Gene Symbol: Snai1
Description: snail family zinc finger 1
Alias: Sna, Sna1, Snail, Snail1, zinc finger protein SNAI1, snail homolog 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Snai1

Top Publications

  1. Murray S, Oram K, Gridley T. Multiple functions of Snail family genes during palate development in mice. Development. 2007;134:1789-97 pubmed
    ..Defects in any of these processes can result in cleft palate, a common human birth defect. The Snail gene family encodes transcriptional repressors that play essential roles in the growth and patterning of ..
  2. Dale J, Malapert P, Chal J, Vilhais Neto G, Maroto M, Johnson T, et al. Oscillations of the snail genes in the presomitic mesoderm coordinate segmental patterning and morphogenesis in vertebrate somitogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;10:355-66 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cyclic mRNA expression of Snail 1 and Snail 2 in the mouse and chick presomitic mesoderm (PSM), respectively...
  3. Cano A, Perez Moreno M, Rodrigo I, Locascio A, Blanco M, del Barrio M, et al. The transcription factor snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by repressing E-cadherin expression. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:76-83 pubmed
    The Snail family of transcription factors has previously been implicated in the differentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transitions) during embryonic development...
  4. Escrivà M, Peiro S, Herranz N, Villagrasa P, Dave N, Montserrat Sentis B, et al. Repression of PTEN phosphatase by Snail1 transcriptional factor during gamma radiation-induced apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1528-40 pubmed publisher
    The product of the Snail1 gene is a transcriptional repressor required for triggering the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Snail1 in epithelial cells promotes resistance to apoptosis...
  5. Herranz N, Pasini D, Diaz V, Franci C, Gutierrez A, Dave N, et al. Polycomb complex 2 is required for E-cadherin repression by the Snail1 transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4772-81 pubmed publisher
    The transcriptional factor Snail1 is a repressor of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene expression essential for triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
  6. Sefton M, Sanchez S, Nieto M. Conserved and divergent roles for members of the Snail family of transcription factors in the chick and mouse embryo. Development. 1998;125:3111-21 pubmed
    The members of the Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors have been implicated in the formation of distinct tissues within the developing vertebrate and invertebrate embryo...
  7. Zander M, Burns S, Yang G, Kaplan D, Miller F. Snail coordinately regulates downstream pathways to control multiple aspects of mammalian neural precursor development. J Neurosci. 2014;34:5164-75 pubmed publisher
    The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors...
  8. Wu B, Wang Y, Lui W, Langworthy M, Tompkins K, Hatzopoulos A, et al. Nfatc1 coordinates valve endocardial cell lineage development required for heart valve formation. Circ Res. 2011;109:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We further reveal by gene expression studies that Nfatc1 suppresses transcription of Snail1 and Snail2, the key transcriptional factors for initiation of EMT...
  9. Niessen K, Fu Y, Chang L, Hoodless P, McFadden D, Karsan A. Slug is a direct Notch target required for initiation of cardiac cushion cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:315-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail family proteins are key regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, but their role in endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is less well studied...

More Information


  1. Seki K, Fujimori T, Savagner P, Hata A, Aikawa T, Ogata N, et al. Mouse Snail family transcription repressors regulate chondrocyte, extracellular matrix, type II collagen, and aggrecan. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41862-70 pubmed
    b>Snail family genes are conserved among species during evolution and encode transcription factors expressed at different stages of development in different tissues...
  2. Peinado H, Ballestar E, Esteller M, Cano A. Snail mediates E-cadherin repression by the recruitment of the Sin3A/histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)/HDAC2 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:306-19 pubmed
    The transcription factor Snail has been described as a direct repressor of E-cadherin expression during development and carcinogenesis; however, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain largely unknown...
  3. Murray S, Gridley T. Snail family genes are required for left-right asymmetry determination, but not neural crest formation, in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10300-10304 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that, contrary to observations in frog and avian embryos, the Snail family genes Snail (Snai1) and Slug (Snai2) are not required for formation and delamination of the neural crest in mice...
