Gene Symbol: Snap25
Description: synaptosomal-associated protein 25
Alias: Bdr, GENA70, SNAP-25, SUP, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, blind drunk, super protein, synaptosomal-associated 25 kDa protein, synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa
Species: mouse
Products:     Snap25

Top Publications

  1. Nagy G, Milosevic I, Fasshauer D, Müller E, de Groot B, Lang T, et al. Alternative splicing of SNAP-25 regulates secretion through nonconservative substitutions in the SNARE domain. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5675-85 pubmed
  2. Roux I, Safieddine S, Nouvian R, Grati M, Simmler M, Bahloul A, et al. Otoferlin, defective in a human deafness form, is essential for exocytosis at the auditory ribbon synapse. Cell. 2006;127:277-89 pubmed
    ..Otoferlin binds Ca(2+) and displays Ca(2+)-dependent interactions with the SNARE proteins syntaxin1 and SNAP25. Otoferlin deficient mice (Otof(-/-)) are profoundly deaf...
  3. Asuni A, Cunningham C, Vigneswaran P, Perry V, O Connor V. Unaltered SNARE complex formation in an in vivo model of prion disease. Brain Res. 2008;1233:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the accumulation of PrP(Sc) although deleterious to synaptic function in vivo, does not exert its synaptic effects by disrupting the formation of SNARE complexes that are core to transmitter release. ..
  4. Kataoka M, Yamamori S, Suzuki E, Watanabe S, Sato T, Miyaoka H, et al. A single amino acid mutation in SNAP-25 induces anxiety-related behavior in mouse. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25158 pubmed publisher
  5. Wu C, Lin J, Chien C, Chang W, Lai H, Chang C, et al. Type VI adenylyl cyclase regulates neurite extension by binding to Snapin and Snap25. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4874-86 pubmed publisher
    ..catalyzes cAMP synthesis, regulates neurite outgrowth by direct interaction with a binding protein (Snapin) of Snap25 at the N terminus of AC6 (AC6-N). We first showed that AC6 expression increased during postnatal brain development...
  6. Condliffe S, Corradini I, Pozzi D, Verderio C, Matteoli M. Endogenous SNAP-25 regulates native voltage-gated calcium channels in glutamatergic neurons. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24968-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study demonstrates that endogenous SNAP-25 negatively regulates native VGCCs in glutamatergic neurons which could have important implications for neurological diseases associated with altered SNAP-25 expression. ..
  7. Nagy G, Milosevic I, Mohrmann R, Wiederhold K, Walter A, Sørensen J. The SNAP-25 linker as an adaptation toward fast exocytosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3769-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNAP-25 linker therefore might have evolved as an adaptation toward calcium triggering and a high rate of execution of the fusion process, those features that distinguish exocytosis from other membrane fusion pathways. ..
  8. Chieregatti E, Chicka M, Chapman E, Baldini G. SNAP-23 functions in docking/fusion of granules at low Ca2+. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1918-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, the relative expression levels of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 might control the mode (regulated vs. basal) of granule release by forming docking complexes at different Ca(2+) thresholds. ..
  9. Oyler G, Higgins G, Hart R, Battenberg E, Billingsley M, Bloom F, et al. The identification of a novel synaptosomal-associated protein, SNAP-25, differentially expressed by neuronal subpopulations. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:3039-52 pubmed
    ..The distribution of the SNAP-25 mRNA and the association of the protein with presynaptic elements suggest that SNAP-25 may play an important role in the synaptic function of specific neuronal systems. ..

More Information


  1. Oliver P, Davies K. Interaction between environmental and genetic factors modulates schizophrenic endophenotypes in the Snap-25 mouse mutant blind-drunk. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4576-89 pubmed publisher
    ..PNS) on two mouse lines with mutations in synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (Snap-25): the blind-drunk (Bdr) point mutant and heterozygous Snap-25 knockout mice...
  2. Hui E, Johnson C, Yao J, Dunning F, Chapman E. Synaptotagmin-mediated bending of the target membrane is a critical step in Ca(2+)-regulated fusion. Cell. 2009;138:709-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, bending of flat membranes by adding an N-BAR domain rescued the function of the tubulation-deficient syt mutant. Hence, syt-mediated membrane bending is a critical step in membrane fusion. ..
