Gene Symbol: Slc32a1
Description: solute carrier family 32 (GABA vesicular transporter), member 1
Alias: R75019, VGAT, Viaat, vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter, GABA and glycine transporter, mVGAT, mVIAAT, solute carrier family 32 member 1, vasicular inhibitory amino acid transporter 10D, vesicular GABA transporter a form
Species: mouse
Products:     Slc32a1

Top Publications

  1. Ebihara S, Obata K, Yanagawa Y. Mouse vesicular GABA transporter gene: genomic organization, transcriptional regulation and chromosomal localization. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;110:126-39 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mouse VGAT (mVGAT) gene expression, we have isolated and characterized the mVGAT gene. The mVGAT gene was found to be 4...
  2. Kozorovitskiy Y, Saunders A, Johnson C, Lowell B, Sabatini B. Recurrent network activity drives striatal synaptogenesis. Nature. 2012;485:646-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects indicate that the propagation of activity through a multi-stage network regulates the wiring of the basal ganglia, revealing an important role of positive feedback in driving network maturation. ..
  3. Sagne C, El Mestikawy S, Isambert M, Hamon M, Henry J, Giros B, et al. Cloning of a functional vesicular GABA and glycine transporter by screening of genome databases. FEBS Lett. 1997;417:177-83 pubmed
    ..These observations, consistent with previous data on GABA and glycine uptake by synaptic vesicles, demonstrate that the mouse clone encodes a vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter.
  4. Krashes M, Shah B, Koda S, Lowell B. Rapid versus delayed stimulation of feeding by the endogenously released AgRP neuron mediators GABA, NPY, and AgRP. Cell Metab. 2013;18:588-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies help to elucidate the neurochemical mechanisms of AgRP neurons in controlling temporally distinct phases of eating. ..
  5. Anaclet C, Lin J, Vetrivelan R, Krenzer M, Vong L, Fuller P, et al. Identification and characterization of a sleep-active cell group in the rostral medullary brainstem. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17970-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Using transgenic reporter mice [vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (Vgat)-GFP], we then show that >50% of PZ sleep-active neurons are inhibitory (GABAergic/glycinergic, VGAT-positive) ..
  6. Kong D, Tong Q, Ye C, Koda S, Fuller P, Krashes M, et al. GABAergic RIP-Cre neurons in the arcuate nucleus selectively regulate energy expenditure. Cell. 2012;151:645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GABAergic RIP-Cre neurons in the arcuate selectively drive energy expenditure, contribute to leptin's stimulatory effect on thermogenesis, and protect against diet-induced obesity. ..
  7. Oh W, Noggle S, Maddox D, Condie B. The mouse vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gene: expression during embryogenesis, analysis of its core promoter in neural stem cells and a reconsideration of its alternate splicing. Gene. 2005;351:39-49 pubmed
    The vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter, VIAAT (also known as vesicular GABA transporter VGAT) transports GABA or glycine into synaptic vesicles...
  8. Leao R, Mikulovic S, Leao K, Munguba H, Gezelius H, Enjin A, et al. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1524-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus. ..
  9. Wojcik S, Katsurabayashi S, Guillemin I, Friauf E, Rosenmund C, Brose N, et al. A shared vesicular carrier allows synaptic corelease of GABA and glycine. Neuron. 2006;50:575-87 pubmed
    ..We show that inactivation of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (Viaat, VGAT) leads to embryonic lethality, an abdominal defect known as omphalocele, and a ..

More Information


  1. Vong L, Ye C, Yang Z, Choi B, Chua S, Lowell B. Leptin action on GABAergic neurons prevents obesity and reduces inhibitory tone to POMC neurons. Neuron. 2011;71:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we take an alternative approach and test whether first-order neurons are inhibitory (GABAergic, VGAT?) or excitatory (glutamatergic, VGLUT2?)...
