepfer R. Subcellular localisation of recombinant alpha- and gamma-synuclein. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;28:326-34 pubmed
    ..However, gamma-synuclein lacks a C-terminal domain that causes nuclear localisation of the fusion protein, suggesting that the two synucleins might have different roles relating to the cell nucleus. ..
  29. Ninkina N, Privalova E, Pinon L, Davies A, Buchman V. Developmentally regulated expression of persyn, a member of the synuclein family, in skin. Exp Cell Res. 1999;246:308-11 pubmed
    ..We found that persyn, a recently characterized member of the synuclein family, is expressed not only in the nervous system but also in ..
  30. Mao C, Wang S, Pan P, Klein W. Rewiring the retinal ganglion cell gene regulatory network: Neurod1 promotes retinal ganglion cell fate in the absence of Math5. Development. 2008;135:3379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, although Neurod1 and Math3 have evolved specialized functions for establishing amacrine cell fate, they are nevertheless capable of alternative functions when expressed in foreign environments. ..
  31. Akil O, Weber C, Park S, Ninkina N, Buchman V, Lustig L. Localization of synucleins in the mammalian cochlea. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2008;9:452-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether overlapping roles of the other synucleins help compensate for the loss of gamma-synuclein remains to be determined. ..
  32. Kuehn M, Kim C, Jiang B, Dumitrescu A, Kwon Y. Disruption of the complement cascade delays retinal ganglion cell death following retinal ischemia-reperfusion. Exp Eye Res. 2008;87:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears that injured RGC are targeted and actively destroyed through complement mediated processes. These results may have implications for the pathophysiology and clinical management of ischemic retinal conditions. ..
  33. Dennler S, Andre J, Alexaki I, Li A, Magnaldo T, Ten Dijke P, et al. Induction of sonic hedgehog mediators by transforming growth factor-beta: Smad3-dependent activation of Gli2 and Gli1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6981-6 pubmed
    ..We thus identify TGF-beta as a potent transcriptional inducer of Gli transcription factors. Targeting the cooperation of Hh and TGF-beta signaling may provide new therapeutic opportunities for cancer treatment. ..
  34. Kokhan V, Van kin G, Bachurin S, Shamakina I. Differential involvement of the gamma-synuclein in cognitive abilities on the model of knockout mice. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that gamma-synuclein is directly involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. ..
  35. Vargas K, Schrod N, Davis T, Fernández Busnadiego R, Taguchi Y, Laugks U, et al. Synucleins Have Multiple Effects on Presynaptic Architecture. Cell Rep. 2017;18:161-173 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that synucleins are important orchestrators of presynaptic terminal topography. ..