  3. Bronk P, Deak F, Wilson M, Liu X, Sudhof T, Kavalali E. Differential effects of SNAP-25 deletion on Ca2+ -dependent and Ca2+ -independent neurotransmission. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:794-806 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that SNAP-25 has a more significant role in calcium-secretion coupling than synaptobrevin-2. ..
  4. Deak F, Shin O, Tang J, Hanson P, Ubach J, Jahn R, et al. Rabphilin regulates SNARE-dependent re-priming of synaptic vesicles for fusion. EMBO J. 2006;25:2856-66 pubmed
  5. Xu N, Yu Y, Zhu J, Liu H, Shen L, Zeng R, et al. Inhibition of SNAP-25 phosphorylation at Ser187 is involved in chronic morphine-induced down-regulation of SNARE complex formation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40601-8 pubmed
  6. Steffensen S, Henriksen S, Wilson M. Transgenic rescue of SNAP-25 restores dopamine-modulated synaptic transmission in the coloboma mutant. Brain Res. 1999;847:186-95 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that alteration of monoaminergic neurotransmission, which can be reversed by the indirect agonist, amphetamine, is particularly sensitive to alterations in the expression of SNAP-25. ..
  7. Washbourne P, Thompson P, Carta M, Costa E, Mathews J, Lopez Bendito G, et al. Genetic ablation of the t-SNARE SNAP-25 distinguishes mechanisms of neuroexocytosis. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:19-26 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the development of neurotransmission requires the recruitment of a specialized SNARE core complex to meet the demands of regulated exocytosis. ..
  8. Hess E, Collins K, Wilson M. Mouse model of hyperkinesis implicates SNAP-25 in behavioral regulation. J Neurosci. 1996;16:3104-11 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the hyperactivity exhibited by these mice is the result of abnormalities in presynaptic function specifically attributable to deficits in SNAP-25 expression. ..
  9. Ilardi J, Mochida S, Sheng Z. Snapin: a SNARE-associated protein implicated in synaptic transmission. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:119-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Snapin is an important component of the neurotransmitter release process through its modulation of the sequential interactions between the SNAREs and synaptotagmin. ..
  10. Bark I, Hahn K, Ryabinin A, Wilson M. Differential expression of SNAP-25 protein isoforms during divergent vesicle fusion events of neural development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:1510-4 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that alternative isoforms of SNAP-25 may play distinct roles in vesicular fusion events required for membrane addition during axonal outgrowth and for release of neuromodulatory peptides and neurotransmitters. ..
  11. Tafoya L, Mameli M, Miyashita T, Guzowski J, Valenzuela C, Wilson M. Expression and function of SNAP-25 as a universal SNARE component in GABAergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7826-38 pubmed
    ..Patch-clamp recordings in fetal Snap25-null mutant cortex demonstrated that ablation of SNAP-25 eliminated evoked GABA(A) receptor-mediated postsynaptic ..
  12. Ramakrishnan N, Drescher M, Drescher D. Direct interaction of otoferlin with syntaxin 1A, SNAP-25, and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.3. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..3 calcium channel, it is these interactions that may mediate regulation by otoferlin of hair cell synaptic exocytosis critical to inner ear hair cell function. ..
  13. James D, Kowalchyk J, Daily N, Petrie M, Martin T. CAPS drives trans-SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion through syntaxin interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed an unexpected activity of a priming protein to accelerate fusion by efficiently promoting trans-SNARE complex formation. CAPS may function in priming by organizing SNARE complexes on the plasma membrane. ..
  14. Gerber S, Rah J, Min S, Liu X, de Wit H, Dulubova I, et al. Conformational switch of syntaxin-1 controls synaptic vesicle fusion. Science. 2008;321:1507-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the closed conformation of syntaxin-1 gates the initiation of the synaptic vesicle fusion reaction, which is then mediated by SNARE-complex/Munc18-1 assemblies. ..