  2. Tong Q, Ye C, Jones J, Elmquist J, Lowell B. Synaptic release of GABA by AgRP neurons is required for normal regulation of energy balance. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:998-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice are lean, resistant to obesity and have an attenuated hyperphagic response to ghrelin. Thus, GABA release from AgRP neurons is important in regulating energy balance. ..
  3. Fujii M, Arata A, Kanbara Kume N, Saito K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K. Respiratory activity in brainstem of fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 and vesicular GABA transporter. Neuroscience. 2007;146:1044-52 pubmed
    ..neural activities in brainstem-spinal cord blocks prepared from GAD65-/-:67-/- and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-/-mice on embryonic day 14 (E14)-E15 and E18...
  4. Evans M, Rizwan M, Anderson G. Insulin action on GABA neurons is a critical regulator of energy balance but not fertility in mice. Endocrinology. 2014;155:4368-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the Cre-loxP system to generate mice with a selective inactivation of the Insr gene from GABAergic (Vgat(+)) or glutamatergic (Vglut2(+)) cells by crossing Insr-flox mice with Vgat-Cre or Vglut2-Cre mice, respectively...
  5. Yang L, McKnight G. Hypothalamic PKA regulates leptin sensitivity and adiposity. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8237 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that RIIβ-PKA modulates the duration of leptin receptor signalling and therefore the magnitude of the catabolic response to leptin. ..
  6. Bao H, Asrican B, Li W, Gu B, Wen Z, Lim S, et al. Long-Range GABAergic Inputs Regulate Neural Stem Cell Quiescence and Control Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis. Cell Stem Cell. 2017;21:604-617.e5 pubmed publisher
  7. Fogarty M, Kanjhan R, Yanagawa Y, Noakes P, Bellingham M. Alterations in hypoglossal motor neurons due to GAD67 and VGAT deficiency in mice. Exp Neurol. 2017;289:117-127 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mutant glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VGAT) deficient mice, we describe the effect that deficiencies of presynaptic GABAergic and/or ..
  8. Resch J, Fenselau H, Madara J, Wu C, Campbell J, Lyubetskaya A, et al. Aldosterone-Sensing Neurons in the NTS Exhibit State-Dependent Pacemaker Activity and Drive Sodium Appetite via Synergy with Angiotensin II Signaling. Neuron. 2017;96:190-206.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between angiotensin signaling and NTSHSD2 neurons provides a neuronal context for the long-standing "synergy hypothesis" of sodium appetite regulation. ..
  9. Enjin A, Perry S, Hilscher M, Nagaraja C, Larhammar M, Gezelius H, et al. Developmental Disruption of Recurrent Inhibitory Feedback Results in Compensatory Adaptation in the Renshaw Cell-Motor Neuron Circuit. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5634-5647 pubmed publisher
    ..of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor α2 (Chrna2) in mice to genetically target the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in Renshaw cells...
  10. Anaclet C, Pedersen N, Ferrari L, Venner A, Bass C, Arrigoni E, et al. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8744 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. ..
  11. Hackett T, Clause A, Takahata T, Hackett N, Polley D. Differential maturation of vesicular glutamate and GABA transporter expression in the mouse auditory forebrain during the first weeks of hearing. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:2619-73 pubmed publisher
    ..auditory forebrain, we tracked the expression of the vesicular transporters of glutamate (VGluT1, VGluT2) and GABA (VGAT) in primary auditory cortex (A1) and medial geniculate body (MGB) of developing mice (P7, P11, P14, P21, adult) ..
  12. Tritsch N, Ding J, Sabatini B. Dopaminergic neurons inhibit striatal output through non-canonical release of GABA. Nature. 2012;490:262-6 pubmed publisher released directly from dopaminergic axons but in a manner that is independent of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT. Instead, GABA release requires activity of the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2, which is the vesicular ..
  13. Yoo J, Zell V, Gutierrez Reed N, Wu J, Ressler R, Shenasa M, et al. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons co-release GABA and promote positive reinforcement. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13697 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that VTA glutamate neurons co-release GABA in a projection-target-dependent manner and that their transient activation drives positive reinforcement. ..
