Gene Symbol: Smad2
Description: SMAD family member 2
Alias: 7120426M23Rik, Madh2, Madr2, Smad-2, mMad2, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2, MAD homolog 2, Smad 2, mad-related protein 2, mothers against DPP homolog 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Smad2

Top Publications

  1. Vincent S, Dunn N, Hayashi S, Norris D, Robertson E. Cell fate decisions within the mouse organizer are governed by graded Nodal signals. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1646-62 pubmed
    ..Here we removed Smad2 activity in the epiblast, using a conditional inactivation strategy...
  2. Shafer S, Towler D. Transcriptional regulation of SM22alpha by Wnt3a: convergence with TGFbeta(1)/Smad signaling at a novel regulatory element. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:621-35 pubmed publisher
    ..gel shift assays, DNA-protein complexes assembled on this element were disrupted with antibodies to beta-catenin, Smad2/3, and TCF7, confirming the participation of known Wnt3a and TGFbeta transcriptional mediators...
  3. Gao S, Alarcon C, Sapkota G, Rahman S, Chen P, Goerner N, et al. Ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L targets activated Smad2/3 to limit TGF-beta signaling. Mol Cell. 2009;36:457-68 pubmed publisher
    TGF-beta induces phosphorylation of the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 at the C terminus as well as at an interdomain linker region...
  4. Morsut L, Yan K, Enzo E, Aragona M, Soligo S, Wendling O, et al. Negative control of Smad activity by ectodermin/Tif1gamma patterns the mammalian embryo. Development. 2010;137:2571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study unveils that intracellular negative control of Smad function by ectodermin/Tif1gamma is a crucial element in the cellular response to TGFbeta signals in mammalian tissues. ..
  5. Baker J, Harland R. A novel mesoderm inducer, Madr2, functions in the activin signal transduction pathway. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1880-9 pubmed
    A functional assay to clone mouse mesoderm inducers has identified the mouse gene Mad related 2 (Madr2). Madr2 induces dorsal mesoderm from Xenopus ectoderm and can mimic the organizer in recruiting neighboring cells into a second axis...
  6. Chung A, Huang X, Meng X, Lan H. miR-192 mediates TGF-beta/Smad3-driven renal fibrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Smad3 but not Smad2 mediated TGF-beta1-induced miR-192 expression by binding to the miR-192 promoter...
  7. Carvalho R, Itoh F, Goumans M, Lebrin F, Kato M, Takahashi S, et al. Compensatory signalling induced in the yolk sac vasculature by deletion of TGFbeta receptors in mice. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:4269-77 pubmed
    ..5. Because TGFbeta can also signal in ECs via ALK1 (ACVRL1), we replaced ALK5 by a mutant defective in SMAD2 and SMAD3 (SMAD2/3) activation that retained the ability to transactivate ALK1...
  8. Ito Y, Sarkar P, Mi Q, Wu N, Bringas P, Liu Y, et al. Overexpression of Smad2 reveals its concerted action with Smad4 in regulating TGF-beta-mediated epidermal homeostasis. Dev Biol. 2001;236:181-94 pubmed
    ..To understand the function of TGF-beta and activin-specific Smad, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress Smad2 in epidermis under the control of keratin 14 promoter...
  9. El Gohary Y, Tulachan S, Guo P, Welsh C, Wiersch J, Prasadan K, et al. Smad signaling pathways regulate pancreatic endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2013;378:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the intracellular mediators of TGF-? signaling, smad2 and smad3, along with their inhibitor smad7, appear to mediate this process...

More Information


  1. Bourgeois B, Gilquin B, Tellier Lebegue C, Ostlund C, Wu W, Perez J, et al. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling at the nuclear envelope: characterization of interactions between MAN1, Smad2 and Smad3, and PPM1A. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra49 pubmed publisher critical for various developmental processes and culminates in the activation of the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3...
  2. Weisberg E, Winnier G, Chen X, Farnsworth C, Hogan B, Whitman M. A mouse homologue of FAST-1 transduces TGF beta superfamily signals and is expressed during early embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1998;79:17-27 pubmed
    ..We propose that mouse Fast1, like Xenopus FAST-1, mediates TGF beta superfamily signals specifying developmental fate during early embryogenesis. ..
  3. Ju W, Ogawa A, Heyer J, Nierhof D, Yu L, Kucherlapati R, et al. Deletion of Smad2 in mouse liver reveals novel functions in hepatocyte growth and differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:654-67 pubmed
    Smad family proteins Smad2 and Smad3 are activated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/activin/nodal receptors and mediate transcriptional regulation...
