Gene Symbol: Smpx
Description: small muscle protein, X-linked
Alias: 1010001C09Rik, Csl, small muscular protein, cardiac and skeletal muscle protein, chisel protein, stretch-responsive skeletal muscle protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Smpx

Top Publications

  1. Patzak D, Zhuchenko O, Lee C, Wehnert M. Identification, mapping, and genomic structure of a novel X-chromosomal human gene (SMPX) encoding a small muscular protein. Hum Genet. 1999;105:506-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, a novel human gene encoding a small muscular protein that maps to Xp22...
  2. Schindeler A, Lavulo L, Harvey R. Muscle costameric protein, Chisel/Smpx, associates with focal adhesion complexes and modulates cell spreading in vitro via a Rac1/p38 pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2005;307:367-80 pubmed
    The murine X-linked gene Chisel (Csl/Smpx) encodes a 9-kDa protein that associates in heart and skeletal muscle cells with the costameric cytoskeleton, implicated in maintaining muscle integrity and responses to biomechanical stress...
  3. Kemp T, Sadusky T, Simon M, Brown R, Eastwood M, Sassoon D, et al. Identification of a novel stretch-responsive skeletal muscle gene (Smpx). Genomics. 2001;72:260-71 pubmed
    ..This gene has been called "small muscle protein (X chromosome)" (Smpx; HGMW-approved human gene symbol SMPX) and we hypothesize that it plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
  4. Christoffels V, Habets P, Franco D, Campione M, de Jong F, Lamers W, et al. Chamber formation and morphogenesis in the developing mammalian heart. Dev Biol. 2000;223:266-78 pubmed
  5. Palmer S, Groves N, Schindeler A, Yeoh T, Biben C, Wang C, et al. The small muscle-specific protein Csl modifies cell shape and promotes myocyte fusion in an insulin-like growth factor 1-dependent manner. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:985-98 pubmed
    We have isolated a murine cDNA encoding a 9-kD protein, Chisel (Csl), in a screen for transcriptional targets of the cardiac homeodomain factor Nkx2-5...
  6. Ma L, Lu M, Schwartz R, Martin J. Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning. Development. 2005;132:5601-11 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Bmp2 has a crucial role in coordinating multiple aspects of AV canal morphogenesis. ..
  7. Eftestøl E, Alver T, Gundersen K, Bruusgaard J. Overexpression of SMPX in adult skeletal muscle does not change skeletal muscle fiber type or size. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99232 pubmed publisher
    ..Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX) is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a ..
  8. Chen J, Zhou B, Yu Q, Shin S, Jiao K, Schneider M, et al. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor results in hyperplasia of the embryonic left ventricle and abnormalities of sinuatrial valves. Circ Res. 2006;98:923-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, the results suggest that CAR-mediated intercellular contacts may regulate proliferation and differentiation of cardiomyocytes within the embryonic left ventricular wall. ..
  9. Yoon H, Lee D, Kim M, Bok J. Identification of genes concordantly expressed with Atoh1 during inner ear development. Anat Cell Biol. 2011;44:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..identified many other genes that have not been associated with hair cell differentiation, including Tekt2, Spag6, Smpx, Lmod1, Myh7b, Kif9, Ttyh1, Scn11a and Cnga2...

More Information


  1. Wu L, Sagong B, Choi J, Kim U, Bok J. A systematic survey of carbonic anhydrase mRNA expression during mammalian inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal and spatial expression patterns of each CA isozyme suggest unique and differential roles in inner ear development and function. ..
  2. Harrelson Z, Kelly R, Goldin S, Gibson Brown J, Bollag R, Silver L, et al. Tbx2 is essential for patterning the atrioventricular canal and for morphogenesis of the outflow tract during heart development. Development. 2004;131:5041-52 pubmed
  3. Risebro C, Smart N, Dupays L, Breckenridge R, Mohun T, Riley P. Hand1 regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation versus differentiation in the developing heart. Development. 2006;133:4595-606 pubmed
  4. Lee S, Shin J, Sagong B, Kim U, Bok J. Spatiotemporal expression patterns of clusterin in the mouse inner ear. Cell Tissue Res. 2017;370:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These specific spatiotemporal expression patterns suggest the possible roles of CLU in inner ear development and in maintaining proper hearing function. ..
  5. Cai C, Zhou W, Yang L, Bu L, Qyang Y, Zhang X, et al. T-box genes coordinate regional rates of proliferation and regional specification during cardiogenesis. Development. 2005;132:2475-87 pubmed
  6. Togi K, Kawamoto T, Yamauchi R, Yoshida Y, Kita T, Tanaka M. Role of Hand1/eHAND in the dorso-ventral patterning and interventricular septum formation in the embryonic heart. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4627-35 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Hand1/eHAND is not a master regulatory gene that specifies the left ventricle myocyte lineage but may control the dorso-ventral patterning in concert with additional genes. ..
  7. Song L, Yan W, Chen X, Deng C, Wang Q, Jiao K. Myocardial smad4 is essential for cardiogenesis in mouse embryos. Circ Res. 2007;101:277-85 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study provides the first mouse model showing that Smad4 plays essential roles during cardiogenesis. ..
  8. Christoffels V, Hoogaars W, Tessari A, Clout D, Moorman A, Campione M. T-box transcription factor Tbx2 represses differentiation and formation of the cardiac chambers. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:763-70 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence that Tbx2 is a determinant in the local repression of chamber-specific gene expression and chamber differentiation. ..
  9. Von Both I, Silvestri C, Erdemir T, Lickert H, Walls J, Henkelman R, et al. Foxh1 is essential for development of the anterior heart field. Dev Cell. 2004;7:331-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, Foxh1 and Nkx2-5 functionally interact and are essential for development of the AHF and its derivatives, the RV and OFT, in response to TGFbeta-like signals. ..
  10. Kokubo H, Tomita Miyagawa S, Hamada Y, Saga Y. Hesr1 and Hesr2 regulate atrioventricular boundary formation in the developing heart through the repression of Tbx2. Development. 2007;134:747-55 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we find that the expression of Hesr1 and Hesr2 is independent of Notch2 signaling. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Hesr1 and Hesr2 play crucial roles in AV boundary formation through the suppression of Tbx2. ..
  11. Mesbah K, Harrelson Z, Théveniau Ruissy M, Papaioannou V, Kelly R. Tbx3 is required for outflow tract development. Circ Res. 2008;103:743-50 pubmed publisher
  12. Lai D, Liu X, Forrai A, Wolstein O, Michalicek J, Ahmed I, et al. Neuregulin 1 sustains the gene regulatory network in both trabecular and nontrabecular myocardium. Circ Res. 2010;107:715-27 pubmed publisher
  13. Firulli B, McConville D, Byers J, Vincentz J, Barnes R, Firulli A. Analysis of a Hand1 hypomorphic allele reveals a critical threshold for embryonic viability. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2748-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data define a critical threshold of Hand1 expression that is necessary for embryonic survival. ..
  14. Chen H, Shi S, Acosta L, Li W, Lu J, Bao S, et al. BMP10 is essential for maintaining cardiac growth during murine cardiogenesis. Development. 2004;131:2219-31 pubmed
    ..This may provide an underlying mechanism for understanding the pathogenesis of both structural and functional congenital heart defects. ..