Gene Symbol: Slc6a3
Description: solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, dopamine), member 3
Alias: DAT, Dat1, sodium-dependent dopamine transporter, DA transporter, dopamine transporter 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Slc6a3

Top Publications

  1. Madisen L, Zwingman T, Sunkin S, Oh S, Zariwala H, Gu H, et al. A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our expression data are displayed in a public online database to help researchers assess the utility of various Cre-driver lines for cell-type-specific genetic manipulation. ..
  2. Dzirasa K, Ribeiro S, Costa R, Santos L, Lin S, Grosmark A, et al. Dopaminergic control of sleep-wake states. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10577-89 pubmed
    ..We propose that psychosis and the sleep disturbances experienced by Parkinsonian patients result from dopamine-mediated disturbances of REM sleep. ..
  3. Jones S, Gainetdinov R, Wightman R, Caron M. Mechanisms of amphetamine action revealed in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. J Neurosci. 1998;18:1979-86 pubmed
    ..AMPH can act on both vesicular storage of DA and directly on the dopamine transporter (DAT)...
  4. Budygin E, Brodie M, Sotnikova T, Mateo Y, John C, Cyr M, et al. Dissociation of rewarding and dopamine transporter-mediated properties of amphetamine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7781-6 pubmed
    The interaction of amphetamine (AMPH) with the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is thought to be critically important for the DA-elevating actions of this drug...
  5. Zweifel L, Argilli E, Bonci A, Palmiter R. Role of NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons for plasticity and addictive behaviors. Neuron. 2008;59:486-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence for a role of NMDAR signaling in DA neurons for specific behavioral modifications associated with drug seeking behaviors. ..
  6. Maiya R, Ponomarev I, Linse K, Harris R, Mayfield R. Defining the dopamine transporter proteome by convergent biochemical and in silico analyses. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:97-106 pubmed
    ..The function of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an important member of this family of transporters, is regulated by multiple signaling mechanisms, which result ..
  7. Salahpour A, Ramsey A, Medvedev I, Kile B, Sotnikova T, Holmstrand E, et al. Increased amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and reward in mice overexpressing the dopamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4405-10 pubmed publisher
    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic signaling wherein it controls both the spatial and temporal actions of dopamine...
  8. Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge K, Aldridge J, Zhuang X. Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9395-402 pubmed
    ..A dopamine transporter (DAT) knockdown mutation that preserves only 10% of normal DAT, and therefore causes mutant mice to have 70% elevated ..
  9. Jacobs F, van Erp S, van der Linden A, von Oerthel L, Burbach J, Smidt M. Pitx3 potentiates Nurr1 in dopamine neuron terminal differentiation through release of SMRT-mediated repression. Development. 2009;136:531-40 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Frye C, Sora I. Progesterone reduces hyperactivity of female and male dopamine transporter knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 2010;209:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..P(4) increased the number of central entries made by DATKO and wildtype mice. Thus, P(4) administration to DATKO female or male mice partially attenuated their hyperactive phenotype. ..
  2. Jaber M, Dumartin B, Sagne C, Haycock J, Roubert C, Giros B, et al. Differential regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in the basal ganglia of mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:3499-511 pubmed
    Mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT) display biochemical and behavioural dopaminergic hyperactivity despite dramatic alteration in dopamine homeostasis...
  3. Gainetdinov R, Mohn A, Bohn L, Caron M. Glutamatergic modulation of hyperactivity in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11047-54 pubmed
    ..The dopamine transporter (DAT), which reuptakes the released neurotransmitter into presynaptic terminals, is a major determinant of the intensity ..
  4. Eriksen J, Bjørn Yoshimoto W, Jørgensen T, Newman A, Gether U. Postendocytic sorting of constitutively internalized dopamine transporter in cell lines and dopaminergic neurons. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27289-301 pubmed publisher
    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of released dopamine and is the target for psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamine...
