Gene Symbol: Snai2
Description: snail family zinc finger 2
Alias: Slug, Slugh, Snail2, zinc finger protein SNAI2, neural crest transcription factor Slug, protein snail homolog 2, slug, chicken homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Snai2

Top Publications

  1. Casas E, Kim J, Bendesky A, Ohno Machado L, Wolfe C, Yang J. Snail2 is an essential mediator of Twist1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A group of transcription factors, including Twist1, Snail1, Snail2, ZEB1, and ZEB2, have been shown to induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), thus promoting tumor ..
  2. Rukstalis J, Habener J. Snail2, a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, expressed in progenitor cells of the developing endocrine pancreas. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:471-9 pubmed
    ..We report the identification of the expression of the transcription factor Snail2/Slug, a known inducer of EMT and cell movement, in both the endocrine and exocrine cells of the developing mouse ..
  3. Wu W, Heinrichs S, Xu D, Garrison S, Zambetti G, Adams J, et al. Slug antagonizes p53-mediated apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitors by repressing puma. Cell. 2005;123:641-53 pubmed
    ..We investigated the mechanism by which the transcriptional repressor Slug specifically rescues hematopoietic progenitor cells from lethal doses of gamma radiation...
  4. Perez Losada J, Sanchez Martin M, Perez Caro M, Perez Mancera P, Sanchez Garcia I. The radioresistance biological function of the SCF/kit signaling pathway is mediated by the zinc-finger transcription factor Slug. Oncogene. 2003;22:4205-11 pubmed
    ..Since mutations on SCF, c-kit and Slug genes have a similar phenotype in mice, we examined if Slug could complement the radiosensitivity of kit-deficient ..
  5. Savagner P, Yamada K, Thiery J. The zinc-finger protein slug causes desmosome dissociation, an initial and necessary step for growth factor-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:1403-19 pubmed
    ..We tested for a central role in EMT of a zinc-finger protein called Slug. Slug mRNA and protein levels were increased transiently in FGF-1-treated NBT-II cells...
  6. von Gise A, Zhou B, Honor L, Ma Q, Petryk A, Pu W. WT1 regulates epicardial epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ?-catenin and retinoic acid signaling pathways. Dev Biol. 2011;356:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our study shows that Wt1 regulates epicardial EMT and heart development through canonical Wnt, non-canonical Wnt, and retinoic acid signaling pathways. ..
  7. Inoue A, Seidel M, Wu W, Kamizono S, Ferrando A, Bronson R, et al. Slug, a highly conserved zinc finger transcriptional repressor, protects hematopoietic progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:279-88 pubmed
    We show here that a zinc finger transcriptional repressor, Slug, which is aberrantly upregulated by the E2A-HLF oncoprotein in pro-B cell acute leukemia, functions as an antiapoptotic factor in normal hematopoietic progenitor cells...
  8. Arnoux V, Nassour M, L Helgoualc h A, Hipskind R, Savagner P. Erk5 controls Slug expression and keratinocyte activation during wound healing. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4738-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Slug is required for this process, and EGF treatment of human keratinocytes induced activating phosphorylation of Erk5 ..
  9. Jiang R, Lan Y, Norton C, Sundberg J, Gridley T. The Slug gene is not essential for mesoderm or neural crest development in mice. Dev Biol. 1998;198:277-85 pubmed
    ..We describe here the cloning and genetic analysis of the mouse Slug (Slugh) gene...

More Information


  1. Perez Losada J, Sanchez Martin M, Rodríguez García A, Sanchez M, Orfao A, Flores T, et al. Zinc-finger transcription factor Slug contributes to the function of the stem cell factor c-kit signaling pathway. Blood. 2002;100:1274-86 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the activation of c-kit by SCF specifically induces the expression of Slug, a Snail family member...
  2. Inukai T, Inoue A, Kurosawa H, Goi K, Shinjyo T, Ozawa K, et al. SLUG, a ces-1-related zinc finger transcription factor gene with antiapoptotic activity, is a downstream target of the E2A-HLF oncoprotein. Mol Cell. 1999;4:343-52 pubmed
    ..In a search for E2A-HLF-responsive genes, we identified a zinc finger transcription factor, SLUG, whose product belongs to the Snail family of developmental regulatory proteins...