  14. Kim J, Kosaka Y, Shimizu Okabe C, Niizaki A, Takayama C. Characteristic development of the GABA-removal system in the mouse spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2014;262:129-42 pubmed publisher
    ..4) After synapse formation, GAT-3 may continue to remove GABA from immature and mature synaptic clefts into the processes of astrocytes. (5) Development of the GABA-removal system may be completed by P21. ..
  15. Attinger A, Wang B, Keller G. Visuomotor Coupling Shapes the Functional Development of Mouse Visual Cortex. Cell. 2017;169:1291-1302.e14 pubmed publisher
  16. Kayakabe M, Kakizaki T, Kaneko R, Sasaki A, Nakazato Y, Shibasaki K, et al. Motor dysfunction in cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific vesicular GABA transporter knockout mice. Front Cell Neurosci. 2013;7:286 pubmed publisher
    ..The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is an essential molecule for GABAergic neurotransmission due to its role in vesicular GABA release...
  17. Mickelsen L, Kolling F, Chimileski B, Fujita A, Norris C, Chen K, et al. Neurochemical Heterogeneity Among Lateral Hypothalamic Hypocretin/Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons Identified Through Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
  18. Miura E, Fukaya M, Sato T, Sugihara K, Asano M, Yoshioka K, et al. Expression and distribution of JNK/SAPK-associated scaffold protein JSAP1 in developing and adult mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2006;97:1431-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the characteristic cellular expression and subcellular distribution of JSAP1 might be beneficial for cells to efficiently link external stimuli to the JNK MAPK pathway and other intracellular machineries. ..
  19. Hashikawa K, Hashikawa Y, Tremblay R, Zhang J, Feng J, Sabol A, et al. Esr1+ cells in the ventromedial hypothalamus control female aggression. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:1580-1590 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support an essential role of the VMHvl in both male and female aggression and reveal the existence of two previously unappreciated subdivisions in the female VMHvl that are involved in distinct social behaviors. ..
  20. Guo C, Stella S, Hirano A, Brecha N. Plasmalemmal and vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in the developing mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:6-26 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of the plasmalemmal GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1), GAT-3, and the vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT) were evaluated in the developing mouse retina by using immunohistochemistry with affinity-purified antibodies...
  21. Song K, Wang H, Kamm G, Pohle J, Reis F, Heppenstall P, et al. The TRPM2 channel is a hypothalamic heat sensor that limits fever and can drive hypothermia. Science. 2016;353:1393-1398 pubmed
  22. Kakizaki T, Oriuchi N, Yanagawa Y. GAD65/GAD67 double knockout mice exhibit intermediate severity in both cleft palate and omphalocele compared with GAD67 knockout and VGAT knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2015;288:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (GABA) and glycine, are transported into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)...
  23. Jimenez J, Su K, Goldberg A, Luna V, Biane J, Ordek G, et al. Anxiety Cells in a Hippocampal-Hypothalamic Circuit. Neuron. 2018;97:670-683.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the hippocampus encodes not only neutral but also valence-related contextual information, and the vCA1-LHA pathway is a direct route by which the hippocampus can rapidly influence innate anxiety behavior. ..
  24. Gallart Palau X, Tarabal O, Casanovas A, S bado J, Correa F, Hereu M, et al. Neuregulin-1 is concentrated in the postsynaptic subsurface cistern of C-bouton inputs to ?-motoneurons and altered during motoneuron diseases. FASEB J. 2014;28:3618-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In both models, a transient increase in NRG1 in C boutons occurs during disease progression. These data increase our understanding of the role of C boutons in MN physiology and pathology...
  25. Mizuguchi R, Kriks S, Cordes R, Gossler A, Ma Q, Goulding M. Ascl1 and Gsh1/2 control inhibitory and excitatory cell fate in spinal sensory interneurons. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:770-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that this switch in Ascl1 function enables the cogeneration of inhibitory and excitatory sensory interneurons from a common pool of dorsal progenitors. ..