  5. Carboni E, Spielewoy C, Vacca C, Nosten Bertrand M, Giros B, Di Chiara G. Cocaine and amphetamine increase extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of mice lacking the dopamine transporter gene. J Neurosci. 2001;21:RC141: 1-4 pubmed
    ..on the basis of the observation that, in mice genetically lacking the plasma membrane dopamine transporter [DAT-knock out (DAT-KO)], cocaine maintained its reinforcing properties of being self-administered and inducing place ..
  6. Rodriguiz R, Chu R, Caron M, Wetsel W. Aberrant responses in social interaction of dopamine transporter knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 2004;148:185-98 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the Dat1 gene in mice leads to increased extracellular DA concentrations and reduced expression of D1- and D2-like receptors ..
  7. Binda F, Dipace C, Bowton E, Robertson S, Lute B, Fog J, et al. Syntaxin 1A interaction with the dopamine transporter promotes amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:1101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we define the first 33 amino acids of the N terminus of the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) as the site of direct interaction with SYN1A...
  8. Galter D, Pernold K, Yoshitake T, Lindqvist E, Hoffer B, Kehr J, et al. MitoPark mice mirror the slow progression of key symptoms and L-DOPA response in Parkinson's disease. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the ratio decreased over time in cortex, revealing important differences between DA cells in substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. ..
  9. Giros B, Jaber M, Jones S, Wightman R, Caron M. Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Nature. 1996;379:606-12 pubmed
    ..The dopamine transporter is an obligatory target of cocaine and amphetamine, as these psychostimulants have no effect on locomotor activity or dopamine release and uptake in mice lacking the transporter. ..
  10. Brodski C, Weisenhorn D, Signore M, Sillaber I, Oesterheld M, Broccoli V, et al. Location and size of dopaminergic and serotonergic cell populations are controlled by the position of the midbrain-hindbrain organizer. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4199-207 pubmed
    ..In addition, our data suggest that the position of the MHO during embryogenesis can modulate adult locomotor activity. ..
  11. Dzirasa K, Ramsey A, Takahashi D, Stapleton J, Potes J, Williams J, et al. Hyperdopaminergia and NMDA receptor hypofunction disrupt neural phase signaling. J Neurosci. 2009;29:8215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..models of cognitive dysfunction: mice with genetically induced hyperdopaminergia [dopamine transporter knock-out (DAT-KO) mice] and mice with genetically induced NMDA receptor hypofunction [NMDA receptor subunit-1 knockdown (NR1-KD) ..
  12. Tilley M, Cagniard B, Zhuang X, Han D, Tiao N, Gu H. Cocaine reward and locomotion stimulation in mice with reduced dopamine transporter expression. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:42 pubmed
    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in regulating dopamine neurotransmission. Variations in DAT or changes in basal dopaminergic tone have been shown to alter behavior and drug responses...
  13. Ahmed I, Liang Y, Schools S, Dawson V, Dawson T, Savitt J. Development and characterization of a new Parkinson's disease model resulting from impaired autophagy. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These conditional knock-out animals provide insight into the process of autophagy in Parkinson's disease pathology. ..
  14. Sora I, Hall F, Andrews A, Itokawa M, Li X, Wei H, et al. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine reward: combined dopamine and serotonin transporter knockouts eliminate cocaine place preference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:5300-5 pubmed
    Cocaine blocks uptake by neuronal plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET). Cocaine reward/reinforcement has been linked to actions at DAT or to blockade of SERT...
  15. Weiss S, Tzavara E, Davis R, Nomikos G, Michael McIntosh J, Giros B, et al. Functional alterations of nicotinic neurotransmission in dopamine transporter knock-out mice. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:1496-508 pubmed
    Mice lacking the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) gene exhibit a phenotype reminiscent of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including hyperDAergia, hyperactivity and deficits in cognitive performance, ..