  3. Savagner P, Kusewitt D, Carver E, Magnino F, Choi C, Gridley T, et al. Developmental transcription factor slug is required for effective re-epithelialization by adult keratinocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2005;202:858-66 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor Slug modulates EMT in the embryo and controls desmosome number in adult epithelial cells, therefore, we investigated ..
  4. Sanchez Martin M, Rodríguez García A, Perez Losada J, Sagrera A, Read A, Sanchez Garcia I. SLUG (SNAI2) deletions in patients with Waardenburg disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:3231-6 pubmed
    ..The identification of Slugh, a zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in migratory neural crest cells, as the gene responsible for ..
  5. Niessen K, Fu Y, Chang L, Hoodless P, McFadden D, Karsan A. Slug is a direct Notch target required for initiation of cardiac cushion cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Slug, a Snail family member, is expressed by a subset of endothelial cells as well as mesenchymal cells of the ..
  6. Liu Y, Abou Kheir W, Yin J, Fang L, Hynes P, Casey O, et al. Critical and reciprocal regulation of KLF4 and SLUG in transforming growth factor ?-initiated prostate cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:941-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In a model of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)-induced prostatic EMT, SLUG is the dominant regulator of EMT initiation in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by the inhibition of EMT ..
  7. Wu B, Wang Y, Lui W, Langworthy M, Tompkins K, Hatzopoulos A, et al. Nfatc1 coordinates valve endocardial cell lineage development required for heart valve formation. Circ Res. 2011;109:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We further reveal by gene expression studies that Nfatc1 suppresses transcription of Snail1 and Snail2, the key transcriptional factors for initiation of EMT...
  8. Murray S, Gridley T. Snail family genes are required for left-right asymmetry determination, but not neural crest formation, in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10300-10304 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that, contrary to observations in frog and avian embryos, the Snail family genes Snail (Snai1) and Slug (Snai2) are not required for formation and delamination of the neural crest in mice...
  9. Oram K, Carver E, Gridley T. Slug expression during organogenesis in mice. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003;271:189-91 pubmed
    The vertebrate Slug gene encodes a zinc finger-containing transcriptional repressor...
  10. Nieto M. The snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3:155-66 pubmed
    ..Different family members have also been implicated in the signalling cascade that confers left right identity, as well as in the formation of appendages, neural differentiation, cell division and cell survival. ..
  11. Pérez Mancera P, González Herrero I, Perez Caro M, Gutiérrez Cianca N, Flores T, Gutierrez Adan A, et al. SLUG in cancer development. Oncogene. 2005;24:3073-82 pubmed
    The SNAIL-related zinc-finger transcription factor, SLUG (SNAI2), is critical for the normal development of neural crest-derived cells and loss-of-function SLUG mutations have been proven to contribute to piebaldism and Waardenburg ..
  12. Dale J, Malapert P, Chal J, Vilhais Neto G, Maroto M, Johnson T, et al. Oscillations of the snail genes in the presomitic mesoderm coordinate segmental patterning and morphogenesis in vertebrate somitogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;10:355-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, Snail genes define a class of cyclic genes that coordinate segmentation and PSM morphogenesis. ..
  13. Sun Y, Shao L, Bai H, Wang Z, Wu W. Slug deficiency enhances self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells during hematopoietic regeneration. Blood. 2010;115:1709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Slug is an evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger transcription factor that is highly expressed in primitive hematopoietic ..
  14. Murray S, Oram K, Gridley T. Multiple functions of Snail family genes during palate development in mice. Development. 2007;134:1789-97 pubmed
    ..Here we report the functions of Snail (Snai1) and Slug (Snai2) genes during palate development in mice...
  15. Guo W, Keckesova Z, Donaher J, Shibue T, Tischler V, Reinhardt F, et al. Slug and Sox9 cooperatively determine the mammary stem cell state. Cell. 2012;148:1015-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified two TFs, Slug and Sox9, that act cooperatively to determine the mammary stem cell (MaSC) state...