  4. Lomeli H, Starling C, Gridley T. Epiblast-specific Snai1 deletion results in embryonic lethality due to multiple vascular defects. BMC Res Notes. 2009;2:22 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse embryos with conditional deletion of the Snail1 (Snai1) gene in the epiblast, but not in most extraembryonic membranes, exhibit defects in left-right asymmetry ..
  5. de Frutos C, Dacquin R, Vega S, Jurdic P, Machuca Gayet I, Nieto M. Snail1 controls bone mass by regulating Runx2 and VDR expression during osteoblast differentiation. EMBO J. 2009;28:686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Snail1 regulates this balance by controlling osteoblast differentiation...
  6. Garibaldi F, Cicchini C, Conigliaro A, Santangelo L, Cozzolino A, Grassi G, et al. An epistatic mini-circuitry between the transcription factors Snail and HNF4? controls liver stem cell and hepatocyte features exhorting opposite regulation on stemness-inhibiting microRNAs. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we show that in hepatic stem cell Snail, a transcriptional repressor of the hepatocyte differentiation master gene HNF4?, directly represses the ..
  7. Rowe R, Lin Y, Shimizu Hirota R, Hanada S, Neilson E, Greenson J, et al. Hepatocyte-derived Snail1 propagates liver fibrosis progression. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2392-403 pubmed publisher
    ..fibrosis, we demonstrate that hepatocytes upregulate the expression of the zinc finger transcriptional repressor, Snail1, during tissue remodeling...
  8. Kokudo T, Suzuki Y, Yoshimatsu Y, Yamazaki T, Watabe T, Miyazono K. Snail is required for TGFbeta-induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition of embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the transcription factors involved in EMT, Snail was induced by TGFbeta2 in MESECs...
  9. de Frutos C, Vega S, Manzanares M, Flores J, Huertas H, Martínez Frías M, et al. Snail1 is a transcriptional effector of FGFR3 signaling during chondrogenesis and achondroplasias. Dev Cell. 2007;13:872-83 pubmed
    ..b>Snail1 has been implicated in chondrocyte differentiation as it represses Collagen II and aggrecan transcription in vitro...
  10. Franco D, Mainez J, Vega S, Sancho P, Murillo M, de Frutos C, et al. Snail1 suppresses TGF-beta-induced apoptosis and is sufficient to trigger EMT in hepatocytes. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have examined the role of Snail1 as a suppressor of TGF-?-induced apoptosis in murine non-transformed hepatocytes, rat and human hepatocarcinoma ..
  11. Boutet A, de Frutos C, Maxwell P, Mayol M, Romero J, Nieto M. Snail activation disrupts tissue homeostasis and induces fibrosis in the adult kidney. EMBO J. 2006;25:5603-13 pubmed
    ..b>Snail transcription factors induce both natural and pathological EMT, but their implication in renal development and ..
  12. Murray S, Gridley T. Snail1 gene function during early embryo patterning in mice. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:2566-70 pubmed
    ..Although the Snai2-null mouse is viable and fertile, the early embryonic lethality of Snai1-null mice has precluded the detailed analysis of Snai1 function after gastrulation...
  13. Fischer A, Steidl C, Wagner T, Lang E, Jakob P, Friedl P, et al. Combined loss of Hey1 and HeyL causes congenital heart defects because of impaired epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Circ Res. 2007;100:856-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Hey gene family shows overlap in controlling Notch induced endocardial epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a process critical for valve and septum formation. ..
  14. Moody S, Perez D, Pan T, Sarkisian C, Portocarrero C, Sterner C, et al. The transcriptional repressor Snail promotes mammary tumor recurrence. Cancer Cell. 2005;8:197-209 pubmed
    ..model for the recurrence of HER2/neu-induced mammary tumors, we demonstrate that the transcriptional repressor Snail is spontaneously upregulated in recurrent tumors in vivo and that recurrence is accompanied by epithelial-to-..