  16. Arime Y, Kasahara Y, Hall F, Uhl G, Sora I. Cortico-subcortical neuromodulation involved in the amelioration of prepulse inhibition deficits in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..transporter (NET) inhibitor, reversed the PPI deficits that have been identified in dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) mice...
  17. Hernandez D, Torres C, Setlik W, Cebrián C, Mosharov E, Tang G, et al. Regulation of presynaptic neurotransmission by macroautophagy. Neuron. 2012;74:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Macroautophagy that follows mTOR inhibition in presynaptic terminals, therefore, rapidly alters presynaptic structure and neurotransmission. ..
  18. Gainetdinov R. Strengths and limitations of genetic models of ADHD. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2010;2:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple studies have reported associations between polymorphisms in dopamine transporter (DAT) gene and ADHD...
  19. Napolitano F, Bonito Oliva A, Federici M, Carta M, Errico F, Magara S, et al. Role of aberrant striatal dopamine D1 receptor/cAMP/protein kinase A/DARPP32 signaling in the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11043-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Several lines of research support a crucial role for the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in this psychiatric disease...
  20. Rocha B, Fumagalli F, Gainetdinov R, Jones S, Ator R, Giros B, et al. Cocaine self-administration in dopamine-transporter knockout mice. Nat Neurosci. 1998;1:132-7 pubmed
    The plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for clearing dopamine from the synapse...
  21. Zhuang X, Oosting R, Jones S, Gainetdinov R, Miller G, Caron M, et al. Hyperactivity and impaired response habituation in hyperdopaminergic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1982-7 pubmed
    ..disorders, we have generated hyperdopaminergic mutant mice by reducing expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT) to 10% of wild-type levels (DAT knockdown)...
  22. Pogorelov V, Rodriguiz R, Insco M, Caron M, Wetsel W. Novelty seeking and stereotypic activation of behavior in mice with disruption of the Dat1 gene. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:1818-31 pubmed
    Disruption of the dopamine (DA) transporter (Dat1) gene in mice leads to a 50% reduction or complete elimination of Dat1 expression in striatum of respective heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice...
  23. Costa R, Lin S, Sotnikova T, Cyr M, Gainetdinov R, Caron M, et al. Rapid alterations in corticostriatal ensemble coordination during acute dopamine-dependent motor dysfunction. Neuron. 2006;52:359-69 pubmed
    ..Thus, dopamine-related disorders like Parkinson's disease may not stem from changes in the overall levels of cortical activity, but from dysfunctional activity coordination in corticostriatal circuits. ..
  24. Beaulieu J, Sotnikova T, Marion S, Lefkowitz R, Gainetdinov R, Caron M. An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell. 2005;122:261-73 pubmed
  25. Bäckman C, Malik N, Zhang Y, Shan L, Grinberg A, Hoffer B, et al. Characterization of a mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase from the 3' untranslated region of the dopamine transporter locus. Genesis. 2006;44:383-90 pubmed
    ..The dopamine transporter (DAT) is highly expressed in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral mesencephalon and regulates neurotransmission by ..
  26. Good C, Hoffman A, Hoffer B, Chefer V, Shippenberg T, Bäckman C, et al. Impaired nigrostriatal function precedes behavioral deficits in a genetic mitochondrial model of Parkinson's disease. FASEB J. 2011;25:1333-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A full understanding of these presymptomatic cellular properties may lead to more effective early treatments of PD. ..
  27. Tilley M, Gu H. Dopamine transporter inhibition is required for cocaine-induced stereotypy. Neuroreport. 2008;19:1137-40 pubmed publisher
    ..been difficult to discern because cocaine has three high-affinity targets: the reuptake transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine, and serotonin...
  28. Hnasko T, Chuhma N, Zhang H, Goh G, Sulzer D, Palmiter R, et al. Vesicular glutamate transport promotes dopamine storage and glutamate corelease in vivo. Neuron. 2010;65:643-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, low concentrations of glutamate acidify synaptic vesicles more slowly but to a greater extent than equimolar Cl(-), indicating a distinct, presynaptic mechanism to regulate quantal size...