  16. Pérez Mancera P, González Herrero I, Maclean K, Turner A, Yip M, Sanchez Martin M, et al. SLUG (SNAI2) overexpression in embryonic development. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;114:24-9 pubmed
    The Snail-related zinc-finger transcription factor, SLUG (SNAI2), is critical for the normal development of neural crest-derived cells and loss-of-function SLUG mutations have been proven to cause piebaldism and Waardenburg syndrome type ..
  17. Diman N, Brooks G, Kruithof B, Elemento O, Seidman J, Seidman C, et al. Tbx5 is required for avian and Mammalian epicardial formation and coronary vasculogenesis. Circ Res. 2014;115:834-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a conserved Tbx5 dose-dependent requirement for both proepicardial and epicardial progenitor cell development in chick and in mouse coronary vascular formation. ..
  18. Levay A, Peacock J, Lu Y, Koch M, Hinton R, Kadler K, et al. Scleraxis is required for cell lineage differentiation and extracellular matrix remodeling during murine heart valve formation in vivo. Circ Res. 2008;103:948-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our studies have identified an in vivo requirement for scx during valvulogenesis and demonstrate its role in cell lineage differentiation and matrix distribution in remodeling valve structures. ..
  19. Langer E, Feng Y, Zhaoyuan H, Rauscher F, Kroll K, Longmore G. Ajuba LIM proteins are snail/slug corepressors required for neural crest development in Xenopus. Dev Cell. 2008;14:424-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Xenopus neural crest as a model of in vivo Snail- or Slug-induced EMT, we demonstrate that Ajuba LIM proteins contribute to neural crest development as Snail/Slug ..
  20. Collado M, Thiede B, Baker W, Askew C, Igbani L, Corwin J. The postnatal accumulation of junctional E-cadherin is inversely correlated with the capacity for supporting cells to convert directly into sensory hair cells in mammalian balance organs. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11855-66 pubmed publisher
  21. Casanova J, Travisano S, de la Pompa J. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epicardium is independent of Snail1. Genesis. 2013;51:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Snail1 is not required for the initiation and progression of embryonic epicardial EMT. ..
  22. Roman A, Benitez D, Carvajal Gonzalez J, Fernandez Salguero P. Genome-wide B1 retrotransposon binds the transcription factors dioxin receptor and Slug and regulates gene expression in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..dioxin receptor xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulator Slug (Slug site). A Mus promoter database was scanned for XREs to predict coregulation with other TFs...
  23. Takeichi M, Nimura K, Mori M, Nakagami H, Kaneda Y. The transcription factors Tbx18 and Wt1 control the epicardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition through bi-directional regulation of Slug in murine primary epicardial cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57829 pubmed publisher
    ..Tbx18) and Wilms' tumor 1 homolog (Wt1), bi-directionally control the epicardial EMT through their effects on Slug expression in murine primary epicardial cells...
  24. Coll Bonfill N, Peinado V, Pisano M, Parrizas M, Blanco I, Evers M, et al. Slug Is Increased in Vascular Remodeling and Induces a Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferative Phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159460 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have confirmed Slug as a key player in regulating phenotypic changes in several cell models, however, its role in smooth muscle cells (SMC) has never been assessed...
  25. Jing X, Gao Y, Xiao S, Qin Q, Wei X, Yan Y, et al. Hypoxia induced the differentiation of Tbx18-positive epicardial cells to CoSMCs. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30468 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that hypoxia intervention was sufficient to induce the differentiation of Tbx18-positive epicardial cells to CoSMCs. Furthermore, this differentiation was achieved primarily via HIF-1α-mediated regulation of Snail. ..
  26. Guo C, Meng X, Bai J, Chen C, Liu T, Liu S, et al. Expression and localization of transcription factors SNAIL and SLUG in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:585-95 pubmed publisher
    SNAIL and SLUG are zinc-finger transcription factors that participate in the regulation of cell division, cell survival, mesoderm formation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
  27. Newkirk K, Parent A, Fossey S, Choi C, Chandler H, Rajala Schultz P, et al. Snai2 expression enhances ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:1629-39 pubmed
    b>Snai2, encoded by the SNAI2 gene, has been shown to modulate epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), the conversion of sessile epithelial cells attached to adjacent cells and to the basement membrane into dissociated and motile ..
