Gene Symbol: Slc1a3
Description: solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3
Alias: AI504299, B430115D02Rik, Eaat1, GLAST, GLAST-1, GLU-T, GluT-1, Gmt1, MGluT1, excitatory amino acid transporter 1, glial high affinity glutamate transporter, glutamate/aspartate transporter, high-affinity neuronal glutamate transporter, sodium-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter 1, solute carrier family 1, member 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Slc1a3

Top Publications

  1. Petros T, Williams S, Mason C. Temporal regulation of EphA4 in astroglia during murine retinal and optic nerve development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;32:49-66 pubmed
  2. Stolt C, Lommes P, Sock E, Chaboissier M, Schedl A, Wegner M. The Sox9 transcription factor determines glial fate choice in the developing spinal cord. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1677-89 pubmed
  3. Lugert S, Basak O, Knuckles P, Haussler U, Fabel K, Gotz M, et al. Quiescent and active hippocampal neural stem cells with distinct morphologies respond selectively to physiological and pathological stimuli and aging. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:445-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of multiple NSC populations with Notch dependence but selective responses to stimuli and reversible quiescence has important implications for the mechanisms of adaptive learning and also for regenerative therapy. ..
  4. Piper M, Harris L, Barry G, Heng Y, Plachez C, Gronostajski R, et al. Nuclear factor one X regulates the development of multiple cellular populations in the postnatal cerebellum. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3532-48 pubmed publisher
  5. Ogawa Y, Takebayashi H, Takahashi M, Osumi N, Iwasaki Y, Ikenaka K. Gliogenic radial glial cells show heterogeneity in the developing mouse spinal cord. Dev Neurosci. 2005;27:364-77 pubmed
    ..This raises the idea that astrocytes generated from different domains along the dorsoventral axis in the mouse spinal cord have distinct characteristics. ..
  6. Shibata T, Yamada K, Watanabe M, Ikenaka K, Wada K, Tanaka K, et al. Glutamate transporter GLAST is expressed in the radial glia-astrocyte lineage of developing mouse spinal cord. J Neurosci. 1997;17:9212-9 pubmed
    The glutamate transporter GLAST is localized on the cell membrane of mature astrocytes and is also expressed in the ventricular zone of developing brains...
  7. Karlsson R, Tanaka K, Saksida L, Bussey T, Heilig M, Holmes A. Assessment of glutamate transporter GLAST (EAAT1)-deficient mice for phenotypes relevant to the negative and executive/cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1578-89 pubmed publisher that selectively target the transporter, we recently showed that glial glutamate and aspartate transporter (GLAST; excitatory amino-acid transporter 1) mutant mice exhibit abnormalities on behavioral measures thought to model ..
  8. Harada C, Namekata K, Guo X, Yoshida H, Mitamura Y, Matsumoto Y, et al. ASK1 deficiency attenuates neural cell death in GLAST-deficient mice, a model of normal tension glaucoma. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mammalian retina, glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) is a major glutamate transporter, and the loss of GLAST leads to optic nerve degeneration similar to normal ..
  9. Deneen B, Ho R, Lukaszewicz A, Hochstim C, Gronostajski R, Anderson D. The transcription factor NFIA controls the onset of gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. Neuron. 2006;52:953-68 pubmed
    ..NFI genes, which are induced throughout the spinal cord ventricular zone (VZ) concomitantly with the induction of GLAST, an early marker of gliogenesis. NFIA is both necessary and sufficient for GLAST induction in the VZ...

More Information


  1. Piper M, Moldrich R, Lindwall C, Little E, Barry G, Mason S, et al. Multiple non-cell-autonomous defects underlie neocortical callosal dysgenesis in Nfib-deficient mice. Neural Dev. 2009;4:43 pubmed publisher
  2. Matsugami T, Tanemura K, Mieda M, Nakatomi R, Yamada K, Kondo T, et al. From the Cover: Indispensability of the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1 to brain development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12161-6 pubmed
    ..on brain development of extracellular glutamate buildup due to the depletion of the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT1...
