Gene Symbol: Smad9
Description: SMAD family member 9
Alias: MADH6, Madh8, Madh9, Smad8, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 9, MAD homolog 9, mothers against DPP homolog 9
Species: mouse
Products:     Smad9

Top Publications

  1. Liu W, Selever J, Murali D, Sun X, Brugger S, Ma L, et al. Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development. Dev Biol. 2005;283:282-93 pubmed
    ..Lastly, we provide evidence that Prx homeobox genes repress expression of an Msx2 transgene, previously shown to be Bmp4-responsive, revealing a mechanism for differential regulation of Msx1 and Msx2 by Bmp signaling. ..
  2. Ohta S, Suzuki K, Tachibana K, Tanaka H, Yamada G. Cessation of gastrulation is mediated by suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition at the ventral ectodermal ridge. Development. 2007;134:4315-24 pubmed
    ..These indicate that the inhibition of Bmp signaling by temporal and/or spatial Nog expression suppresses EMT and leads to the cessation of the ingressive cell movement from the VER at the end of gastrulation. ..
  3. Parikh P, Hao Y, Hosseinkhani M, Patil S, Huntley G, Tessier Lavigne M, et al. Regeneration of axons in injured spinal cord by activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad1 signaling pathway in adult neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results identify a therapeutic target to promote axonal regeneration after SCI. ..
  4. Blank U, Brown A, Adams D, Karolak M, Oxburgh L. BMP7 promotes proliferation of nephron progenitor cells via a JNK-dependent mechanism. Development. 2009;136:3557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of Jun and ATF2 is severely diminished in Bmp7-null kidneys, providing an important in vivo correlate. BMP7 thus promotes proliferation directly in nephron progenitors by activating the JNK signaling circuitry. ..
  5. Ohazama A, Johnson E, Ota M, Choi H, Choi H, Porntaveetus T, et al. Lrp4 modulates extracellular integration of cell signaling pathways in development. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4092 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus in this context Wise acts as an extracellular signaling molecule linking two signaling pathways. We further show that a downstream mediator of this integration is the Shh signaling pathway. ..
  6. Michos O, Gonçalves A, Lopez Rios J, Tiecke E, Naillat F, Beier K, et al. Reduction of BMP4 activity by gremlin 1 enables ureteric bud outgrowth and GDNF/WNT11 feedback signalling during kidney branching morphogenesis. Development. 2007;134:2397-405 pubmed
  7. Li L, Lin M, Wang Y, Cserjesi P, Chen Z, Chen Y. BmprIa is required in mesenchymal tissue and has limited redundant function with BmprIb in tooth and palate development. Dev Biol. 2011;349:451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an essential role for BmprIa in the mesenchymal component and a limited functional redundancy between BmprIa and BmprIb in a tissue-specific manner during tooth and palate development...
  8. He F, Xiong W, Wang Y, Matsui M, Yu X, Chai Y, et al. Modulation of BMP signaling by Noggin is required for the maintenance of palatal epithelial integrity during palatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;347:109-21 pubmed publisher
  9. Yoon B, Pogue R, Ovchinnikov D, Yoshii I, Mishina Y, Behringer R, et al. BMPs regulate multiple aspects of growth-plate chondrogenesis through opposing actions on FGF pathways. Development. 2006;133:4667-78 pubmed
    ..These results provide a genetic in vivo demonstration that the progression of chondrocytes through the growth plate is controlled by antagonistic BMP and FGF signaling pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Karner C, Dietrich M, Johnson E, Kappesser N, Tennert C, Percin F, et al. Lrp4 regulates initiation of ureteric budding and is crucial for kidney formation--a mouse model for Cenani-Lenz syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10418 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Lrp4 is a critical regulator of UB branching and lack of Lrp4 results in congenital kidney malformations in humans and mice. ..
  2. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sun J, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract. Dev Biol. 2007;308:421-37 pubmed
  3. Binato R, Alvarez Martinez C, Pizzatti L, Robert B, Abdelhay E. SMAD 8 binding to mice Msx1 basal promoter is required for transcriptional activation. Biochem J. 2006;393:141-50 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that BMP2/BMP4 signalling through SMAD 8 is required for transcriptional activation of the mouse Msx1 gene. ..