  4. Labbe E, Silvestri C, Hoodless P, Wrana J, Attisano L. Smad2 and Smad3 positively and negatively regulate TGF beta-dependent transcription through the forkhead DNA-binding protein FAST2. Mol Cell. 1998;2:109-20 pubmed the gsc promoter, but efficient transcriptional activation and assembly of a DNA-binding complex of FAST2, Smad2, and Smad4 requires an adjacent Smad4 site...
  5. Dunker N, Krieglstein K. Targeted mutations of transforming growth factor-beta genes reveal important roles in mouse development and adult homeostasis. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:6982-8 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta signalling pathway, TGF-beta1, -beta2, -beta3, TGF-beta receptor (TbetaR-II) and the signalling molecules SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4, are discussed in this review...
  6. Itman C, Small C, Griswold M, Nagaraja A, Matzuk M, Brown C, et al. Developmentally regulated SMAD2 and SMAD3 utilization directs activin signaling outcomes. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1688-700 pubmed publisher
    Activin is required for testis development. Activin signals via phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of SMAD2 and SMAD3...
  7. Harmon E, Apelqvist A, Smart N, Gu X, Osborne D, Kim S. GDF11 modulates NGN3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes beta-cell differentiation in pancreas development. Development. 2004;131:6163-74 pubmed
    ..Similar precursor and islet cell phenotypes are observed in mice deficient for SMAD2, an intracellular signaling factor activated by TGF-beta signals...
  8. Weinstein M, Yang X, Deng C. Functions of mammalian Smad genes as revealed by targeted gene disruption in mice. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2000;11:49-58 pubmed
    ..These experiments have shown that Smad2 and Smad4 are needed for gastrulation, Smad5 for angiogenesis, and Smad3 for establishment of the mucosal immune ..
  9. Heyer J, Escalante Alcalde D, Lia M, Boettinger E, Edelmann W, Stewart C, et al. Postgastrulation Smad2-deficient embryos show defects in embryo turning and anterior morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12595-600 pubmed
    b>SMAD2 is a member of the transforming growth factor beta and activin-signaling pathway. To examine the role of Smad2 in postgastrulation development, we independently generated mice with a null mutation in this gene...
  10. Dunn N, Vincent S, Oxburgh L, Robertson E, Bikoff E. Combinatorial activities of Smad2 and Smad3 regulate mesoderm formation and patterning in the mouse embryo. Development. 2004;131:1717-28 pubmed
    TGFbeta/activin/Nodal receptors activate both Smad2 and Smad3 intracellular effector proteins. The functional activities of these closely related molecules have been extensively studied in cell lines...
  11. Kuratomi G, Komuro A, Goto K, Shinozaki M, Miyazawa K, Miyazono K, et al. NEDD4-2 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-2) negatively regulates TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) signalling by inducing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Smad2 and TGF-beta type I receptor. Biochem J. 2005;386:461-70 pubmed
    ..bound to TGF-beta-specific R-Smads, Smads 2 and 3, in a ligand-dependent manner, and induced degradation of Smad2, but not Smad3...
  12. Liu Y, Festing M, Hester M, Thompson J, Weinstein M. Generation of novel conditional and hypomorphic alleles of the Smad2 gene. Genesis. 2004;40:118-123 pubmed
    b>Smad2 is an intracellular mediator of the transforming growth factor beta signaling (TGFbeta) pathway...
  13. Ishimura A, Ng J, Taira M, Young S, Osada S. Man1, an inner nuclear membrane protein, regulates vascular remodeling by modulating transforming growth factor beta signaling. Development. 2006;133:3919-28 pubmed
    ..We have demonstrated, in Man1-deficient embryos, the expression of Tgfb1 is upregulated and Smad2/3 signaling is abnormally activated, resulting in increased extracellular matrix deposition, a hallmark of the ..
  14. Goto Y, Nomura M, Tanaka K, Kondo A, Morinaga H, Okabe T, et al. Genetic interactions between activin type IIB receptor and Smad2 genes in asymmetrical patterning of the thoracic organs and the development of pancreas islets. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2865-74 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide genetic evidence that ActRIIB and Smad2 genes cooperatively regulated asymmetrical patterning of the thoracic organs and pancreas development in mice...
  15. Smart N, Apelqvist A, Gu X, Harmon E, Topper J, Macdonald R, et al. Conditional expression of Smad7 in pancreatic beta cells disrupts TGF-beta signaling and induces reversible diabetes mellitus. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e39 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies reveal that TGF-beta signaling is crucial for establishing and maintaining defining features of mature pancreatic beta cells. ..