  3. Bonilla S, Hall A, Pinto L, Attardo A, Gotz M, Huttner W, et al. Identification of midbrain floor plate radial glia-like cells as dopaminergic progenitors. Glia. 2008;56:809-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Lineage tracing of DA progenitors with EGFP in Tis21-EGFP knock-in mice, and genetic fate mapping in GLAST::CreERT2/ZEG mice identified the neuroepithelium of the midbrain FP, and specifically, GLAST+ radial glia-like ..
  4. Watase K, Hashimoto K, Kano M, Yamada K, Watanabe M, Inoue Y, et al. Motor discoordination and increased susceptibility to cerebellar injury in GLAST mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:976-88 pubmed
    To study the function of GLAST, a glutamate transporter highly expressed in the cerebellar Bergmann astrocytes, the mouse GLAST gene was inactivated...
  5. Namekata K, Kimura A, Kawamura K, Guo X, Harada C, Tanaka K, et al. Dock3 attenuates neural cell death due to NMDA neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) is a major glutamate transporter in the retina, and RGC degeneration due to glutamate neurotoxicity and oxidative ..
  6. Nelson B, Hartman B, Ray C, Hayashi T, Bermingham McDonogh O, Reh T. Acheate-scute like 1 (Ascl1) is required for normal delta-like (Dll) gene expression and notch signaling during retinal development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2163-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results suggest a molecular mechanism whereby attenuated Notch levels coupled with reduced proneurogenic activity in progenitors leads to increased gliogenesis and decreased neurogenesis in the Ascl1-deficient retina. ..
  7. Hartfuss E, Galli R, Heins N, Gotz M. Characterization of CNS precursor subtypes and radial glia. Dev Biol. 2001;229:15-30 pubmed
    ..distinct subsets identified by immunostaining for the antigens RC2, the astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST), and the brain-lipid-binding protein (BLBP)...
  8. Li S, Jin Z, Koirala S, Bu L, Xu L, Hynes R, et al. GPR56 regulates pial basement membrane integrity and cortical lamination. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a putative ligand of GPR56 is localized in the marginal zone or overlying extracellular matrix. These observations provide compelling evidence that GPR56 functions in regulating pial BM integrity during cortical development...
  9. Mori T, Tanaka K, Buffo A, Wurst W, Kühn R, Gotz M. Inducible gene deletion in astroglia and radial glia--a valuable tool for functional and lineage analysis. Glia. 2006;54:21-34 pubmed
    ..that the inducible form of Cre (CreERT2) expressed in the locus of the astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST) allows precisely timed gene deletion in adult astrocytes as well as radial glial cells at earlier developmental ..
  10. Ohkubo Y, Uchida A, Shin D, Partanen J, Vaccarino F. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is required for the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells and for hippocampal growth in mouse. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6057-69 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Fgfr1 is necessary for hippocampal growth, because it promotes the proliferation of hippocampal progenitors and stem cells during development. ..
  11. Calvo C, Fontaine R, Soueid J, Tammela T, Makinen T, Alfaro Cervello C, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 directly regulates murine neurogenesis. Genes Dev. 2011;25:831-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling acts directly on NSCs and regulates adult neurogenesis, opening potential approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  12. Waclaw R, Allen Z, Bell S, Erdelyi F, Szabo G, Potter S, et al. The zinc finger transcription factor Sp8 regulates the generation and diversity of olfactory bulb interneurons. Neuron. 2006;49:503-16 pubmed
  13. Ninkovic J, Mori T, Gotz M. Distinct modes of neuron addition in adult mouse neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10906-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, neuron addition is distinct and tightly regulated in the neuronal networks that incorporate new neurons life long. ..
  14. Barry G, Piper M, Lindwall C, Moldrich R, Mason S, Little E, et al. Specific glial populations regulate hippocampal morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these fail to mature into GLAST- and GFAP-positive glia, and the supragranular glial bundle is absent...