  4. Ikeya M, Fukushima K, Kawada M, Onishi S, Furuta Y, Yonemura S, et al. Cv2, functioning as a pro-BMP factor via twisted gastrulation, is required for early development of nephron precursors. Dev Biol. 2010;337:405-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings revealed the molecular hierarchy between extracellular modifiers that orchestrate local BMP signal peaks in the organogenetic microenvironment. ..
  5. Arnold S, Maretto S, Islam A, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Dose-dependent Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8 signaling in the early mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2006;296:104-18 pubmed
    Three closely related mammalian R-Smads, namely Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8, are activated by BMP receptors. Here we have taken a genetic approach to further dissect their possibly unique and/or shared roles during early mouse development...
  6. Hwang J, Mehrani T, Millar S, Morasso M. Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling. Development. 2008;135:3149-59 pubmed publisher
  7. Ma L, Lu M, Schwartz R, Martin J. Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning. Development. 2005;132:5601-11 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Bmp2 has a crucial role in coordinating multiple aspects of AV canal morphogenesis. ..
  8. Yoon B, Ovchinnikov D, Yoshii I, Mishina Y, Behringer R, Lyons K. Bmpr1a and Bmpr1b have overlapping functions and are essential for chondrogenesis in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5062-7 pubmed
    ..In summary, our study demonstrates that BMPR1A and BMPR1B are functionally redundant during early chondrogenesis and that BMP signaling is required for chondrocyte proliferation, survival, and differentiation in vivo. ..
  9. Eivers E, Demagny H, De Robertis E. Integration of BMP and Wnt signaling via vertebrate Smad1/5/8 and Drosophila Mad. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2009;20:357-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize here the significance of linker-phosphorylated Smad1/Mad in relation to signal intensity and duration, and how this integrates the Wnt and BMP pathways during cell differentiation. ..
  10. Murashima Suginami A, Takahashi K, Sakata T, Tsukamoto H, Sugai M, Yanagita M, et al. Enhanced BMP signaling results in supernumerary tooth formation in USAG-1 deficient mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1012-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Based upon these results, we conclude that enhanced BMP signaling results in supernumerary teeth and BMP signaling was modulated by Wnt signaling in the USAG-1 deficient mouse model. ..
  11. Tremblay K, Dunn N, Robertson E. Mouse embryos lacking Smad1 signals display defects in extra-embryonic tissues and germ cell formation. Development. 2001;128:3609-21 pubmed
    ..An examination of the expression domains of Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8 in early mouse embryos show that, while Smad1 is uniquely expressed in the visceral endoderm at 6...
  12. Blitz E, Viukov S, Sharir A, Shwartz Y, Galloway J, Pryce B, et al. Bone ridge patterning during musculoskeletal assembly is mediated through SCX regulation of Bmp4 at the tendon-skeleton junction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:861-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes a mechanistic basis for tendon-skeleton regulatory interactions during musculoskeletal assembly and bone secondary patterning. ..
  13. Xu K, Wu X, Shapiro E, Huang H, Zhang L, Hickling D, et al. Bmp7 functions via a polarity mechanism to promote cloacal septation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29372 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study points to the importance of Bmp and JNK signaling in cloacal development and rectourethral malformations. ..
  14. Spoelgen R, Hammes A, Anzenberger U, Zechner D, Andersen O, Jerchow B, et al. LRP2/megalin is required for patterning of the ventral telencephalon. Development. 2005;132:405-14 pubmed
    ..Because megalin mediates endocytic uptake and degradation of BMP4, these findings indicate a role for megalin in neural tube specification, possibly by acting as BMP4 clearance receptor in the neuroepithelium. ..
  15. Bleul C, Boehm T. BMP signaling is required for normal thymus development. J Immunol. 2005;175:5213-21 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that BMP signaling is crucial for thymus development and that it is the thymic stroma rather than developing thymocytes that depends on BMP signals. ..