  26. Gu Z, Serradj N, Ueno M, Liang M, Li J, Baccei M, et al. Skilled Movements Require Non-apoptotic Bax/Bak Pathway-Mediated Corticospinal Circuit Reorganization. Neuron. 2017;94:626-641.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal key cellular and molecular mechanisms driving postnatal motor circuit reorganization and the resulting impacts on muscle activation patterns and the execution of skilled movements. ..
  27. Stuber G, Stamatakis A, Kantak P. Considerations when using cre-driver rodent lines for studying ventral tegmental area circuitry. Neuron. 2015;85:439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This Matters Arising Response paper addresses the Lammel et al. (2015) Matters Arising paper, published concurrently in Neuron. ..
  28. Wu Z, Kim E, Sun H, Xu Y, Mangieri L, Li D, et al. GABAergic projections from lateral hypothalamus to paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus promote feeding. J Neurosci. 2015;35:3312-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, disruption of GABA-A receptors in the PVH reduced feeding. Thus, we have identified a new feeding pathway in which GABAergic projections from the LH to the PVH promote feeding. ..
  29. Fang Y, Yamaguchi T, Song S, Tritsch N, Lin D. A Hypothalamic Midbrain Pathway Essential for Driving Maternal Behaviors. Neuron. 2018;98:192-207.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, this study provides new insight into the neural circuit that generates maternal behaviors. ..
  30. Hou G, Smith A, Zhang Z. Lack of Intrinsic GABAergic Connections in the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus of the Mouse. J Neurosci. 2016;36:7246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that except for the first 2 weeks after birth, the thalamic reticular nucleus of the mouse lacks intrinsic GABAergic connections. ..
  31. Kosaka Y, Kin H, Tatetsu M, Uema I, Takayama C. Distinct development of GABA system in the ventral and dorsal horns in the embryonic mouse spinal cord. Brain Res. 2012;1486:39-52 pubmed publisher
  32. Duquette P, Zhou X, Yap N, MacLaren E, Lu J, Wallace V, et al. Loss of LMO4 in the retina leads to reduction of GABAergic amacrine cells and functional deficits. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13232 pubmed publisher
  33. Vaghi V, Pennucci R, Talpo F, Corbetta S, Montinaro V, Barone C, et al. Rac1 and rac3 GTPases control synergistically the development of cortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:1247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Rac1 and Rac3 contribute synergistically to postmitotic development of specific populations of GABAergic cells, suggesting that these proteins regulate their migration and differentiation. ..
  34. Zhou L, Liu M, Li Q, Deng J, Mu D, Sun Y. Organization of Functional Long-Range Circuits Controlling the Activity of Serotonergic Neurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus. Cell Rep. 2017;18:3018-3032 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a framework for further deciphering the functional roles of long-range circuits controlling the activity of serotonergic neurons in the DRN. ..
  35. Heupel K, Sargsyan V, Plomp J, Rickmann M, Varoqueaux F, Zhang W, et al. Loss of transforming growth factor-beta 2 leads to impairment of central synapse function. Neural Dev. 2008;3:25 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional alterations in the respiratory center of the brain are probably the underlying cause of the perinatal death of the TGF-beta2 knock-out mice. ..
  36. Song Y, Kim J, Jeong H, Choi I, Jeong D, Kim K, et al. A Neural Circuit for Auditory Dominance over Visual Perception. Neuron. 2017;93:940-954.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate that AC input-specific feedforward inhibition of VC inputs in the PTLp is responsible for the auditory dominance during cross-modal integration. ..
  37. Mo J, Kim C, Lee D, Sun W, Lee H, Kim H. Early growth response 1 (Egr-1) directly regulates GABAA receptor α2, α4, and θ subunits in the hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2015;133:489-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal activity-dependent up-regulation of Egr-1 might lead to altered subtypes of GABAA receptors for the maintenance of homeostatic excitatory and inhibitory balance for the regulation of synaptic strength. ..
  38. Batista Brito R, Machold R, Klein C, Fishell G. Gene expression in cortical interneuron precursors is prescient of their mature function. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2306-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our work has revealed that many of the genes expressed in cortical interneuron precursors have been independently linked to neurological disorders in both mice and humans. ..