  28. Perez Caro M, Bermejo Rodríguez C, González Herrero I, Sanchez Beato M, Piris M, Sanchez Garcia I. Transcriptomal profiling of the cellular response to DNA damage mediated by Slug (Snai2). Br J Cancer. 2008;98:480-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Snai2-deficient cells are radiosensitive to DNA damage. The function of Snai2 in response to DNA damage seems to be critical for its function in normal development and cancer...
  29. Rhim H, Savagner P, Thibaudeau G, Thiery J, Pavan W. Localization of a neural crest transcription factor, Slug, to mouse chromosome 16 and human chromosome 8. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:872-3 pubmed
  30. Meechan D, Maynard T, Wu Y, Gopalakrishna D, Lieberman J, LaMantia A. Gene dosage in the developing and adult brain in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;33:412-28 pubmed
    ..Such changes might contribute to schizophrenia vulnerability in 22q11DS. ..
  31. Bai Y, Wang J, Morikawa Y, Bonilla Claudio M, Klysik E, Martin J. Bmp signaling represses Vegfa to promote outflow tract cushion development. Development. 2013;140:3395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that Vegfa levels in the OFT are tightly controlled by Smad- and microRNA-dependent pathways to modulate OFT development. ..
  32. Pioli P, Whiteside S, Weis J, Weis J. Snai2 and Snai3 transcriptionally regulate cellular fitness and functionality of T cell lineages through distinct gene programs. Immunobiology. 2016;221:618-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we identified Snai2 and Snai3 as being essential regulators of immune tolerance partly due to the impaired function of CD4(+) ..
  33. McGlinn E, van Bueren K, Fiorenza S, Mo R, Poh A, Forrest A, et al. Pax9 and Jagged1 act downstream of Gli3 in vertebrate limb development. Mech Dev. 2005;122:1218-33 pubmed
    ..Our data have also revealed that perturbation of early patterning events within the Gli3(Xt/Xt) limb culminates in a specific delay of anterior chondrogenesis which is subsequently realised as extra digits. ..
  34. Villarejo A, Molina Ortiz P, Montenegro Y, Moreno Bueno G, Morales S, Santos V, et al. Loss of Snail2 favors skin tumor progression by promoting the recruitment of myeloid progenitors. Carcinogenesis. 2015;36:585-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail2 is a zinc finger transcription factor involved in driving epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Snail2 null mice are viable, but display defects in melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoiesis, and are markedly radiosensitive...
  35. Li F, Su Y, Cheng Y, Jiang X, Peng Y, Li Y, et al. Conditional deletion of Men1 in the pancreatic β-cell leads to glucagon-expressing tumor development. Endocrinology. 2015;156:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work shows that Men1 ablation in the pancreatic β-cells leads to the inactivation of specific transcription factors, resulting in glucagon-expressing tumor development, which sheds light on the mechanisms of islet tumorigenesis. ..
  36. Merino D, Best S, Asselin Labat M, Vaillant F, Pal B, Dickins R, et al. Pro-apoptotic Bim suppresses breast tumor cell metastasis and is a target gene of SNAI2. Oncogene. 2015;34:3926-34 pubmed publisher
    ..correlation between the expression of BIM and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition transcription factor SNAI2 at the proliferative edge of the tumors...
  37. Newkirk K, Duncan F, Brannick E, Chandler H, Parent A, Kusewitt D. The acute cutaneous inflammatory response is attenuated in Slug-knockout mice. Lab Invest. 2008;88:831-41 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induction of Slug, a Snail family zinc-finger transcription factor, in the epidermis of mice; we now report that Slug-knockout mice are, unexpectedly, more resistant to sunburn than wild-..
  38. Gradus B, Alon I, Hornstein E. miRNAs control tracheal chondrocyte differentiation. Dev Biol. 2011;360:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway may improve understanding of human primary tracheomalacia and improve protocols for cartilage tissue engineering. ..