  16. Kusano R, Fujita K, Shinoda Y, Nagaura Y, Kiyonari H, Abe T, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse protein phosphatase ppm1l gene leads to structural abnormalities in the brain. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:3606-3615 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses suggest that these abnormalities are due to impaired axonal tract formation. Our novel findings suggest an important role for PPM1L in brain development. ..
  17. de Sousa Lopes S, Roelen B, Monteiro R, Emmens R, Lin H, Li E, et al. BMP signaling mediated by ALK2 in the visceral endoderm is necessary for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1838-49 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which direct signaling to proximal epiblast is supplemented by an obligatory indirect BMP-dependent signal via the VE. ..
  18. Caronia Brown G, Anderegg A, Awatramani R. Expression and functional analysis of the Wnt/beta-catenin induced mir-135a-2 locus in embryonic forebrain development. Neural Dev. 2016;11:9 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our data suggests the existence of a Wnt/miR-135a auto-regulatory loop, which could serve to limit the extent, the duration and/or intensity of the Wnt and, possibly, the TGF?/BMP pathways. ..
  19. Ray A, Singh P, Sohaskey M, Harland R, Bandyopadhyay A. Precise spatial restriction of BMP signaling is essential for articular cartilage differentiation. Development. 2015;142:1169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Through experiments conducted in both chick and mouse embryos we have developed a model explaining simultaneous growth and differentiation of transient and articular cartilage in juxtaposed domains. ..
  20. Blackburn J, Ohazama A, Kawasaki K, Otsuka Tanaka Y, Liu B, Honda K, et al. The role of Irf6 in tooth epithelial invagination. Dev Biol. 2012;365:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Irf6 thus also plays a critical role in regulating epithelial invagination. In addition, we also found that canonical Wnt signaling is upregulated in evaginated incisor epithelium of both Ikk? and Irf6 mutant embryos. ..
  21. Ishibashi O, Ikegame M, Takizawa F, Yoshizawa T, Moksed M, Iizawa F, et al. Endoglin is involved in BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells through a pathway independent of Smad-1/5/8 phosphorylation. J Cell Physiol. 2010;222:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, taken together, raise a possibility that PDL cells respond to BMP-2 via a unique signaling pathway dependent on endoglin, which is involved in the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of the cells. ..
  22. Han J, Ishii M, Bringas P, Maas R, Maxson R, Chai Y. Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech Dev. 2007;124:729-45 pubmed
    ..This early function of the Msx genes is likely independent of the Bmp signaling pathway...
  23. Wang B, Sinha T, Jiao K, Serra R, Wang J. Disruption of PCP signaling causes limb morphogenesis and skeletal defects and may underlie Robinow syndrome and brachydactyly type B. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:271-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide novel insight into the signaling mechanisms of Wnt5a/Ror2 and the pathogenesis in BDB1 and RRS...
  24. Higashi K, Matsuzaki E, Hashimoto Y, Takahashi Yanaga F, Takano A, Anan H, et al. Sphingosine-1-phosphate/S1PR2-mediated signaling triggers Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and thereby induces Runx2 expression in osteoblasts. Bone. 2016;93:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings describe novel molecular mechanisms in S1P/S1PR2-mediated osteoblast differentiation that could aid future studies of bone regeneration. ..
  25. Itman C, Loveland K. SMAD expression in the testis: an insight into BMP regulation of spermatogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:97-111 pubmed
    ..Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, Smad4, Smad6, and Smad7 expression is ubiquitous during testis development but becomes cell-specific in the adult...
  26. Liou S, Hsu J, Chu H, Lin H, Chen I, Yeh J. KMUP-1 Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation Through cAMP and cGMP Pathways and Signaling of BMP-2/Smad1/5/8 and Wnt/β-Catenin. J Cell Physiol. 2015;230:2038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are mediated, in part, by the cAMP and cGMP signaling. Thus, KMUP-1 may be a novel osteoblast activator and a potential new therapy for osteoporosis. ..