  39. Rabe Bernhardt N, Memic F, Gezelius H, Thiebes A, Vallstedt A, Kullander K. DCC mediated axon guidance of spinal interneurons is essential for normal locomotor central pattern generator function. Dev Biol. 2012;366:279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, it provides evidence that axon crossing in the spinal cord is more intricately controlled than in previously suggested models of DCC-netrin-1 interaction. ..
  40. Chatzi C, Brade T, Duester G. Retinoic acid functions as a key GABAergic differentiation signal in the basal ganglia. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000609 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observation that endogenous RA is required for generation of LGE-derived GABAergic neurons in the basal ganglia establishes a key role for RA signaling in development of the forebrain. ..
  41. Fogarty M, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Bellingham M, Noakes P. Genetic absence of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter differentially regulates respiratory and locomotor motor neuron development. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:525-40 pubmed publisher
    ..hypoglossal and phrenic) and two locomotor (brachial and lumbar) motor pools, in mice lacking vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter, which display absent or severely impaired GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission...
  42. Shabel S, Proulx C, Piriz J, Malinow R. Mood regulation. GABA/glutamate co-release controls habenula output and is modified by antidepressant treatment. Science. 2014;345:1494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..GABA and glutamate co-release therefore controls LHb activity, and regulation of this form of transmission may be important for determining the effect of negative life events on mood and behavior. ..
  43. Zuure W, Roberts A, Quennell J, Anderson G. Leptin signaling in GABA neurons, but not glutamate neurons, is required for reproductive function. J Neurosci. 2013;33:17874-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Limiting the leptin-to-GnRH mediators to GABAergic cells will enable future research to focus on a few specific types of neurons. ..
  44. Han W, Tellez L, Rangel M, Motta S, Zhang X, Perez I, et al. Integrated Control of Predatory Hunting by the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala. Cell. 2017;168:311-324.e18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings delineate a neural network that integrates distinct behavioral modules and suggest that central amygdala neurons instruct predatory hunting across jawed vertebrates. ..
  45. Molofsky A, Kelley K, Tsai H, Redmond S, Chang S, Madireddy L, et al. Astrocyte-encoded positional cues maintain sensorimotor circuit integrity. Nature. 2014;509:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, they suggest that regional astrocyte heterogeneity may help to coordinate postnatal neural circuit refinement. ..
  46. Roseberry T, Lee A, Lalive A, Wilbrecht L, Bonci A, Kreitzer A. Cell-Type-Specific Control of Brainstem Locomotor Circuits by Basal Ganglia. Cell. 2016;164:526-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a fundamental understanding of how BG can initiate or suppress a motor program through cell-type-specific regulation of neurons linked to specific actions. ..
  47. Qualls Creekmore E, Yu S, François M, Hoang J, Huesing C, Bruce Keller A, et al. Galanin-Expressing GABA Neurons in the Lateral Hypothalamus Modulate Food Reward and Noncompulsive Locomotion. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6053-6065 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study integrates galanin-expressing LHA neurons into our current understanding of the neuronal circuits and molecular mechanisms of the LHA that contribute to motivated feeding behaviors. ..
  48. Puglisi F, Vanni V, Ponterio G, Tassone A, Sciamanna G, Bonsi P, et al. Torsin A Localization in the Mouse Cerebellar Synaptic Circuitry. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68063 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, TA was observed also in glial cells, a cellular population little explored so far. These results extend our knowledge on TA synaptic localization providing a clue to its potential role in synaptic development. ..
  49. Long J, Garel S, Alvarez Dolado M, Yoshikawa K, Osumi N, Alvarez Buylla A, et al. Dlx-dependent and -independent regulation of olfactory bulb interneuron differentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3230-43 pubmed
  50. Tanabe Y, Naito Y, Vasuta C, Lee A, Soumounou Y, Linhoff M, et al. IgSF21 promotes differentiation of inhibitory synapses via binding to neurexin2?. Nat Commun. 2017;8:408 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors show that IgSF21 interacts with neurexin2? to induce presynaptic differentiation of inhibitory synapses, and that mice lacking IgSF21 exhibit deficits in inhibitory synaptic transmission. ..