  39. Hudson L, Newkirk K, Chandler H, Choi C, Fossey S, Parent A, et al. Cutaneous wound reepithelialization is compromised in mice lacking functional Slug (Snai2). J Dermatol Sci. 2009;56:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on previous in vitro and ex vivo findings, Slug (Snai2), a transcriptional regulator of EMT in development, may play an important role in this process...
  40. Tateno M, Fukunishi Y, Komatsu S, Okazaki Y, Kawai J, Shibata K, et al. Identification of a novel member of the snail/Gfi-1 repressor family, mlt 1, which is methylated and silenced in liver tumors of SV40 T antigen transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2001;61:1144-53 pubmed
  41. Smith J, Pozzi A, Dhawan P, Singh A, Harris R. Soluble HB-EGF induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in inner medullary collecting duct cells by upregulating Snail-2. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F957-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, sustained exposure to sHB-EGF induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of IMCD cells, in part by upregulating the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor Snail-2. ..
  42. Shirley S, Rundhaug J, Perez C, Coletta L, Kusewitt D. Slug Modulates UV Radiation-Induced Cutaneous Inflammation by Regulating Epidermal Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:532-534 pubmed publisher
  43. Plein A, Calmont A, Fantin A, Denti L, Anderson N, Scambler P, et al. Neural crest-derived SEMA3C activates endothelial NRP1 for cardiac outflow tract septation. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2661-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate a mechanism by which NCCs cooperate with endothelial cells in the developing OFT to enable the postnatal separation of the pulmonary and systemic circulation. ..
  44. Onodera T, Sakai T, Hsu J, Matsumoto K, Chiorini J, Yamada K. Btbd7 regulates epithelial cell dynamics and branching morphogenesis. Science. 2010;329:562-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the extracellular matrix and cleft propagation through its highly focal expression leading to local regulation of Snail2 (Slug), E-cadherin, and epithelial cell motility...
  45. Gaete M, Fons J, Popa E, Chatzeli L, Tucker A. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation. Biol Open. 2015;4:1625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail ..
  46. Heallen T, Zhang M, Wang J, Bonilla Claudio M, Klysik E, Johnson R, et al. Hippo pathway inhibits Wnt signaling to restrain cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart size. Science. 2011;332:458-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the Hippo effector Yap interacts with β-catenin on Sox2 and Snai2 genes...
  47. Oram K, Gridley T. Mutations in snail family genes enhance craniosynostosis of Twist1 haplo-insufficient mice: implications for Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome. Genetics. 2005;170:971-4 pubmed
    ..We show that the mouse Twist1 mutation interacts with Snai1 and Snai2 mutations to enhance aberrant cranial suture fusion, demonstrating that genetic interactions between genes of the ..
  48. Kim H, Kang K, Ekram M, Roh T, Kim J. Aebp2 as an epigenetic regulator for neural crest cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25174 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Aebp2 may regulate the migration and development of the neural crest cells through the PRC2-mediated epigenetic mechanism. ..
  49. Naber H, Drabsch Y, Snaar Jagalska B, Ten Dijke P, van Laar T. Snail and Slug, key regulators of TGF-?-induced EMT, are sufficient for the induction of single-cell invasion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:58-63 pubmed publisher inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via induction of transcriptional repressors, including Slug and Snail...
  50. Chang A, Garside V, Fournier M, Smrz J, Vrljicak P, Umlandt P, et al. A Notch-dependent transcriptional hierarchy promotes mesenchymal transdifferentiation in the cardiac cushion. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:894-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Functionally, we show these 4 TFs regulate EMT in AVC explant assays. These novel signaling pathways downstream of Notch are potentially relevant to valve development. ..
  51. Nakazawa M, Matsunaga K, Asamura S, Kusuhara H, Isogai N, Muragaki Y. Molecular mechanisms of cleft lip formation in CL/Fr mice. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2008;42:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Slug mRNA expression was also significantly reduced whereas noggin was increased in CL/Fr embryos with cleft lip...