  27. Smart N, Apelqvist A, Gu X, Harmon E, Topper J, Macdonald R, et al. Conditional expression of Smad7 in pancreatic beta cells disrupts TGF-beta signaling and induces reversible diabetes mellitus. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e39 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies reveal that TGF-beta signaling is crucial for establishing and maintaining defining features of mature pancreatic beta cells. ..
  28. Miletich I, Yu W, Zhang R, Yang K, Caixeta de Andrade S, Pereira S, et al. Developmental stalling and organ-autonomous regulation of morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19270-5 pubmed publisher
  29. Orvis G, Jamin S, Kwan K, Mishina Y, Kaartinen V, Huang S, et al. Functional redundancy of TGF-beta family type I receptors and receptor-Smads in mediating anti-Mullerian hormone-induced Mullerian duct regression in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:994-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..that two TGF-beta type I receptors (Acvr1 and Bmpr1a) and all three BMP receptor-Smads (Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8) function redundantly in transducing the anti-Müllerian hormone signal required for Müllerian duct regression...
  30. Mohri Y, Kato S, Umezawa A, Okuyama R, Nishimori K. Impaired hair placode formation with reduced expression of hair follicle-related genes in mice lacking Lgr4. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We suspected that Lgr4 might be a novel gene class regulating the development of hair follicles. ..
  31. Mundy C, Yasuda T, Kinumatsu T, Yamaguchi Y, Iwamoto M, Enomoto Iwamoto M, et al. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine. Dev Biol. 2011;351:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. ..
  32. Morikawa Y, Komori T, Hisaoka T, Senba E. Detailed expression pattern of Foxp1 and its possible roles in neurons of the spinal cord during embryogenesis. Dev Neurosci. 2009;31:511-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Foxp1 may play some important roles in the determination of neuronal fates of the ventral spinal cord, possibly through the suppression of Lhx3 expression. ..
  33. Zhang J, Chang J, Huang Y, Lin X, Luo Y, Schwartz R, et al. The FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates outflow tract valve primordium formation by promoting cushion neural crest cell differentiation. Circ Res. 2010;107:1209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates formation of OFT valve primordia by controlling smooth muscle differentiation of cushion NCCs. ..
  34. Wong Y, Behringer R, Kwan K. Smad1/Smad5 signaling in limb ectoderm functions redundantly and is required for interdigital programmed cell death. Dev Biol. 2012;363:247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our mutants with defects in interdigital PCD could also serve as a valuable model for investigation of PCD regulation machinery...
  35. Caubit X, Lye C, Martin E, Coré N, Long D, Vola C, et al. Teashirt 3 is necessary for ureteral smooth muscle differentiation downstream of SHH and BMP4. Development. 2008;135:3301-10 pubmed publisher
  36. Moya I, Umans L, Maas E, Pereira P, Beets K, Francis A, et al. Stalk cell phenotype depends on integration of Notch and Smad1/5 signaling cascades. Dev Cell. 2012;22:501-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide in vivo evidence for a regulatory loop between BMP/TGFβ-Smad1/5 and Notch signaling that orchestrates tip- versus stalk-cell selection and vessel plasticity. ..
  37. Lee D, Lee D, Zhou L, Zhou L, Zhou Z, Xie J, et al. Neogenin inhibits HJV secretion and regulates BMP-induced hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. Blood. 2010;115:3136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism underlying neogenin regulation of HJV-BMP signaling...
  38. Yang G, Yuan G, Ye W, Cho K, Chen Y. An atypical canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) expression during odontogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31492-502 pubmed publisher
  39. Dudas M, Nagy A, Laping N, Moustakas A, Kaartinen V. Tgf-beta3-induced palatal fusion is mediated by Alk-5/Smad pathway. Dev Biol. 2004;266:96-108 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we conclude that the Smad2-dependent Alk-5 signaling pathway is dominant in palatal fusion driven by Tgf-beta3. ..
  40. Shah T, Zhu Y, Shaikh N, Harris M, Harris S, Rogers M. Characterization of new bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)-2 regulatory alleles. Genesis. 2017;55: pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of the UCS was associated with elevated Bmp2 mRNA and BMP signaling levels, reduced fitness, and embryonic malformations. ..