  15. Oyler G, Polli J, Wilson M, Billingsley M. Developmental expression of the 25-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25) in rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:5247-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the SNAP-25 protein shifts in subcellular localization during development and may play a role in the establishment and stabilization of specific presynaptic terminals in brain. ..
  16. Raingo J, Khvotchev M, Liu P, Darios F, Li Y, Ramirez D, et al. VAMP4 directs synaptic vesicles to a pool that selectively maintains asynchronous neurotransmission. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:738-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide molecular insight into how synapses diversify their release properties by taking advantage of distinct synaptic vesicle-associated SNAREs...
  17. Mohrmann R, de Wit H, Verhage M, Neher E, Sørensen J. Fast vesicle fusion in living cells requires at least three SNARE complexes. Science. 2010;330:502-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterogeneity in SNARE-complex number may explain heterogeneity in vesicular release probability. ..
  18. Lane S, Liu Y. Characterization of the palmitoylation domain of SNAP-25. J Neurochem. 1997;69:1864-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that all four Cys residues are involved in palmitoylation and that membrane association of SNAP-25 may be regulated through dynamic palmitoylation. ..
  19. Feng Y, Zhou Z, He X, Wang H, Guo X, Hao C, et al. Dysbindin deficiency in sandy mice causes reduction of snapin and displays behaviors related to schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2008;106:218-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In sdy hippocampus, the steady-state level of snapin (a SNAP25-binding protein and a synaptic priming regulator) was reduced due to loss of dysbindin...
  20. de Wit H, Walter A, Milosevic I, Gulyas Kovacs A, Riedel D, Sørensen J, et al. Synaptotagmin-1 docks secretory vesicles to syntaxin-1/SNAP-25 acceptor complexes. Cell. 2009;138:935-46 pubmed publisher
  21. Corradini I, Donzelli A, Antonucci F, Welzl H, Loos M, Martucci R, et al. Epileptiform activity and cognitive deficits in SNAP-25(+/-) mice are normalized by antiepileptic drugs. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:364-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The Snap25 gene has been associated with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and bipolar disorder, and ..
  22. Wilhelm A, Volknandt W, Langer D, Nolte C, Kettenmann H, Zimmermann H. Localization of SNARE proteins and secretory organelle proteins in astrocytes in vitro and in situ. Neurosci Res. 2004;48:249-57 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, astrocytic organelles in situ are equipped with molecules that could be involved in regulated exocytosis of messenger substances. ..
  23. Tomasoni R, Repetto D, Morini R, Elia C, Gardoni F, Di Luca M, et al. SNAP-25 regulates spine formation through postsynaptic binding to p140Cap. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2136 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SNAP-25 allows the organization of the molecular apparatus needed for spine formation by recruiting and stabilizing p140Cap. ..
  24. Weber J, Reim K, Sørensen J. Opposing functions of two sub-domains of the SNARE-complex in neurotransmission. EMBO J. 2010;29:2477-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the N-terminal deletion delays vesicle priming after a high-frequency train. We propose that the stability of N-terminal two-thirds of the SNARE-bundle has a function for vesicle priming and limiting spontaneous release. ..
  25. Borisovska M, Zhao Y, Tsytsyura Y, Glyvuk N, Takamori S, Matti U, et al. v-SNAREs control exocytosis of vesicles from priming to fusion. EMBO J. 2005;24:2114-26 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that dynamics of fusion pore dilation are regulated by v-SNAREs, indicating their action throughout exocytosis from priming to fusion of vesicles. ..
  26. Cotrufo T, Perez Branguli F, Muhaisen A, Ros O, Andres R, Baeriswyl T, et al. A signaling mechanism coupling netrin-1/deleted in colorectal cancer chemoattraction to SNARE-mediated exocytosis in axonal growth cones. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14463-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence of a new signaling mechanism that couples chemotropic Netrin-1/DCC axonal guidance and Sytx1/TI-VAMP SNARE proteins regulating membrane turnover and exocytosis. ..
  27. Burré J, Sharma M, Tsetsenis T, Buchman V, Etherton M, Südhof T. Alpha-synuclein promotes SNARE-complex assembly in vivo and in vitro. Science. 2010;329:1663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synucleins may function to sustain normal SNARE-complex assembly in a presynaptic terminal during aging. ..