  16. Xavier S, Niranjan T, Krick S, Zhang T, Ju W, Shaw A, et al. TbetaRI independently activates Smad- and CD2AP-dependent pathways in podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:2127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..early activation of the antiapoptotic PI3K/AKT pathway does not require TGF-beta receptor-regulated Smad2 and Smad3...
  17. Descargues P, Sil A, Sano Y, Korchynskyi O, Han G, Owens P, et al. IKKalpha is a critical coregulator of a Smad4-independent TGFbeta-Smad2/3 signaling pathway that controls keratinocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..control several Myc antagonists, including Mad1, Mad2, and Ovol1, through the association with TGFbeta-regulated Smad2/3 transcription factors and is required for Smad3 recruitment to at least one of these targets...
  18. Alarcon C, Zaromytidou A, Xi Q, Gao S, Yu J, Fujisawa S, et al. Nuclear CDKs drive Smad transcriptional activation and turnover in BMP and TGF-beta pathways. Cell. 2009;139:757-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, nuclear CDK8/9 drive a cycle of Smad utilization and disposal that is an integral part of canonical BMP and TGF-beta pathways. ..
  19. Brennan J, Lu C, Norris D, Rodriguez T, Beddington R, Robertson E. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2001;411:965-9 pubmed
    ..Both of these functions are independent of Smad2. Moreover, Nodal signals from the epiblast also pattern the visceral endoderm by activating the Smad2-dependent ..
  20. Yang X, Chen L, Xu X, Li C, Huang C, Deng C. TGF-beta/Smad3 signals repress chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation and are required for maintaining articular cartilage. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:35-46 pubmed
    ..Without these inhibition signals, chondrocytes break quiescent state and undergo abnormal terminal differentiation, ultimately leading to osteoarthritis. ..
  21. Weinstein M, Yang X, Li C, Xu X, Gotay J, Deng C. Failure of egg cylinder elongation and mesoderm induction in mouse embryos lacking the tumor suppressor smad2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:9378-83 pubmed
    ..b>SMAD2, which is a tumor suppressor involved in colorectal and lung cancer, has been shown to induce dorsal mesoderm in ..
  22. Tateossian H, Hardisty Hughes R, Morse S, Romero M, Hilton H, Dean C, et al. Regulation of TGF-beta signalling by Fbxo11, the gene mutated in the Jeff otitis media mouse mutant. Pathogenetics. 2009;2:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Phospho-Smad2 (pSmad2) is significantly upregulated in epithelia of Jeff homozygotes...
  23. Nomura M, Li E. Smad2 role in mesoderm formation, left-right patterning and craniofacial development. Nature. 1998;393:786-90 pubmed
    ..The vertebrate SMAD family includes at least nine members, of which Smad2 has been shown to mediate signalling by activin and TGF-beta...
  24. Cui X, Chai Y, Chen J, Yamamoto T, Ito Y, Bringas P, et al. TGF-beta3-dependent SMAD2 phosphorylation and inhibition of MEE proliferation during palatal fusion. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:387-94 pubmed
    ..b>SMAD2 and SMAD3 were both present in the MEE, whereas SMAD2 was the only one phosphorylated during palatal fusion...
  25. Miura S, Takeshita T, Asao H, Kimura Y, Murata K, Sasaki Y, et al. Hgs (Hrs), a FYVE domain protein, is involved in Smad signaling through cooperation with SARA. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:9346-55 pubmed
    ..the receptors for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily to the nucleus; of the Smad proteins, Smad2 and Smad4 are essential components for mouse early embryogenesis...
  26. Hoot K, Lighthall J, Han G, Lu S, Li A, Ju W, et al. Keratinocyte-specific Smad2 ablation results in increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition during skin cancer formation and progression. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2722-32 pubmed publisher
    TGF-beta and its signaling mediators, Smad2, -3, and -4, are involved with tumor suppression and promotion functions...
  27. Mavrakis K, Andrew R, Lee K, Petropoulou C, Dixon J, Navaratnam N, et al. Arkadia enhances Nodal/TGF-beta signaling by coupling phospho-Smad2/3 activity and turnover. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e67 pubmed
    ..Loss of Arkadia in embryonic cells causes nuclear accumulation of phospho-Smad2/3 (P-Smad2/3), the effectors of Nodal signaling; however, these must be repressed or hypoactive as the expression ..
  28. Azhar M, Brown K, Gard C, Chen H, Rajan S, Elliott D, et al. Transforming growth factor Beta2 is required for valve remodeling during heart development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2127-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses indicate that the activation of SMAD2/3 was decreased in Tgfb2(-/-) embryos during valve remodeling...