  41. Du Y, Xiao Q, Yip H. Regulation of retinal progenitor cell differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein 4 is mediated by the smad/id cascade. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest that Id genes are one of the potential targets of BMP signaling in the differentiation of RPCs. ..
  42. Lopez Coviella I, Mellott T, Kovacheva V, Berse B, Slack B, Zemelko V, et al. Developmental pattern of expression of BMP receptors and Smads and activation of Smad1 and Smad5 by BMP9 in mouse basal forebrain. Brain Res. 2006;1088:49-56 pubmed
    ..Actr-Ib, Actr-II and Actr-IIb, Alk-1, and Smad proteins (Smads 1-5 and Smad8) in the septal region of the basal forebrain during mouse development...
  43. Pitera J, Scambler P, Woolf A. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3953-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli. ..
  44. Sears K, Behringer R, Rasweiler J, Niswander L. Development of bat flight: morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6581-6 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the developmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism in their evolutionary elongation as well. ..
  45. Yang J, Zeini M, Lin C, Lin C, Xiong Y, Shang C, et al. Epicardial calcineurin-NFAT signals through Smad2 to direct coronary smooth muscle cell and arterial wall development. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;101:120-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Ting M, Wu N, Roybal P, Sun J, Liu L, Yen Y, et al. EphA4 as an effector of Twist1 in the guidance of osteogenic precursor cells during calvarial bone growth and in craniosynostosis. Development. 2009;136:855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the failure of this process in Twist1 and EphA4 mutants is the cause of craniosynostosis. ..
  47. Hayata T, Ezura Y, Yoichi E, Asashima M, Nishinakamura R, Noda M. Dullard/Ctdnep1 regulates endochondral ossification via suppression of TGF-β signaling. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, perinatal administration of LY-364947 ameliorated the sternum deformity in vivo. Thus, we identified Dullard as a new negative regulator of TGF-β signaling in endochondral ossification. ..
  48. Lin C, Lin C, Chen C, Chen R, Zhou B, Chang C. The secondary heart field is a new site of calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling for semilunar valve development. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52:1096-102 pubmed publisher
  49. Yuan G, Zhan Y, Gou X, Chen Y, Yang G. TGF-β signaling inhibits canonical BMP signaling pathway during palate development. Cell Tissue Res. 2018;371:283-291 pubmed publisher
    ..Canonical TGF-β signaling suppresses canonical BMP signaling activity in the posterior palate by competing limited Smad4. ..
  50. Huang X, Litingtung Y, Chiang C. Ectopic sonic hedgehog signaling impairs telencephalic dorsal midline development: implication for human holoprosencephaly. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1454-68 pubmed
    ..We propose that elevated ectopic Shh signaling can impair dorsal telencephalic midline morphogenesis, and lead to non-cleavage of midline structures mimicking human HPE with dorsal midline defects. ..
  51. Nie X, Xu J, El Hashash A, Xu P. Six1 regulates Grem1 expression in the metanephric mesenchyme to initiate branching morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;352:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers an essential function for Six1 in the MM as an upstream regulator of Grem1 in initiating branching morphogenesis. ..
  52. Pangas S, Li X, Umans L, Zwijsen A, Huylebroeck D, Gutierrez C, et al. Conditional deletion of Smad1 and Smad5 in somatic cells of male and female gonads leads to metastatic tumor development in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:248-57 pubmed
    ..Single conditional knockouts for Smad1 or Smad5 or mice homozygous null for Smad8 are viable and fertile...
  53. Kawai S, Faucheu C, Gallea S, Spinella Jaegle S, Atfi A, Baron R, et al. Mouse smad8 phosphorylation downstream of BMP receptors ALK-2, ALK-3, and ALK-6 induces its association with Smad4 and transcriptional activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:682-7 pubmed
    ..Smad1 and Smad5 are activated by BMP receptors. Here, we have cloned mouse Smad8 and functionally characterized its ability to transduce signals from BMP receptors...