  15. Anthony T, Klein C, Fishell G, Heintz N. Radial glia serve as neuronal progenitors in all regions of the central nervous system. Neuron. 2004;41:881-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, radial glial populations within different CNS regions are not heterogeneous with regard to their potential to generate neurons versus glia. ..
  16. Sahara S, O Leary D. Fgf10 regulates transition period of cortical stem cell differentiation to radial glia controlling generation of neurons and basal progenitors. Neuron. 2009;63:48-62 pubmed publisher
  17. Tanaka K, Watase K, Manabe T, Yamada K, Watanabe M, Takahashi K, et al. Epilepsy and exacerbation of brain injury in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLT-1. Science. 1997;276:1699-702 pubmed
    ..These effects can be attributed to elevated levels of residual glutamate in the brains of these mice...
  18. Pawlisz A, Mutch C, Wynshaw Boris A, Chenn A, Walsh C, Feng Y. Lis1-Nde1-dependent neuronal fate control determines cerebral cortical size and lamination. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2441-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that maintaining the shape and cell-cell interactions of radial glial neuroepithelial progenitors by the Lis1-Nde1 complex is essential for their self renewal during the early phase of corticogenesis. ..
  19. Zagami C, Beart P, Wallis N, Nagley P, O Shea R. Oxidative and excitotoxic insults exert differential effects on spinal motoneurons and astrocytic glutamate transporters: Implications for the role of astrogliosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Glia. 2009;57:119-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This homeostatic response of EAAT function involved no change in the cell surface expression of EAAT1/2 at 0.5-4 h, but rather alterations in kinetic properties...
  20. Schreiner A, Durry S, Aida T, Stock M, Ruther U, Tanaka K, et al. Laminar and subcellular heterogeneity of GLAST and GLT-1 immunoreactivity in the developing postnatal mouse hippocampus. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:204-24 pubmed publisher
    Astrocytes express two sodium-coupled transporters, glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which are essential for the maintenance of low extracellular glutamate levels...
  21. Liu Y, Yang C, Chen M, Sun S, Tzeng S. Ca(2+)-dependent reduction of glutamate aspartate transporter GLAST expression in astrocytes by P2X(7) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling. J Neurochem. 2010;113:213-27 pubmed publisher
    ..primarily through glial-specific glutamate transporter-1 and the Na(+)-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST)...
  22. Backman M, Machon O, Van Den Bout C, Krauss S. Targeted disruption of mouse Dach1 results in postnatal lethality. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:139-44 pubmed
    ..Neural stem cells derived from mutant and wild-type newborn brains display similar growth kinetics when cultivated in vitro. ..
  23. Shibata T, Watanabe M, Tanaka K, Wada K, Inoue Y. Dynamic changes in expression of glutamate transporter mRNAs in developing brain. Neuroreport. 1996;7:705-9 pubmed
    ..These dynamic developmental regulations suggest that the glutamate transporter not only regulates the excitatory synaptic transmission at mature stages, but might also be intimately involved in the brain development...
  24. Tervonen T, Louhivuori V, Sun X, Hokkanen M, Kratochwil C, Zebryk P, et al. Aberrant differentiation of glutamatergic cells in neocortex of mouse model for fragile X syndrome. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;33:250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These abnormalities were associated with an increased density of pyramidal cells of the layer V in the early postnatal neocortex suggesting a role for FMRP in the regulation of the differentiation of neocortical glutamatergic neurons. ..
  25. Hartman B, Nelson B, Reh T, Bermingham McDonogh O. Delta/notch-like EGF-related receptor (DNER) is expressed in hair cells and neurons in the developing and adult mouse inner ear. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2010;11:187-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We found no defects in expression of markers of supporting cells and glia or myelin, and no abnormalities in hair cells or neurons, suggesting that DNER plays a redundant role with other Notch ligands in cochlear development. ..