  28. Johansson J, Ericsson J, Janson J, Beraki S, Stanic D, Mandic S, et al. An ancient duplication of exon 5 in the Snap25 gene is required for complex neuronal development/function. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000278 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the ancient exon duplication in the Snap25 gene provides additional SNAP-25-function required for complex neuronal processes in higher eukaryotes.
  29. Antonucci F, Corradini I, Morini R, Fossati G, Menna E, Pozzi D, et al. Reduced SNAP-25 alters short-term plasticity at developing glutamatergic synapses. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:645-51 pubmed publisher
  30. Garbelli R, Inverardi F, Medici V, Amadeo A, Verderio C, Matteoli M, et al. Heterogeneous expression of SNAP-25 in rat and human brain. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:373-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The heterogeneous distribution of SNAP-25 may have important implications not only in relation to the function of the protein as a SNARE but also in the control of network excitability...
  31. Cotrufo T, Andrés R, Ros O, Perez Branguli F, Muhaisen A, Fuschini G, et al. Syntaxin 1 is required for DCC/Netrin-1-dependent chemoattraction of migrating neurons from the lower rhombic lip. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:3152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that a Sytx1/DCC interaction is required for Netrin-1 guidance of migrating neurons, thereby highlighting a relationship between guidance signaling and SNARE proteins that regulate membrane turnover. ..
  32. Molnar Z, Lopez Bendito G, Small J, Partridge L, Blakemore C, Wilson M. Normal development of embryonic thalamocortical connectivity in the absence of evoked synaptic activity. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10313-23 pubmed
    ..2002). The Snap25 null mutant mouse provides an opportunity to test whether synaptic activity is required for prenatal neural ..
  33. Pozzi D, Condliffe S, Bozzi Y, Chikhladze M, Grumelli C, Proux Gillardeaux V, et al. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:323-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that hippocampal slices from Snap25(+/-) mice display a significantly larger facilitation and that higher calcium peaks are reached after ..
  34. Bark C, Bellinger F, Kaushal A, Mathews J, Partridge L, Wilson M. Developmentally regulated switch in alternatively spliced SNAP-25 isoforms alters facilitation of synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8796-805 pubmed
  35. Burgalossi A, Jung S, Meyer G, Jockusch W, Jahn O, Taschenberger H, et al. SNARE protein recycling by ?SNAP and ?SNAP supports synaptic vesicle priming. Neuron. 2010;68:473-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of ?- and ?SNAP deletion mutant neurons shows that the two NSF cofactors support synaptic vesicle priming by determining the availability of free SNARE components, particularly during phases of high synaptic activity. ..
  36. Jeans A, Oliver P, Johnson R, Capogna M, Vikman J, Molnar Z, et al. A dominant mutation in Snap25 causes impaired vesicle trafficking, sensorimotor gating, and ataxia in the blind-drunk mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2431-6 pubmed
    ..These studies therefore provide insights into the role of the SNARE complex in both diabetes and psychiatric disease. ..
  37. Bhalla A, Chicka M, Tucker W, Chapman E. Ca(2+)-synaptotagmin directly regulates t-SNARE function during reconstituted membrane fusion. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:323-30 pubmed
    ..Ca(2+)-syt drove assembly of SNAP-25 onto membrane-embedded syntaxin, providing direct evidence that Ca(2+)-syt alters t-SNARE structure. ..
  38. Sørensen J, Nagy G, Varoqueaux F, Nehring R, Brose N, Wilson M, et al. Differential control of the releasable vesicle pools by SNAP-25 splice variants and SNAP-23. Cell. 2003;114:75-86 pubmed
    ..To address this question, we examined neuroexocytosis from chromaffin cells of Snap25 null mice rescued by the two splice variants SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b and the ubiquitously expressed homolog SNAP-23...
  39. Fukata M, Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Nicoll R, Bredt D. Identification of PSD-95 palmitoylating enzymes. Neuron. 2004;44:987-96 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that P-PATs regulate synaptic function through PSD-95 palmitoylation. ..