  52. Mizuta K, Sakabe M, Hashimoto A, Ioka T, Sakai C, Okumura K, et al. Impairment of endothelial-mesenchymal transformation during atrioventricular cushion formation in Tmem100 null embryos. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The Tmem100 deficiency causes EndMT defect during AVC cushion formation possibly via disturbance of multiple calcium-related signaling events. ..
  53. Lim S, Kim H, Jung G. p53 inhibits tumor cell invasion via the degradation of snail protein in hepatocellular carcinoma. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of p53 mutation and Snail overexpression as a late event in hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  54. Vijayaraj P, Le Bras A, Mitchell N, Kondo M, Juliao S, Wasserman M, et al. Erg is a crucial regulator of endocardial-mesenchymal transformation during cardiac valve morphogenesis. Development. 2012;139:3973-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Erg is required for the maintenance of the core EnMT regulatory factors that include Snail1 and Snail2 by binding to their promoter and intronic regions.
  55. Andersen D, Laborda J, Baladron V, Kassem M, Sheikh S, Jensen C. Dual role of delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) in skeletal muscle development and adult muscle regeneration. Development. 2013;140:3743-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest a novel and surprising dual biological function of DLK1 as an enhancer of muscle development, but as an inhibitor of adult muscle regeneration. ..
  56. Parent A, Newkirk K, Kusewitt D. Slug (Snai2) expression during skin and hair follicle development. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1737-9 pubmed publisher
  57. Ragni C, Diguet N, Le Garrec J, Novotova M, Resende T, Pop S, et al. Amotl1 mediates sequestration of the Hippo effector Yap1 downstream of Fat4 to restrict heart growth. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14582 pubmed publisher
    ..This work uncovers a mechanism for the restriction of heart growth at birth, a process which impedes the regenerative potential of the mammalian heart. ..
  58. Tang Y, Feinberg T, Keller E, Li X, Weiss S. Snail/Slug binding interactions with YAP/TAZ control skeletal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:917-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Using knockout mouse models that target the zinc-finger transcription factors Snail or Slug, or Snail and Slug combined, a regulatory axis has been uncovered wherein Snail and Slug cooperatively control SSC ..
  59. Cano A, Perez Moreno M, Rodrigo I, Locascio A, Blanco M, del Barrio M, et al. The transcription factor snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by repressing E-cadherin expression. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:76-83 pubmed
    ..Snail may thus be considered as a marker for malignancy, opening up new avenues for the design of specific anti-invasive drugs. ..
  60. Newkirk K, MacKenzie D, Bakaletz A, Hudson L, Kusewitt D. Microarray analysis demonstrates a role for Slug in epidermal homeostasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:361-9 pubmed
    Slug (Snail2) is a member of the Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors with regulatory functions in development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor progression...
  61. Chen Y, Gridley T. Compensatory regulation of the Snai1 and Snai2 genes during chondrogenesis. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1412-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here that the Snai1 and Snai2 genes function redundantly during embryonic long bone development in mice...
  62. Chen Y, Gridley T. The SNAI1 and SNAI2 proteins occupy their own and each other's promoter during chondrogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:356-60 pubmed publisher
    Two Snail family genes, Snai1 and Snai2, encode E2 box-binding transcriptional repressors that are important for cartilage development during long bone formation in mice...
  63. Jiang R, Norton C, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Gridley T. Genomic organization, expression and chromosomal localization of the mouse Slug (Slugh) gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1443:251-4 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the mouse Slug (Slugh) gene. The mouse Slug gene consists of three exons spanning approx. 4 kb...
  64. Kim S, Yao J, Suyama K, Qian X, Qian B, Bandyopadhyay S, et al. Slug promotes survival during metastasis through suppression of Puma-mediated apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2014;74:3695-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show in the Polyoma Middle T mammary tumor model that N-cadherin (Cdh2) expression causes Slug (Snai2) upregulation, which in turn promotes carcinoma cell survival...