  26. Croci L, Chung S, Masserdotti G, Gianola S, Bizzoca A, Gennarini G, et al. A key role for the HLH transcription factor EBF2COE2,O/E-3 in Purkinje neuron migration and cerebellar cortical topography. Development. 2006;133:2719-29 pubmed
  27. Marinaro C, Pannese M, Weinandy F, Sessa A, Bergamaschi A, Taketo M, et al. Wnt signaling has opposing roles in the developing and the adult brain that are modulated by Hipk1. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:2415-27 pubmed publisher
  28. Weng C, Ding M, Chang L, Ren M, Zhang H, Lu Z, et al. Ankfy1 is dispensable for neural stem/precursor cell development. Neural Regen Res. 2016;11:1804-1809 pubmed publisher
    ..5. We conclude that Ankfy1 protein is dispensable in neural stem/precursor cells, but could be critical for early embryonic murine development, depending on the genetic background. ..
  29. Schraven S, Franz C, Ruttiger L, Löwenheim H, Lysakowski A, Stoffel W, et al. Altered phenotype of the vestibular organ in GLAST-1 null mice. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2012;13:323-33 pubmed publisher
    Various studies point to a crucial role of the high-affinity sodium-coupled glutamate aspartate transporter GLAST-1 for modulation of excitatory transmission as shown in the retina and the CNS...
  30. Krycer J, Fazakerley D, Cater R, C Thomas K, Naghiloo S, Burchfield J, et al. The amino acid transporter, SLC1A3, is plasma membrane-localised in adipocytes and its activity is insensitive to insulin. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:322-330 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphoproteomic analysis identified insulin-responsive phosphorylation of the Glu/Asp transporter SLC1A3/EAAT1 in adipocytes. The role of SLC1A3 in adipocytes is not well-understood...
  31. Kimura A, Guo X, Noro T, Harada C, Tanaka K, Namekata K, et al. Valproic acid prevents retinal degeneration in a murine model of normal tension glaucoma. Neurosci Lett. 2015;588:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with glutamate/aspartate transporter gene deletion (GLAST KO mice) demonstrate progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve degeneration without elevated ..
  32. Yanagisawa M, Aida T, Takeda T, Namekata K, Harada T, Shinagawa R, et al. Arundic acid attenuates retinal ganglion cell death by increasing glutamate/aspartate transporter expression in a model of normal tension glaucoma. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1693 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, arundic acid stimulates the human GLAST ortholog, EAAT1, expression in human neuroglioblastoma cells...
  33. Anthony T, Heintz N. Genetic lineage tracing defines distinct neurogenic and gliogenic stages of ventral telencephalic radial glial development. Neural Dev. 2008;3:30 pubmed publisher
    ..comparisons of Cre/loxP lineage tracing results obtained using three different radial glial promoters (Blbp, Glast, and hGFAP), we show that most neurons in the brain are derived from radial glia...
  34. Falk S, Bugeon S, Ninkovic J, Pilz G, Postiglione M, Cremer H, et al. Time-Specific Effects of Spindle Positioning on Embryonic Progenitor Pool Composition and Adult Neural Stem Cell Seeding. Neuron. 2017;93:777-791.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a new mechanism for controlling aNSC numbers and show that the role of spindle orientation during brain development is highly time and region dependent. ..
  35. Brito V, Rozanski V, Beyer C, Kuppers E. Dopamine regulates the expression of the glutamate transporter GLT1 but not GLAST in developing striatal astrocytes. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;39:372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that dopamine decreases the expression of the glutamate transporter GLT1 but not GLAST in striatal astrocytes by measuring gene and protein expression...
  36. Matsumoto S, Banine F, Feistel K, Foster S, Xing R, Struve J, et al. Brg1 directly regulates Olig2 transcription and is required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell specification. Dev Biol. 2016;413:173-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Concurrently, Brg1 represses Olig2 expression and the specification of OPCs, but is required for OPC differentiation and oligodendrocyte maturation. ..