  29. Waldrip W, Bikoff E, Hoodless P, Wrana J, Robertson E. Smad2 signaling in extraembryonic tissues determines anterior-posterior polarity of the early mouse embryo. Cell. 1998;92:797-808 pubmed
    Smad proteins transmit TGFbeta signals from the cell surface to the nucleus. Here we analyze Smad2 mutant embryos created using ES cell technology...
  30. Liu Y, Festing M, Thompson J, Hester M, Rankin S, El Hodiri H, et al. Smad2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate craniofacial and endodermal development. Dev Biol. 2004;270:411-26 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta, activins, and nodal ligands operate through the highly homologous Smad2 and Smad3 intracellular mediators...
  31. Alejandre Alcazar M, Michiels Corsten M, Vicencio A, Reiss I, Ryu J, de Krijger R, et al. TGF-beta signaling is dynamically regulated during the alveolarization of rodent and human lungs. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:259-69 pubmed
    ..of the TGF-beta receptors Acvrl1, Tgfbr1, Tgfbr2, Tgfbr3, and endoglin, and the intracellular messengers Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad6, and Smad7 were noted as mouse and human lungs progressed through the canalicular, saccular, ..
  32. Dunn N, Koonce C, Anderson D, Islam A, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Mice exclusively expressing the short isoform of Smad2 develop normally and are viable and fertile. Genes Dev. 2005;19:152-63 pubmed
    b>Smad2 and Smad3 are closely related effectors of TGFbeta/Nodal/Activin-related signaling. Smad3 mutant mice develop normally, whereas Smad2 plays an essential role in patterning the embryonic axis and specification of definitive endoderm...
  33. Dudas M, Kim J, Li W, Nagy A, Larsson J, Karlsson S, et al. Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006;296:298-314 pubmed
  34. Tremblay K, Hoodless P, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Formation of the definitive endoderm in mouse is a Smad2-dependent process. Development. 2000;127:3079-90 pubmed
    ..b>Smad2-dependent signals arising in the extraembryonic tissues of early mouse embryos serve to restrict the site of ..
  35. Wilkes M, Murphy S, Garamszegi N, Leof E. Cell-type-specific activation of PAK2 by transforming growth factor beta independent of Smad2 and Smad3. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8878-89 pubmed
    ..PAK2 activation occurs in fibroblast but not epithelial cell cultures and is independent of Smad2 and/or Smad3...
  36. Guzman Ayala M, Lee K, Mavrakis K, Goggolidou P, Norris D, Episkopou V. Graded Smad2/3 activation is converted directly into levels of target gene expression in embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4268 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentration of the morphogen is critical for fate decisions in the responding cells. Smad2 and Smad3 are effectors of the Nodal/Activin branch of TGFbeta signalling: they are activated by receptors, enter ..
  37. Burdette J, Oliver R, Ulyanov V, Kilen S, Mayo K, Woodruff T. Ovarian epithelial inclusion cysts in chronically superovulated CD1 and Smad2 dominant-negative mice. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3595-604 pubmed
    ..Wild-type CD1 mice were used along with CD1 mice expressing a Smad2 dominant-negative (Smad2DN) transgene under the control of the Müllerian inhibiting substance promoter that ..
  38. Li Q, Pangas S, Jorgez C, Graff J, Weinstein M, Matzuk M. Redundant roles of SMAD2 and SMAD3 in ovarian granulosa cells in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7001-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although signaling of activins, TGF-betas, growth differentiation factor 9, and nodal converge preferentially to SMAD2 and SMAD3, the in vivo functions and redundancy of these SMADs in the ovary and female reproduction remain largely ..
  39. Murashima Suginami A, Takahashi K, Sakata T, Tsukamoto H, Sugai M, Yanagita M, et al. Enhanced BMP signaling results in supernumerary tooth formation in USAG-1 deficient mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1012-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Based upon these results, we conclude that enhanced BMP signaling results in supernumerary teeth and BMP signaling was modulated by Wnt signaling in the USAG-1 deficient mouse model. ..
  40. Pessah M, Marais J, Prunier C, Ferrand N, Lallemand F, Mauviel A, et al. c-Jun associates with the oncoprotein Ski and suppresses Smad2 transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29094-100 pubmed TGF-beta receptors, has also been suggested to inhibit TGF-beta signaling through interaction of c-Jun with Smad2 and Smad3...