  40. Zhang Y, Vilaythong A, Yoshor D, Noebels J. Elevated thalamic low-voltage-activated currents precede the onset of absence epilepsy in the SNAP25-deficient mouse mutant coloboma. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5239-48 pubmed
    ..Cm/+), an autosomal dominant mutant mouse lacking one copy of the gene for a synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP25) that interacts with HVA channels, reveals abnormal spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the behaving animal...
  41. Hu X, Ji S, Li Y, Fan C, Cai H, Yang J, et al. Acrosome formation-associated factor is involved in fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1482-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of a novel acrosome formation-associated factor (Afaf) on fertilization by its regulation of acrosomal exocytosis and endosomal trafficking...
  42. Yamamori S, Sugaya D, Iida Y, Kokubo H, Itakura M, Suzuki E, et al. Stress-induced phosphorylation of SNAP-25. Neurosci Lett. 2014;561:182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that SNAP-25 phosphorylation is regulated in a stress-dependent manner through both central and peripheral mechanisms. ..
  43. Tan G, Liu Y, Wang L, Li K, Zhang Z, Li H, et al. PRRT2 deficiency induces paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia by regulating synaptic transmission in cerebellum. Cell Res. 2018;28:90-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings identify PRRT2 as a novel regulator of the SNARE complex and provide a circuit mechanism underlying the PRRT2-related behaviors. ..
  44. Ota M, Kaneko Y, Kondo K, Ogishima S, Tanaka H, Eto K, et al. Combined in silico and in vivo analyses reveal role of Hes1 in taste cell differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000443 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, according to our composite analyses, Hes1 is likely to play a role in orchestrating taste cell differentiation in developing taste buds. ..
  45. Bark C. SNAP-25 and gene-targeted mouse mutants. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1152:145-53 pubmed publisher
  46. Jamain S, Radyushkin K, Hammerschmidt K, Granon S, Boretius S, Varoqueaux F, et al. Reduced social interaction and ultrasonic communication in a mouse model of monogenic heritable autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1710-5 pubmed publisher
  47. Shimada M, Yanai Y, Okazaki T, Yamashita Y, Sriraman V, Wilson M, et al. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 gene expression is hormonally regulated during ovulation and is involved in cytokine/chemokine exocytosis from granulosa cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2487-502 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms controlling ovarian expression of the Snap25 gene, and the role of SNAP25 in exocytosis of secreted factors, such as ILs from cumulus cells and granulosa cells...
  48. Ha H, Cho I, Lee K, Lee K, Song J, Kim K, et al. The axon guidance defect of the telencephalic commissures of the JSAP1-deficient brain was partially rescued by the transgenic expression of JIP1. Dev Biol. 2005;277:184-99 pubmed
  49. Zraika S, Dunlop M, Proietto J, Andrikopoulos S. Elevated SNAP-25 is associated with fatty acid-induced impairment of mouse islet function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:472-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that increased expression of SNAP-25 is associated with NEFA-induced impairment of insulin secretion in mouse islets. ..
  50. Kelkar N, Delmotte M, Weston C, Barrett T, Sheppard B, Flavell R, et al. Morphogenesis of the telencephalic commissure requires scaffold protein JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP3). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9843-8 pubmed
    ..The central nervous system abnormalities of Jip3-/- mice may be accounted for in part by a reduction in signal transduction by RhoA and its effector ROCK. ..
  51. Langley K, Hepp R, Grant N, Aunis D, Rodriguez Pena A. Thyroid hormones regulate adrenal chromaffin cell SNAP-25. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;971:277-80 pubmed
  52. Dandoy Dron F, Griffond B, Mishal Z, Tovey M, Dron M. Scrg1, a novel protein of the CNS is targeted to the large dense-core vesicles in neuronal cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:2449-59 pubmed
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that Scrg1 is associated with the secretory pathway of neuronal cells. ..
  53. Gorini G, Ponomareva O, Shores K, Person M, Harris R, Mayfield R. Dynamin-1 co-associates with native mouse brain BKCa channels: proteomics analysis of synaptic protein complexes. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel interactions offer valuable insight into the protein-protein interaction network in intact synapses that could advance understanding of vesicle trafficking, release, and recycling. ..