  29. Wong P, Chang C, Marx C, Caron M, Wetsel W, Zhang X. Pregnenolone rescues schizophrenia-like behavior in dopamine transporter knockout mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51455 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluate the actions of pregnenolone on a mouse model for schizophrenia, the dopamine transporter knockout mouse (DAT KO)...
  30. Caron M. Images in neuroscience. Molecular biology, II. A dopamine transporter mouse knockout. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:1515 pubmed
  31. Jones S, Gainetdinov R, Hu X, Cooper D, Wightman R, White F, et al. Loss of autoreceptor functions in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:649-55 pubmed
    ..The function of dopamine autoreceptors was assessed in mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT). Genetic deletion of the DAT gene in mice results in a persistent elevation in levels of extracellular dopamine...
  32. Ralph Williams R, Paulus M, Zhuang X, Hen R, Geyer M. Valproate attenuates hyperactive and perseverative behaviors in mutant mice with a dysregulated dopamine system. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:352-9 pubmed
    Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockdown (KD) mice, with approximately 90% loss of expression of the DAT, allow for the examination of the behavioral consequences of a chronically dysregulated dopamine system...
  33. Jones S, Gainetdinov R, Jaber M, Giros B, Wightman R, Caron M. Profound neuronal plasticity in response to inactivation of the dopamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4029-34 pubmed
    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important role in calibrating the duration and intensity of dopamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system...
  34. Pickrell A, Pinto M, Hida A, Moraes C. Striatal dysfunctions associated with mitochondrial DNA damage in dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17649-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking advantage of a dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter-driven tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA), we expressed mito-PstI exclusively in dopaminergic ..
  35. Benoit Marand M, Jaber M, Gonon F. Release and elimination of dopamine in vivo in mice lacking the dopamine transporter: functional consequences. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:2985-92 pubmed
    In mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT), the amplitude of dopamine (DA) release and the kinetics of dopamine elimination were measured in vivo using carbon fibre electrodes combined with amperometry...
  36. Sotnikova T, Beaulieu J, Barak L, Wetsel W, Caron M, Gainetdinov R. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e271 pubmed
    ..Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs...
  37. Hall F, Li X, Sora I, Xu F, Caron M, Lesch K, et al. Cocaine mechanisms: enhanced cocaine, fluoxetine and nisoxetine place preferences following monoamine transporter deletions. Neuroscience. 2002;115:153-61 pubmed
  38. Jacobs F, Veenvliet J, Almirza W, Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent and -independent gene-regulatory pathways of Pitx3 in meso-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Development. 2011;138:5213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..that regulation of Ahd2-mediated RA signaling represents only one aspect of the Pitx3 downstream cascade, as Vmat2, Dat, Ahd2 (Aldh1a1), En1, En2 and Cck were unaffected by RA treatment and are (subset) specifically modulated by Pitx3...
  39. Ralph R, Paulus M, Fumagalli F, Caron M, Geyer M. Prepulse inhibition deficits and perseverative motor patterns in dopamine transporter knock-out mice: differential effects of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. J Neurosci. 2001;21:305-13 pubmed
    ..We used dopamine transporter (DAT) (-/-) mice to examine the behavioral consequences of a chronically hyperdopaminergic state, challenging them with ..
  40. Bosse R, Fumagalli F, Jaber M, Giros B, Gainetdinov R, Wetsel W, et al. Anterior pituitary hypoplasia and dwarfism in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Neuron. 1997;19:127-38 pubmed
    Deletion of the dopamine transporter (DAT) results in increased dopaminergic tone, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, dwarfism, and an inability to lactate...