  41. Li C, Li A, Xing Y, Li M, Chan B, Ouyang R, et al. Apc deficiency alters pulmonary epithelial cell fate and inhibits Nkx2.1 via triggering TGF-beta signaling. Dev Biol. 2013;378:13-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our studies revealed an important mechanism involving Apc and TGF-beta signaling in regulating the key transcriptional factor, Nkx2.1, for lung epithelial progenitor cell fate determination. ..
  42. Seoane J, Le H, Shen L, Anderson S, Massague J. Integration of Smad and forkhead pathways in the control of neuroepithelial and glioblastoma cell proliferation. Cell. 2004;117:211-23 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the activity of this network confers resistance to TGF-beta-mediated cytostasis during the development of the telencephalic neuroepithelium and in glioblastoma brain tumor cells. ..
  43. Parikh P, Hao Y, Hosseinkhani M, Patil S, Huntley G, Tessier Lavigne M, et al. Regeneration of axons in injured spinal cord by activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad1 signaling pathway in adult neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results identify a therapeutic target to promote axonal regeneration after SCI. ..
  44. Baburajendran N, Jauch R, Tan C, Narasimhan K, Kolatkar P. Structural basis for the cooperative DNA recognition by Smad4 MH1 dimers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the R-Smads Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 homodimerize with substantially decreased efficiency despite pronounced structural similarities to Smad4...
  45. Niimori D, Kawano R, Felemban A, Niimori Kita K, Tanaka H, Ihn H, et al. Tsukushi controls the hair cycle by regulating TGF-?1 signaling. Dev Biol. 2012;372:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..disruption of the TSK gene causes the hair cycle to be delayed with low levels of TGF-?1 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) expression. Biochemical analysis indicates that TSK directly binds to TGF-?1...
  46. Omata Y, Yasui T, Hirose J, Izawa N, Imai Y, Matsumoto T, et al. Genomewide comprehensive analysis reveals critical cooperation between Smad and c-Fos in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:869-77 pubmed publisher
    ..immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq and ChIP-seq) analyses indicated the cooperation of Smad2/3 with c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis...
  47. Liu C, Aschbacher Smith L, Barthelery N, Dyment N, Butler D, Wylie C. Spatial and temporal expression of molecular markers and cell signals during normal development of the mouse patellar tendon. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:598-608 pubmed publisher
    ..These data will allow both the functional analysis of specific signaling pathways in tenocyte development and their application to tissue-engineering studies in vitro. ..
  48. Shukla A, Malik M, Cataisson C, Ho Y, Friesen T, Suh K, et al. TGF-beta signalling is regulated by Schnurri-2-dependent nuclear translocation of CLIC4 and consequent stabilization of phospho-Smad2 and 3. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Nuclear CLIC4 associates with phospho (p)-Smad2 and p-Smad3, protecting them from dephosphorylation by nuclear phosphatases...
  49. Quartuccio S, Lantvit D, Bosland M, Burdette J. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mouse ovarian surface epithelium does not alter MIS driven Smad2-dominant negative epithelium-lined inclusion cysts or teratomas. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65067 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of Smad2 (Smad2DN), a downstream transcription factor of the TGF? signaling pathway, targeted to tissues of the ..
  50. Wilkinson D, Tsai W, Schumacher M, Barton M. Chromatin-bound p53 anchors activated Smads and the mSin3A corepressor to confer transforming-growth-factor-beta-mediated transcription repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1988-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of TGF-beta signaling restores a dynamic interplay between p53 and TGF-beta effectors that cooperate to effectively target mSin3A to tumor marker AFP and reestablish transcription repression. ..
  51. Akbarshahi H, Sam A, Chen C, Rosendahl A, Andersson R. Early activation of pulmonary TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling in mice with acute pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:148029 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute pancreatitis was induced using ductal ligation in mice. TGF-?1, 2, and 3, T?RII, ALK-5, Smad2, 3, 4, and 7, and P-Smad2 expression in the lungs were analyzed at 9 and 24?h...
  52. Ueberham U, Hilbrich I, Ueberham E, Rohn S, Glöckner P, Dietrich K, et al. Transcriptional control of cell cycle-dependent kinase 4 by Smad proteins--implications for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:2827-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The results identify Smad proteins as direct transcriptional regulators of Cdk4 and add further evidence to a Smad-dependent deregulation of Cdk4 in AD, giving rise to neuronal dedifferentiation and cell death. ..
  53. Spagnoli A, O Rear L, Chandler R, Granero Molto F, Mortlock D, Gorska A, et al. TGF-beta signaling is essential for joint morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1105-17 pubmed
    ..We propose a model for joint development in which TGF-beta signaling represents a means of entry to initiate the process. ..