  51. Anaclet C, Ferrari L, Arrigoni E, Bass C, Saper C, Lu J, et al. The GABAergic parafacial zone is a medullary slow wave sleep-promoting center. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1217-24 pubmed publisher
  52. Hayashi M, Otsuka M, Morimoto R, Muroyama A, Uehara S, Yamamoto A, et al. Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter is present in glucagon-containing secretory granules in alphaTC6 cells, mouse clonal alpha-cells, and alpha-cells of islets of Langerhans. Diabetes. 2003;52:2066-74 pubmed
    ..b>Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT), which is responsible for the storage of GABA and glycine in neuronal synaptic vesicles,..
  53. Xiao L, Priest M, Nasenbeny J, Lu T, Kozorovitskiy Y. Biased Oxytocinergic Modulation of Midbrain Dopamine Systems. Neuron. 2017;95:368-384.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Since hypothalamic oxytocinergic projections also target the striatum, oxytocin is poised to bias the balance of DA tone through multiple sites in vertebrate reward circuits. ..
  54. Kim E, Wu Z, Sun H, Xu Y, Mangieri L, Xu Y, et al. Hypothalamic Non-AgRP, Non-POMC GABAergic Neurons Are Required for Postweaning Feeding and NPY Hyperphagia. J Neurosci. 2015;35:10440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results signify an importance to study those yet to be defined hypothalamic neurons in the regulation of energy balance and reveal a neural basis for postweaning (nocturnal) feeding and NPY-mediated hyperphagia. ..
  55. Pei Z, Chen Q, Koren D, Giammarinaro B, Acaron Ledesma H, Wei W. Conditional Knock-Out of Vesicular GABA Transporter Gene from Starburst Amacrine Cells Reveals the Contributions of Multiple Synaptic Mechanisms Underlying Direction Selectivity in the Retina. J Neurosci. 2015;35:13219-32 pubmed publisher
  56. Kudo T, Uchigashima M, Miyazaki T, Konno K, Yamasaki M, Yanagawa Y, et al. Three types of neurochemical projection from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to the ventral tegmental area in adult mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:18035-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In the VTA, VGluT3 was detected in terminals expressing vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT), plasmalemmal serotonin transporter, or neither...
  57. Kim T, Kerschensteiner D. Inhibitory Control of Feature Selectivity in an Object Motion Sensitive Circuit of the Retina. Cell Rep. 2017;19:1343-1350 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-type-specific silencing reveals that temporally coded inhibition from TH2-ACs cancels W3-RGC spike responses to global but not local motion stimuli and, thus, controls the feature selectivity of OMS signals sent to the brain. ..
  58. Rahman J, Besser S, Schnell C, Eulenburg V, Hirrlinger J, Wojcik S, et al. Genetic ablation of VIAAT in glycinergic neurons causes a severe respiratory phenotype and perinatal death. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:2835-49 pubmed publisher
    Both glycinergic and GABAergic neurons require the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) for synaptic vesicle filling...
  59. Chih B, Engelman H, Scheiffele P. Control of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation by neuroligins. Science. 2005;307:1324-8 pubmed
    ..Electrophysiological analysis revealed a predominant reduction of inhibitory synaptic function. Thus, neuroligins control the formation and functional balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in hippocampal neurons. ..
  60. Andersson L, Larhammar M, Memic F, Wootz H, Schwochow D, Rubin C, et al. Mutations in DMRT3 affect locomotion in horses and spinal circuit function in mice. Nature. 2012;488:642-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The DMRT3 mutation has had a major effect on the diversification of the domestic horse, as the altered gait characteristics of a number of breeds apparently require this mutation...