  65. Perez C, Rundhaug J, Johnson D, Oberyszyn T, Tober K, Kusewitt D. Slug expression in mouse skin and skin tumors is not regulated by p53. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:566-568 pubmed publisher
  66. Chen A, Donovan A, Ned Sykes R, Andrews N. Noncanonical role of transferrin receptor 1 is essential for intestinal homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:11714-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate Tfr1 in homeostatic maintenance of the intestinal epithelium, acting through a role that is independent of its iron-uptake function. ..
  67. Ke C, Xiao W, Chen C, Lo L, Wong F. IRF6 is the mediator of TGFβ3 during regulation of the epithelial mesenchymal transition and palatal fusion. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12791 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular analysis revealed that ectopic expression of IRF6 increased the expression of SNAI2, an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator, and diminished the expression of various epithelial markers,..
  68. Desgrosellier J, Lesperance J, Seguin L, Gozo M, Kato S, Franovic A, et al. Integrin αvβ3 drives slug activation and stemness in the pregnant and neoplastic mammary gland. Dev Cell. 2014;30:295-308 pubmed publisher
    ..This was associated with decreased MaSC expansion, clonogenicity, and expression of Slug, a master regulator of MaSCs...
  69. Attanasio C, Nord A, Zhu Y, Blow M, Li Z, Liberton D, et al. Fine tuning of craniofacial morphology by distant-acting enhancers. Science. 2013;342:1241006 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that enhancers are involved in craniofacial development and suggest that enhancer sequence variation contributes to the diversity of human facial morphology. ..
  70. Olmeda D, Montes A, Moreno Bueno G, Flores J, Portillo F, Cano A. Snai1 and Snai2 collaborate on tumor growth and metastasis properties of mouse skin carcinoma cell lines. Oncogene. 2008;27:4690-701 pubmed publisher
    Snai1 (Snail) and Snai2 (Slug), the two main members of Snail family factors, are important mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and involved in tumor progression...
  71. Zhao P, Iezzi S, Carver E, Dressman D, Gridley T, Sartorelli V, et al. Slug is a novel downstream target of MyoD. Temporal profiling in muscle regeneration. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30091-101 pubmed
    ..downstream targets of MyoD were identified by temporal expression, promoter data base mining, and gel shift assays; Slug and calpain 6 were identified as novel MyoD targets...
  72. Gingold J, Fidalgo M, Guallar D, Lau Z, Sun Z, Zhou H, et al. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies opposing functions of Snai1 and Snai2 on the Nanog dependency in reprogramming. Mol Cell. 2014;56:140-52 pubmed publisher
    ..small interfering RNA screen using a Nanog-GFP reporter line, we discovered opposing effects of Snai1 and Snai2 depletion on Nanog promoter activity...
  73. Nigmatullina L, Norkin M, Dzama M, Messner B, Sayols S, Soshnikova N. Id2 controls specification of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cell progenitors during gut development. EMBO J. 2017;36:869-885 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, adult ISCs from Id2-deficient mice display a distinct transcriptional signature, supporting an essential role for Id2 in the correct specification of ISCs. ..
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    b>SLUG represses E-cadherin to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various cancers. Mechanisms that regulate SLUG/E-cadherin pathway remain poorly understood, especially during tumorigenesis in vivo...
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    ..However, little is known about the intracellular regulation of the SCF/c-Kit pathway in HSCs. We report here that Slug, a zinc-finger transcription repressor, functions as a direct transcriptional repressor of c-Kit in HSCs...
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    ..0+/-0.4 microm min(-1) (epidermis) or 2.7+/-1.4 microm min(-1) (dermis). The newly developed in vivo imaging system represents a useful tool for studying spatial regulation of IL-1beta production in skin. ..
  77. Sefton M, Sanchez S, Nieto M. Conserved and divergent roles for members of the Snail family of transcription factors in the chick and mouse embryo. Development. 1998;125:3111-21 pubmed
    ..Two members of this family have been described in higher vertebrates, Snail (Sna) and Slug (Slu), where they have been implicated in the formation of tissues such as the mesoderm and the neural crest...
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    ..Our findings point to a role of Twist1 in maintaining the mesenchyme architecture and the progenitor state of the mesoderm, as well as mediating mesoderm-neural crest interactions in craniofacial development...