  15. Nieto M. The snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3:155-66 pubmed
    The Snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors is involved in processes that imply pronounced cell movements, both during embryonic development and in the acquisition of invasive and migratory properties during tumour ..
  16. Tao G, Levay A, Gridley T, Lincoln J. Mmp15 is a direct target of Snai1 during endothelial to mesenchymal transformation and endocardial cushion development. Dev Biol. 2011;359:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The zinc-finger transcription factor Snai1 has previously been reported to be important for EMT during organogenesis, yet its role in early valve development ..
  17. Lin Y, Li X, Willis A, Liu C, Chen G, Weiss S. Snail1-dependent control of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and lineage commitment. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3070 pubmed publisher
    ..members can both promote ESC maintenance and trigger differentiation while also controlling the expression of Snail1, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor...
  18. Feller J, Schneider A, Schuster Gossler K, Gossler A. Noncyclic Notch activity in the presomitic mesoderm demonstrates uncoupling of somite compartmentalization and boundary formation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, segmentation and anterior-posterior somite patterning can be uncoupled, differential Notch signaling is not required to form segment borders, and Notch is unlikely to be the pacemaker of the segmentation clock...
  19. Vincent T, Neve E, Johnson J, Kukalev A, Rojo F, Albanell J, et al. A SNAIL1-SMAD3/4 transcriptional repressor complex promotes TGF-beta mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that SMAD3 and SMAD4 interact and form a complex with SNAIL1, a transcriptional repressor and promoter of EMT...
  20. Smith D, Franco del Amo F, Gridley T. Isolation of Sna, a mouse gene homologous to the Drosophila genes snail and escargot: its expression pattern suggests multiple roles during postimplantation development. Development. 1992;116:1033-9 pubmed
    The Drosophila gene snail encodes a zinc-finger protein that is required zygotically for mesoderm formation...
  21. Vega S, Morales A, Ocaña O, Valdés F, Fabregat I, Nieto M. Snail blocks the cell cycle and confers resistance to cell death. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1131-43 pubmed
    The Snail zinc-finger transcription factors trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during both embryonic development and tumor progression...
  22. Dominguez D, Montserrat Sentis B, Virgós Soler A, Guaita S, Grueso J, Porta M, et al. Phosphorylation regulates the subcellular location and activity of the snail transcriptional repressor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5078-89 pubmed
    The Snail gene product is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression and an inducer of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in several epithelial tumor cell lines...
  23. Ciruna B, Rossant J. FGF signaling regulates mesoderm cell fate specification and morphogenetic movement at the primitive streak. Dev Cell. 2001;1:37-49 pubmed
    ..the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and morphogenesis of mesoderm at the primitive streak by controlling Snail and E-cadherin expression...
  24. Rowe R, Li X, Hu Y, Saunders T, Virtanen I, Garcia de Herreros A, et al. Mesenchymal cells reactivate Snail1 expression to drive three-dimensional invasion programs. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..The zinc-finger transcription factor, Snail1, can trigger EMT and is sufficient to transcriptionally reprogram epithelial cells toward a mesenchymal phenotype ..
  25. Moreno Bueno G, Cubillo E, Sarrio D, Peinado H, Rodriguez Pinilla S, Villa S, et al. Genetic profiling of epithelial cells expressing E-cadherin repressors reveals a distinct role for Snail, Slug, and E47 factors in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9543-56 pubmed
    The transcription factors Snail, Slug, and bHLH E47 have been recently described as direct repressors of E-cadherin and inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion when overexpressed in epithelial cells...
  26. Franci C, Takkunen M, Dave N, Alameda F, Gomez S, Rodriguez R, et al. Expression of Snail protein in tumor-stroma interface. Oncogene. 2006;25:5134-44 pubmed
    The product of Snail gene is a repressor of E-cadherin transcription and an inductor of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in several epithelial tumor cell lines...