  41. Torres G, Yao W, Mohn A, Quan H, Kim K, Levey A, et al. Functional interaction between monoamine plasma membrane transporters and the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. Neuron. 2001;30:121-34 pubmed
    ..In dopaminergic neurons, PICK1 colocalizes with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and forms a stable protein complex...
  42. Gainetdinov R, Mohn A, Caron M. Genetic animal models: focus on schizophrenia. Trends Neurosci. 2001;24:527-33 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss how such animal models might be relevant for understanding the neurochemical underpinnings of certain manifestations of schizophrenia. ..
  43. Diaz Ruiz O, Zapata A, Shan L, Zhang Y, Tomac A, Malik N, et al. Selective deletion of PTEN in dopamine neurons leads to trophic effects and adaptation of striatal medium spiny projecting neurons. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7027 pubmed publisher
  44. Fumagalli F, Gainetdinov R, Valenzano K, Caron M. Role of dopamine transporter in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity: evidence from mice lacking the transporter. J Neurosci. 1998;18:4861-9 pubmed
    The role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in mediating the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (METH) was tested in mice lacking DAT...
  45. Morice E, Denis C, Giros B, Nosten Bertrand M. Phenotypic expression of the targeted null-mutation in the dopamine transporter gene varies as a function of the genetic background. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:120-6 pubmed
    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in calibrating the duration and intensity of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission...
  46. Zhuang X, Masson J, Gingrich J, Rayport S, Hen R. Targeted gene expression in dopamine and serotonin neurons of the mouse brain. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;143:27-32 pubmed
    ..lines of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the dopamine transporter promoter (DAT-cre mice) or the serotonin transporter promoter (SERT-cre mice)...
  47. Trinh J, Nehrenberg D, Jacobsen J, Caron M, Wetsel W. Differential psychostimulant-induced activation of neural circuits in dopamine transporter knockout and wild type mice. Neuroscience. 2003;118:297-310 pubmed
    ..Recently, we have been working with a mouse in which the gene for the DA transporter (DAT) has been disrupted...
  48. Tritsch N, Ding J, Sabatini B. Dopaminergic neurons inhibit striatal output through non-canonical release of GABA. Nature. 2012;490:262-6 pubmed publisher
  49. Wu N, Cepeda C, Zhuang X, Levine M. Altered corticostriatal neurotransmission and modulation in dopamine transporter knock-down mice. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:423-32 pubmed
    ..Abnormal DA modulation has been implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The development of DA transporter knock-down (DAT-KD) mice has permitted modeling of these disorders and has shed new light on DA modulation...
  50. Mateo Y, Budygin E, John C, Jones S. Role of serotonin in cocaine effects in mice with reduced dopamine transporter function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:372-7 pubmed
    ..It is generally accepted that the ability of cocaine to inhibit the dopamine transporter (DAT) is directly related to its reinforcing actions...
  51. Smidt M, Smits S, Bouwmeester H, Hamers F, van der Linden A, Hellemons A, et al. Early developmental failure of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in mice lacking the homeodomain gene Pitx3. Development. 2004;131:1145-55 pubmed
    ..However, an overall lower activity was observed. The results suggest that Pitx3 is specifically required for the formation of the SNc subfield at the onset of dopaminergic neuron differentiation...
  52. Prakash N, Brodski C, Naserke T, Puelles E, Gogoi R, Hall A, et al. A Wnt1-regulated genetic network controls the identity and fate of midbrain-dopaminergic progenitors in vivo. Development. 2006;133:89-98 pubmed
    ..They also suggest the Wnt1-controlled signaling pathway as a promising target for new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. ..
  53. Tang M, Miyamoto Y, Huang E. Multiple roles of beta-catenin in controlling the neurogenic niche for midbrain dopamine neurons. Development. 2009;136:2027-38 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that beta-catenin-mediated signaling pathways can be targeted to promote and expand DA neurons in cell-based therapeutic strategies. ..