  61. Matsuda T, Hiyama T, Niimura F, Matsusaka T, Fukamizu A, Kobayashi K, et al. Distinct neural mechanisms for the control of thirst and salt appetite in the subfornical organ. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:230-241 pubmed publisher
    ..These distinct mechanisms in the subfornical organ may underlie the selective intakes of water and/or salt and may contribute to body fluid homeostasis. ..
  62. Mizuguchi R, Naritsuka H, Mori K, Mao C, Klein W, Yoshihara Y. Tbr2 deficiency in mitral and tufted cells disrupts excitatory-inhibitory balance of neural circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8831-44 pubmed publisher
  63. Qiu F, Jiang H, Xiang M. A comprehensive negative regulatory program controlled by Brn3b to ensure ganglion cell specification from multipotential retinal precursors. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3392-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Brn3b specifies the RGC fate from multipotential precursors not only by promoting RGC differentiation but also by suppressing non-RGC differentiation programs as a safeguard mechanism. ..
  64. Shi X, Barchini J, Ledesma H, Koren D, Jin Y, Liu X, et al. Retinal origin of direction selectivity in the superior colliculus. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:550-558 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina. ..
  65. Mahoney C, Agostinelli L, Brooks J, Lowell B, Scammell T. GABAergic Neurons of the Central Amygdala Promote Cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2017;37:3995-4006 pubmed publisher
    ..vectors coding for Cre-dependent DREADDs or a control vector into the CeA of orexin knock-out mice crossed with vGAT-Cre mice, resulting in selective expression of the excitatory hM3 receptor or the inhibitory hM4 receptor in ..
  66. Nikoletopoulou V, Plachta N, Allen N, Pinto L, Gotz M, Barde Y. Neurotrophin receptor-mediated death of misspecified neurons generated from embryonic stem cells lacking Pax6. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..They also provide a novel opportunity to compare the molecular constituents of glutamatergic with those of GABA-ergic neurons and to explore the mechanisms of their generation. ..
  67. Nectow A, Schneeberger M, Zhang H, Field B, Renier N, Azevedo E, et al. Identification of a Brainstem Circuit Controlling Feeding. Cell. 2017;170:429-442.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, expressing vesicular transporters for GABA or glutamate (hereafter, DRNVgat and DRNVGLUT3 neurons), are reciprocally activated by changes in energy balance and that ..
  68. Shah B, Vong L, Olson D, Koda S, Krashes M, Ye C, et al. MC4R-expressing glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus regulate feeding and are synaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a basis for the feeding-regulating effects of MC4Rs. ..
  69. Peixoto R, Wang W, Croney D, Kozorovitskiy Y, Sabatini B. Early hyperactivity and precocious maturation of corticostriatal circuits in Shank3B(-/-) mice. Nat Neurosci. 2016;19:716-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that there is a tight functional coupling between cortex and striatum during early postnatal development and suggest a potential common circuit dysfunction that is caused by cortical hyperactivity. ..
  70. Miyazaki T, Hashimoto K, Uda A, Sakagami H, Nakamura Y, Saito S, et al. Disturbance of cerebellar synaptic maturation in mutant mice lacking BSRPs, a novel brain-specific receptor-like protein family. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:4057-64 pubmed
    ..Because cerebellar maturation and plasticity require metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling and resulting PKC activation, BSRPs are likely involved in ER functions supporting PKCalpha activation in PCs. ..
  71. Riccomagno M, Sun L, Brady C, Alexandropoulos K, Seo S, Kurokawa M, et al. Cas adaptor proteins organize the retinal ganglion cell layer downstream of integrin signaling. Neuron. 2014;81:779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal an essential role for Cas adaptor proteins in ?1-Integrin-mediated signaling events critical for the formation of the single-cell GCL in the mammalian retina. ..
  72. Vardy E, Robinson J, Li C, Olsen R, Diberto J, Giguère P, et al. A New DREADD Facilitates the Multiplexed Chemogenetic Interrogation of Behavior. Neuron. 2015;86:936-946 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of DREADDs activated by different ligands provides enhanced opportunities for investigating diverse physiological systems using multiplexed chemogenetic actuators. ..
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