  27. Ma L, Lu M, Schwartz R, Martin J. Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning. Development. 2005;132:5601-11 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Bmp2 has a crucial role in coordinating multiple aspects of AV canal morphogenesis. ..
  28. Murray S, Carver E, Gridley T. Generation of a Snail1 (Snai1) conditional null allele. Genesis. 2006;44:7-11 pubmed
    ..The Snail1 (Snai1) gene promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during development and disease progression, and Snai1 ..
  29. Locascio A, Manzanares M, Blanco M, Nieto M. Modularity and reshuffling of Snail and Slug expression during vertebrate evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16841-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we attempt to study that history by analyzing the expression of two members of the Snail family, Snail and Slug, in representatives of the major vertebrate groups...
  30. Carver E, Jiang R, Lan Y, Oram K, Gridley T. The mouse snail gene encodes a key regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8184-8 pubmed
    b>Snail family genes encode DNA binding zinc finger proteins that act as transcriptional repressors. Mouse embryos deficient for the Snail (Sna) gene exhibit defects in the formation of the mesoderm germ layer...
  31. Hou Z, Peng H, Ayyanathan K, Yan K, Langer E, Longmore G, et al. The LIM protein AJUBA recruits protein arginine methyltransferase 5 to mediate SNAIL-dependent transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3198-207 pubmed publisher
    The SNAIL transcription factor contains C-terminal tandem zinc finger motifs and an N-terminal SNAG repression domain...
  32. Veltmaat J, Orelio C, Ward van Oostwaard D, Van Rooijen M, Mummery C, Defize L. Snail is an immediate early target gene of parathyroid hormone related peptide signaling in parietal endoderm formation. Int J Dev Biol. 2000;44:297-307 pubmed
    ..By means of differential display RT-PCR, we identified Snail (Sna) as a gene upregulated during the differentiation from F9 PrE to PE...
  33. Tosoni D, Zecchini S, Coazzoli M, Colaluca I, Mazzarol G, Rubio A, et al. The Numb/p53 circuitry couples replicative self-renewal and tumor suppression in mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:845-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This is because of low p53 levels and can be inhibited by restoration of Numb levels or p53 activity, which results in successful SC-targeted treatment. ..
  34. Liu Y, Du J, Zhang J, Weng M, Li X, Pu D, et al. Snail1 is involved in de novo cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction in mice. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2012;44:902-10 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unclear whether Snail1, an important regulator of EMT, is involved in cardiac fibrosis...
  35. Jin J, Ding J. Cripto is required for mesoderm and endoderm cell allocation during mouse gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2013;381:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for Cripto during mouse gastrulation, especially in mesoderm and endoderm formation and allocation. ..
  36. Luo D, Wang J, Li J, Post M. Mouse snail is a target gene for HIF. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:234-45 pubmed publisher
    The transcriptional inhibitor Snail is a critical regulator for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
  37. Liu Y, Lu X, Xiang F, Lu M, Feng Q. Nitric oxide synthase-3 promotes embryonic development of atrioventricular valves. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77611 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes were all rescued by cardiac specific NOS3 overexpression. To assess EndMT, immunostaining of Snail1 was performed in the embryonic heart...
  38. Sato T, Kawamura Y, Asai R, Amano T, Uchijima Y, Dettlaff Swiercz D, et al. Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange reveals the selective use of Gq/G11-dependent and -independent endothelin 1/endothelin type A receptor signaling in pharyngeal arch development. Development. 2008;135:755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This RMCE-mediated knock-in system can serve as a useful tool for studies on gene functions in craniofacial development. ..
  39. Williams D, Shifley E, Braunreiter K, Cole S. Disruption of somitogenesis by a novel dominant allele of Lfng suggests important roles for protein processing and secretion. Development. 2016;143:822-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrasting phenotypes in the segmentation clock and somite patterning of mutant mice suggest that LFNG protein may have context-dependent effects on Notch activity. ..