  54. Hall F, Li X, Randall Thompson J, Sora I, Murphy D, Lesch K, et al. Cocaine-conditioned locomotion in dopamine transporter, norepinephrine transporter and 5-HT transporter knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2009;162:870-80 pubmed publisher
    The behavioral effects of cocaine are affected by gene knockout (KO) of the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET)...
  55. Chen R, Tilley M, Wei H, Zhou F, Zhou F, Ching S, et al. Abolished cocaine reward in mice with a cocaine-insensitive dopamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9333-8 pubmed
    There are three known high-affinity targets for cocaine: the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET)...
  56. Xu T, Sotnikova T, Liang C, Zhang J, Jung J, Spealman R, et al. Hyperdopaminergic tone erodes prefrontal long-term potential via a D2 receptor-operated protein phosphatase gate. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14086-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice with persistently elevated extracellular DA, resulting from inactivation of the DA transporter (DAT) gene, LTP in layer V PFC pyramidal neurons cannot be established, regardless of induction protocols...
  57. Sterky F, Lee S, Wibom R, Olson L, Larsson N. Impaired mitochondrial transport and Parkin-independent degeneration of respiratory chain-deficient dopamine neurons in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that anterograde axonal transport of mitochondria is impaired in respiratory chain-deficient DA neurons, leading to a decreased supply of mitochondria to the axonal terminals. ..
  58. Tillerson J, Caudle W, Parent J, Gong C, Schallert T, Miller G. Olfactory discrimination deficits in mice lacking the dopamine transporter or the D2 dopamine receptor. Behav Brain Res. 2006;172:97-105 pubmed
    ..further characterize the role of dopamine in olfactory processing, we subjected dopamine transporter knockout mice (DAT -/-) and dopamine receptor 2 knockout mice (D2 -/-) to a battery of olfactory tests...
  59. Smits S, Ponnio T, Conneely O, Burbach J, Smidt M. Involvement of Nurr1 in specifying the neurotransmitter identity of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1731-8 pubmed
    ..Neonatal Nurr1 knockout mice lack expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT), the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) in addition to TH ..
  60. Guimera J, Weisenhorn D, Wurst W. Megane/Heslike is required for normal GABAergic differentiation in the mouse superior colliculus. Development. 2006;133:3847-57 pubmed
    ..Vertebrate h/E(spl)-related genes can no longer be regarded solely as a factors that confer generic neurogenic properties, but as key components for the subtype-neuronal identity in the mammalian CNS. ..
  61. Gainetdinov R, Wetsel W, Jones S, Levin E, Jaber M, Caron M. Role of serotonin in the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants on hyperactivity. Science. 1999;283:397-401 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking the gene encoding the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) have elevated dopaminergic tone and are hyperactive...
  62. Li B, Arime Y, Hall F, Uhl G, Sora I. Impaired spatial working memory and decreased frontal cortex BDNF protein level in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;628:104-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have thus tested spatial working memory in dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) and wild-type mice...
  63. Sora I, Wichems C, Takahashi N, Li X, Zeng Z, Revay R, et al. Cocaine reward models: conditioned place preference can be established in dopamine- and in serotonin-transporter knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7699-704 pubmed
    ..Several lines of evidence have suggested that cocaine blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT), perhaps with additional contributions from serotonin transporter (5-HTT) recognition, was key to its rewarding ..
  64. Beaulieu J, Sotnikova T, Gainetdinov R, Caron M. Paradoxical striatal cellular signaling responses to psychostimulants in hyperactive mice. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32072-80 pubmed
  65. Medvedev I, Gainetdinov R, Sotnikova T, Bohn L, Caron M, Dykstra L. Characterization of conditioned place preference to cocaine in congenic dopamine transporter knockout female mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;180:408-13 pubmed
    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is thought to play a major role in the rewarding effects of cocaine. Therefore, it is surprising that cocaine reveals conditioned effects in DAT knockout (DAT-KO) mice...