  54. Hata Y, Sudhof T. A novel ubiquitous form of Munc-18 interacts with multiple syntaxins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system to study interactions between proteins involved in membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13022-8 pubmed
    ..The lack of specificity of the interactions between syntaxins and Munc-18s indicates that specificity of membrane trafficking reactions is not dependent on this interaction. ..
  55. Islamov R, Samigullin D, Rizvanov A, Bondarenko N, Nikolskiy E. Synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) synthesis in terminal buttons of mouse motor neuron. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2015;464:272-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of this hypothesis, in this work we studied the local protein synthesis in mouse motor nerve ending. ..
  56. Valladolid Acebes I, Daraio T, Brismar K, Harkany T, Ögren S, Hökfelt T, et al. Replacing SNAP-25b with SNAP-25a expression results in metabolic disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4326-35 pubmed publisher
    ..When combined with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, this vulnerability resulted in diabesity. Our SNAP-25b-deficient mouse may represent a diabesity model. ..
  57. Martinez A, Alcantara S, Borrell V, Del Rio J, Blasi J, Otal R, et al. TrkB and TrkC signaling are required for maturation and synaptogenesis of hippocampal connections. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7336-50 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that the genes encoding for synaptic proteins may be targets of TrkB and TrkC signaling pathways. ..
  58. Peng X, Jia Z, Zhang Y, Ware J, Trimble W. The septin CDCrel-1 is dispensable for normal development and neurotransmitter release. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:378-87 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that CDCrel-1 is not essential for neuronal development or function, and that changes in expression of other septins may account for its functional redundancy. ..
  59. Kawakami S, Ohmoto M, Itoh S, Yuasa R, Inagaki H, Nishimura E, et al. Accumulation of SNAP25 in mouse gustatory and somatosensory cortices in response to food and chemical stimulation. Neuroscience. 2012;218:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), a component of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex, was ..
  60. Lemonidis K, Gorleku O, Sanchez Perez M, Grefen C, Chamberlain L. The Golgi S-acylation machinery comprises zDHHC enzymes with major differences in substrate affinity and S-acylation activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:3870-83 pubmed publisher
    ..between a subset of four Golgi zDHHC enzymes and two S-acylated proteins-synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) and cysteine-string protein (CSP)...
  61. Sadakata T, Itakura M, Kozaki S, Sekine Y, Takahashi M, Furuichi T. Differential distributions of the Ca2+ -dependent activator protein for secretion family proteins (CAPS2 and CAPS1) in the mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:735-53 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the CAPS family proteins are involved in the secretion of different secretory substances in developing and postnatal brains, and that CAPS2 is probably involved in BDNF secretion in many brain areas. ..
  62. Grumelli C, Berghuis P, Pozzi D, Caleo M, Antonucci F, Bonanno G, et al. Calpain activity contributes to the control of SNAP-25 levels in neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;39:314-23 pubmed publisher
  63. Liu X, Heidelberger R, Janz R. Phosphorylation of syntaxin 3B by CaMKII regulates the formation of t-SNARE complexes. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2014;60:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that phosphorylation of syntaxin 3B by CaMKII can modulate the assembly of the SNARE complex in ribbon synapses of the retina, and might regulate the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in ribbon synapses. ..
  64. Hepp R, Cabaniols J, Roche P. Differential phosphorylation of SNAP-25 in vivo by protein kinase C and protein kinase A. FEBS Lett. 2002;532:52-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, despite published data to the contrary, we demonstrate that stimulation of regulated exocytosis under physiological conditions is independent of a measurable increase in SNAP-25 phosphorylation in PC12 cells. ..
  65. Gabanyi I, Muller P, Feighery L, Oliveira T, Costa Pinto F, Mucida D. Neuro-immune Interactions Drive Tissue Programming in Intestinal Macrophages. Cell. 2016;164:378-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal unique intra-tissue macrophage specialization and identify neuro-immune communication between enteric neurons and macrophages that induces rapid tissue-protective responses to distal perturbations. ..