  40. Coles E, Gammill L, Miner J, Bronner Fraser M. Abnormalities in neural crest cell migration in laminin alpha5 mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2006;289:218-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is required for proper migration and timely differentiation of some neural crest populations. ..
  41. Harikrishnan K, Cooley M, Sugi Y, Barth J, Rasmussen L, Kern C, et al. Fibulin-1 suppresses endothelial to mesenchymal transition in the proximal outflow tract. Mech Dev. 2015;136:123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and increased Snail1-positive nuclei (27% increase; p = 0.0003)...
  42. Chalamalasetty R, Garriock R, Dunty W, Kennedy M, Jailwala P, Si H, et al. Mesogenin 1 is a master regulator of paraxial presomitic mesoderm differentiation. Development. 2014;141:4285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide new insights into how cell fate decisions are imposed by the expression of a single transcriptional regulator. ..
  43. Prunotto M, Chaykovska L, Bongiovanni M, Frattini M, Cagarelli T, Weibel F, et al. Tubular Cytoplasmic Expression of Zinc Finger Protein SNAI1 in Renal Transplant Biopsies: A Sign of Diseased Epithelial Phenotype?. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:55-69 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to analyze in vivo the role of zinc finger protein SNAI1 (SNAI1) on renal fibrosis. Unilateral ureteral obstruction injury was induced in Snai1 knockout mice...
  44. Muraoka N, Yamakawa H, Miyamoto K, Sadahiro T, Umei T, Isomi M, et al. MiR-133 promotes cardiac reprogramming by directly repressing Snai1 and silencing fibroblast signatures. EMBO J. 2014;33:1565-81 pubmed publisher
    ..or GMT plus Mesp1 and Myocd improved cardiac reprogramming from mouse or human fibroblasts by directly repressing Snai1, a master regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
  45. Zhang J, Zhang H, Liu J, Tu X, Zang Y, Zhu J, et al. miR-30 inhibits TGF-?1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in hepatocyte by targeting Snail1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Snail1 is a well-known E-cadherin-transcriptional repressor that is significantly upregulated during the TGF-?1-induced ..
  46. Naber H, Drabsch Y, Snaar Jagalska B, Ten Dijke P, van Laar T. Snail and Slug, key regulators of TGF-?-induced EMT, are sufficient for the induction of single-cell invasion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via induction of transcriptional repressors, including Slug and Snail. In this study, we investigated the role of Snail and Slug in TGF-?-induced invasion in an in vitro invasion assay ..
  47. Perdigão Henriques R, Petrocca F, Altschuler G, Thomas M, Le M, Tan S, et al. miR-200 promotes the mesenchymal to epithelial transition by suppressing multiple members of the Zeb2 and Snail1 transcriptional repressor complexes. Oncogene. 2016;35:158-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of miR-200c (Crtap, Fhod1, Smad2, Map3k1, Tob1, Ywhag/14-3-3γ, Ywhab/14-3-3β, Smad5, Zfp36, Xbp1, Mapk12, Snail1) were experimentally validated by identifying their 3'UTR miR-200 recognition elements...
  48. Takahashi E, Funato N, Higashihori N, Hata Y, Gridley T, Nakamura M. Snail regulates p21(WAF/CIP1) expression in cooperation with E2A and Twist. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:1136-44 pubmed
    b>Snail, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, is essential for mesoderm and neural crest cell formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
  49. Unternaehrer J, Zhao R, Kim K, Cesana M, Powers J, Ratanasirintrawoot S, et al. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor SNAIL paradoxically enhances reprogramming. Stem Cell Reports. 2014;3:691-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown (KD) of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factor SNAI1 (SNAIL) paradoxically reduced, while overexpression enhanced, reprogramming efficiency in human cells and in mouse ..