  54. Choe Y, Huynh T, Pleasure S. Migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is controlled by transforming growth factor β family proteins during corticogenesis. J Neurosci. 2014;34:14973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that mesenchymal Tgfβ family proteins promote migration of ventral OPCs into the cortex during corticogenesis. ..
  55. Estrada K, Wang W, Retting K, Chien C, Elkhoury F, Heuchel R, et al. Smad7 regulates terminal maturation of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Dev Biol. 2013;382:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Smad7 may be required to mediate cell stress responses in the growth plate during development. ..
  56. Kelly C, Thymiakou E, Dixon J, Tanaka S, Godwin J, Episkopou V. Rnf165/Ark2C enhances BMP-Smad signaling to mediate motor axon extension. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001538 pubmed publisher
    ..Together the above data reveal an involvement of BMP-Smad signaling in motor axon advancement. ..
  57. Han D, Zhao H, Parada C, Hacia J, Bringas P, Chai Y. A TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development. Development. 2012;139:1640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study demonstrates that a TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis...
  58. Sakaguchi M, Sharmin S, Taguchi A, Ohmori T, Fujimura S, Abe T, et al. The phosphatase Dullard negatively regulates BMP signalling and is essential for nephron maintenance after birth. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1398 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Dullard keeps BMP signalling at an appropriate level, which is required for nephron maintenance in the postnatal period. ..
  59. Moroishi T, Nishiyama M, Takeda Y, Iwai K, Nakayama K. The FBXL5-IRP2 axis is integral to control of iron metabolism in vivo. Cell Metab. 2011;14:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The liver-specific mutant mice died with acute liver failure when fed a high-iron diet. Thus, our results uncover a major role for FBXL5 in ensuring an appropriate supply of iron to cells. ..
  60. Yahiro K, Higashihori N, Moriyama K. Histone methyltransferase Setdb1 is indispensable for Meckel's cartilage development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:883-888 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, to our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that epigenetic regulation by Setdb1 is indispensable for the embryonic development of Meckel's cartilage. ..
  61. Papangeli I, Scambler P. Tbx1 genetically interacts with the transforming growth factor-?/bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Smad7 during great vessel remodeling. Circ Res. 2013;112:90-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Tbx1 acts upstream of Smad7 controlling vascular smooth muscle and extracellular matrix investment of the fourth arch artery. ..
  62. Zakin L, Chang E, Plouhinec J, De Robertis E. Crossveinless-2 is required for the relocalization of Chordin protein within the vertebral field in mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 2010;347:204-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The results may have general implications for the formation of embryonic organ-forming morphogenetic fields. ..
  63. Basilicata M, Frank M, Solter D, Brabletz T, Stemmler M. Inappropriate cadherin switching in the mouse epiblast compromises proper signaling between the epiblast and the extraembryonic ectoderm during gastrulation. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26562 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, for proper morphogenesis a fine-tuned spatio-temporal control of cadherin switching is required during EMT at gastrulation to avoid premature cell detachment and migration. ..
  64. McCulloch D, Nelson C, Dixon L, Silver D, Wylie J, Lindner V, et al. ADAMTS metalloproteases generate active versican fragments that regulate interdigital web regression. Dev Cell. 2009;17:687-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The data highlight the developmental significance of proteolytic action on the ECM, not only as a clearance mechanism, but also as a means to generate bioactive versican fragments. ..
  65. Pal R, Khanna A. Role of smad- and wnt-dependent pathways in embryonic cardiac development. Stem Cells Dev. 2006;15:29-39 pubmed
    ..5, and MEF-2C augments cardiac differentiation mediated by cooperative control of Smad and Wnt signaling pathways. Our results provide a solid foundation for further study of the biochemistry of cardiac differentiation from stem cells. ..
  66. Han J, Mayo J, Xu X, Li J, Bringas P, Maas R, et al. Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice. Development. 2009;136:4225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that modulation of Shh signaling may be useful as a potential therapeutic approach for rescuing cleft palate...