  50. Smith S, Metcalfe J, Elgar G. Identification and analysis of two snail genes in the pufferfish (Fugu rubripes) and mapping of human SNA to 20q. Gene. 2000;247:119-28 pubmed
    All members of the snail gene family are zinc-finger transcription factors expressed early in embryonic development and are involved in the formation of tissues such as mesoderm and presumptive neural crest...
  51. Sato F, Sato H, Jin D, Bhawal U, Wu Y, Noshiro M, et al. Smad3 and Snail show circadian expression in human gingival fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stem cell, and in mouse liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Snail plays important roles in mesoderm formation, gastrulation, neural crest development, and epithelial mesenchymal ..
  52. Cicchini C, Filippini D, Coen S, Marchetti A, Cavallari C, Laudadio I, et al. Snail controls differentiation of hepatocytes by repressing HNF4alpha expression. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:230-8 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional repressors of the Snail family induce EMT in different epithelial cell lines and their expression is strictly correlated with EMT during ..
  53. Guo C, Meng X, Bai J, Chen C, Liu T, Liu S, et al. Expression and localization of transcription factors SNAIL and SLUG in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:585-95 pubmed publisher
    b>SNAIL and SLUG are zinc-finger transcription factors that participate in the regulation of cell division, cell survival, mesoderm formation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
  54. Lints T, Hartley L, Parsons L, Harvey R. Mesoderm-specific expression of the divergent homeobox gene Hlx during murine embryogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1996;205:457-70 pubmed
  55. Arnold S, Hofmann U, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Pivotal roles for eomesodermin during axis formation, epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition and endoderm specification in the mouse. Development. 2008;135:501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Eomes-deficient embryos express both Fgf8 and its downstream target Snail at normal levels but surprisingly fail to downregulate E-cadherin...
  56. Rice R, Thesleff I, Rice D. Regulation of Twist, Snail, and Id1 is conserved between the developing murine palate and tooth. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:28-35 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that transcription factors Twist and Snail are downstream targets of FGF signalling, that Id1 and Msx2 are downstream targets of BMP signalling, and that ..
  57. Arora H, Boulberdaa M, Qureshi R, Bitirim V, Gasser A, Messaddeq N, et al. Prokineticin receptor-1 signaling promotes Epicardial to Mesenchymal Transition during heart development. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25541 pubmed publisher
    ..Our mice provide genetic models for congenital dysfunction of the heart and should facilitate studies of both pathogenesis and therapy of cardiac disorders in humans. ..
  58. Ray H, Niswander L. Grainyhead-like 2 downstream targets act to suppress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during neural tube closure. Development. 2016;143:1192-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GRHL2 promotes the epithelial nature of the NNE during the dynamic events of neural tube formation by both activating key epithelial genes and actively suppressing EMT through novel downstream EMT suppressors. ..
  59. Gresset A, Coulpier F, Gerschenfeld G, Jourdon A, Matesic G, Richard L, et al. Boundary Caps Give Rise to Neurogenic Stem Cells and Terminal Glia in the Skin. Stem Cell Reports. 2015;5:278-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides genetic tools to study and manipulate this population of high interest for medical applications. ..
  60. Gao Z, Kim G, MacKinnon A, Flagg A, Bassett B, Earley J, et al. Ets1 is required for proper migration and differentiation of the cardiac neural crest. Development. 2010;137:1543-51 pubmed publisher
  61. Flagg A, Earley J, Svensson E. FOG-2 attenuates endothelial-to-mesenchymal transformation in the endocardial cushions of the developing heart. Dev Biol. 2007;304:308-16 pubmed
    ..Taken together with GATA4's known role in promoting EMT, these results suggest that FOG-2 functions in cardiac valve formation as an attenuator of EMT by repressing GATA4 activity within the developing endocardial cushions. ..
  62. Aghajanian H, Cho Y, Rizer N, Wang Q, Li L, Degenhardt K, et al. Pdgfr? functions in endothelial-derived cells to regulate neural crest cells and the development of the great arteries. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:1101-1108 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that loss of Pdgfra in endothelial-derived mesenchyme in the outflow tract endocardial cushions leads to a secondary defect in neural crest migration during development. ..
  63. Cichon M, Radisky D. ROS-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells is mediated by NF-kB-dependent activation of Snail. Oncotarget. 2014;5:2827-38 pubmed
    ..In cultured cells, we found that Snail, an ROS-dependent key mediator of MMP-3-induced changes, is regulated by NF-?B in response to MMP-3...
  64. Collado M, Thiede B, Baker W, Askew C, Igbani L, Corwin J. The postnatal accumulation of junctional E-cadherin is inversely correlated with the capacity for supporting cells to convert directly into sensory hair cells in mammalian balance organs. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11855-66 pubmed publisher
  65. Kanarek N, Horwitz E, Mayan I, Leshets M, Cojocaru G, Davis M, et al. Spermatogenesis rescue in a mouse deficient for the ubiquitin ligase SCF{beta}-TrCP by single substrate depletion. Genes Dev. 2010;24:470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, testicular depletion of a single beta-TrCP substrate, Snail1, rescued the adhesion defect and restored spermatogenesis...
  66. Alba Castellón L, Olivera Salguero R, Mestre Farrera A, Peña R, Herrera M, Bonilla F, et al. Snail1-Dependent Activation of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Controls Epithelial Tumor Cell Invasion and Metastasis. Cancer Res. 2016;76:6205-6217 pubmed
    b>Snail1 transcriptional factor is essential for triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inducing tumor cell invasion...
  67. Ohta S, Suzuki K, Tachibana K, Tanaka H, Yamada G. Cessation of gastrulation is mediated by suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition at the ventral ectodermal ridge. Development. 2007;134:4315-24 pubmed
    ..These indicate that the inhibition of Bmp signaling by temporal and/or spatial Nog expression suppresses EMT and leads to the cessation of the ingressive cell movement from the VER at the end of gastrulation. ..
  68. Diman N, Brooks G, Kruithof B, Elemento O, Seidman J, Seidman C, et al. Tbx5 is required for avian and Mammalian epicardial formation and coronary vasculogenesis. Circ Res. 2014;115:834-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a conserved Tbx5 dose-dependent requirement for both proepicardial and epicardial progenitor cell development in chick and in mouse coronary vascular formation. ..
  69. Gouzi M, Kim Y, Katsumoto K, Johansson K, Grapin Botton A. Neurogenin3 initiates stepwise delamination of differentiating endocrine cells during pancreas development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:589-604 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that Ngn3 indirectly controls Snail2 protein expression post-transcriptionally to repress E-cadherin. In the chick embryo, Ngn3 independently controls epithelium delamination and differentiation programs. ..
  70. Gill J, Langer E, Lindsley R, Cai M, Murphy T, Murphy K. Snail promotes the cell-autonomous generation of Flk1(+) endothelial cells through the repression of the microRNA-200 family. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:167-76 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the transcription factor Snail is required for normal vasculogenesis in the developing mouse embryo...
  71. Schönrath K, Klein Szanto A, Braunewell K. The putative tumor suppressor VILIP-1 counteracts epidermal growth factor-induced epidermal-mesenchymal transition in squamous carcinoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33116 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that in VILIP-1-negative SCCs, Snail1, a transcriptional repressor involved in EMT, is up-regulated...
  72. Jin J, Tan M, Warner D, Darling D, Higashi Y, Gridley T, et al. Mesenchymal cell remodeling during mouse secondary palate reorientation. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because palate elevation represents a classic example of embryonic tissue re-orientation, our findings here may also shed light on the process of tissue re-orientation in general. ..
  73. Newton K, Dugger D, Wickliffe K, Kapoor N, de Almagro M, Vucic D, et al. Activity of protein kinase RIPK3 determines whether cells die by necroptosis or apoptosis. Science. 2014;343:1357-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the kinase activity of RIPK3 is essential for necroptosis but also governs whether a cell activates caspase-8 and dies by apoptosis. ..