  67. Minoux M, Kratochwil C, Ducret S, Amin S, Kitazawa T, Kurihara H, et al. Mouse Hoxa2 mutations provide a model for microtia and auricle duplication. Development. 2013;140:4386-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hoxa2 loss- and gain-of-function approaches in mice provide a suitable model to investigate the molecular aetiology of microtia and auricle duplication. ..
  68. Hens J, Dann P, Zhang J, Harris S, Robinson G, Wysolmerski J. BMP4 and PTHrP interact to stimulate ductal outgrowth during embryonic mammary development and to inhibit hair follicle induction. Development. 2007;134:1221-30 pubmed
  69. Kiso H, Takahashi K, Saito K, Togo Y, Tsukamoto H, Huang B, et al. Interactions between BMP-7 and USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1) regulate supernumerary organ formations. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96938 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further suggest that the phenotypes of USAG-1 and BMP-7 mutant mice reported provide opportunities for regenerative medicine and dentistry. ..
  70. Mou C, Jackson B, Schneider P, Overbeek P, Headon D. Generation of the primary hair follicle pattern. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9075-80 pubmed
    ..This Edar-BMP activation-inhibition mechanism appears to operate alongside a labile prepattern, suggesting that Edar-mediated stabilization of beta-catenin active foci is a key event in determining definitive follicle locations. ..
  71. Park S, Lee Y, Lee H, Seki T, Hong K, Park J, et al. B-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg2) regulates vertebral patterning by modulating bone morphogenetic protein/smad signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10256-62 pubmed
    ..In view of the genetic evidence that reduced BMP signaling causes posteriorization of the vertebral pattern, we propose that the observed vertebral phenotype in Btg2-null mice is due to attenuated BMP signaling. ..
  72. Iwao K, Inatani M, Ogata Iwao M, Yamaguchi Y, Okinami S, Tanihara H. Heparan sulfate deficiency in periocular mesenchyme causes microphthalmia and ciliary body dysgenesis. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that HS in the periocular mesenchyme plays a critical role in normal ocular morphogenesis, indicating reciprocal interactions between the periocular mesenchyme and the neural ectoderm. ..
  73. Norrie J, Lewandowski J, Bouldin C, Amarnath S, Li Q, Vokes M, et al. Dynamics of BMP signaling in limb bud mesenchyme and polydactyly. Dev Biol. 2014;393:270-281 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the timing and clarify the mechanisms underlying BMP signaling during digit morphogenesis. ..
  74. Guemes M, Garcia A, Rigueur D, Runke S, Wang W, Zhao G, et al. GATA4 is essential for bone mineralization via ER? and TGF?/BMP pathways. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29:2676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the role of GATA4 to regulate the tissue specificity of estrogen-mediated osteoblast gene regulation and estrogen-independent bone differentiation may help to develop therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. ..
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    ..Based on the observed patterns of expression, we speculate that individual or combinations of Smads may play specific roles in cell-fate determination during kidney development. ..
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    ..A second row of eyelashes is a feature of human lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, which is associated with mutations in FOXC2...
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    ..Together, these data identify a crucial role for canonical Wnt signaling in acting downstream of Pax9 to regulate palate morphogenesis. ..
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    ..Our findings demonstrate redundant roles of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating signals required for development of the AV myocardium and formation of the AV valves. ..
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    ..We propose that targeting Runx2 might provide an attractive way of preventing craniosynostosis in patients. ..
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    ..To investigate the role of miRNAs in tooth development, we examined mice with either mesenchymal (Wnt1Cre/Dicer(fl/fl)) or epithelial (ShhCre/Dicer(fl/fl)) conditional deletion of Dicer, which is essential for miRNA processing...
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    ..In summary, inhibition of microtubule assembly enhances BMP-2 gene transcription and subsequent bone formation, in part, through inhibiting proteasomal processing of Gli2 and increasing intracellular Gli2 concentrations. ..
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    ..Moreover, deranged Shh and BMP signaling is correlated with severe anorectal malformations in both mouse and humans. ..
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    ..Together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signalling has a central role during neural induction in mammals and suggest that FGFs do not act as neural inducers in the post-implantation mouse embryo. ..