  37. Tsai C, Tsai C, Arnold S, Huang G. Ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice impairs the response to stress during the dark cycle. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8373 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that newborn neurons in the hippocampus are involved in sensing and eliciting an appropriate response to stress. ..
  38. Lad H, Liu L, Paya Cano J, Fernandes C, Schalkwyk L. Quantitative traits for the tail suspension test: automation, optimization, and BXD RI mapping. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:482-91 pubmed
    ..A second trial of the test has greater duration of immobility and a completely different genetic profile. Frequency of mobility is also an independent phenotype, with a distal chromosome 1 locus. ..
  39. Lane D, Lawen A. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) mediates L-glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release via swelling-activated anion channels in cultured neonatal rodent astrocytes. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013;65:107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..which non-selectively and selectively inhibit the glial Na(+)-dependent excitatory amino acid transporter, GLAST, respectively...
  40. Asami M, Pilz G, Ninkovic J, Godinho L, Schroeder T, Huttner W, et al. The role of Pax6 in regulating the orientation and mode of cell division of progenitors in the mouse cerebral cortex. Development. 2011;138:5067-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work reveals several direct effects that the transcription factor Pax6 has on the machinery that mediates the orientation and mode of cell division. ..
  41. Andersen J, Urbán N, Achimastou A, Ito A, Simic M, Ullom K, et al. A transcriptional mechanism integrating inputs from extracellular signals to activate hippocampal stem cells. Neuron. 2014;83:1085-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model whereby Ascl1 integrates inputs from both stimulatory and inhibitory signals and converts them into a transcriptional program activating adult neural stem cells. ..
  42. Matuzelski E, Bunt J, Harkins D, Lim J, Gronostajski R, Richards L, et al. Transcriptional regulation of Nfix by NFIB drives astrocytic maturation within the developing spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2017;432:286-297 pubmed publisher
    ..This hierarchical organisation of NFI protein expression and function during spinal cord gliogenesis reveals a previously unrecognised auto-regulatory mechanism within this gene family. ..
  43. Unni D, Piper M, Moldrich R, Gobius I, Liu S, Fothergill T, et al. Multiple Slits regulate the development of midline glial populations and the corpus callosum. Dev Biol. 2012;365:36-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our data also indicate that some of the roles of Slit proteins at the midline may be independent of Robo signalling, suggestive of additional receptors regulating Slit signalling during development. ..
  44. Marcaggi P, Billups D, Attwell D. The role of glial glutamate transporters in maintaining the independent operation of juvenile mouse cerebellar parallel fibre synapses. J Physiol. 2003;552:89-107 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 limit the activation of Purkinje cell AMPA receptors produced by glutamate diffusion between parallel ..
  45. McCarty J, Lacy Hulbert A, Charest A, Bronson R, Crowley D, Housman D, et al. Selective ablation of alphav integrins in the central nervous system leads to cerebral hemorrhage, seizures, axonal degeneration and premature death. Development. 2005;132:165-76 pubmed
  46. Shimizu Y, Hakuba N, Hyodo J, Taniguchi M, Gyo K. Kanamycin ototoxicity in glutamate transporter knockout mice. Neurosci Lett. 2005;380:243-6 pubmed
    Glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST), a powerful glutamate uptake system, removes released glutamate from the synaptic cleft and facilitates the re-use of glutamate as a neurotransmitter recycling system...
  47. Fitzgerald D, Bradford D, Cooper H. Neogenin is expressed on neurogenic and gliogenic progenitors in the embryonic and adult central nervous system. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:784-92 pubmed
    ..In summary, this study demonstrates that Neogenin expression is a hallmark of many neural precursor populations (neurogenic and gliogenic) in both the embryonic and adult mammalian central nervous system. ..
  48. Herard A, Dubois A, Escartin C, Tanaka K, Delzescaux T, Hantraye P, et al. Decreased metabolic response to visual stimulation in the superior colliculus of mice lacking the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1807-11 pubmed
    ..A similar reduction was not observed in the glial glutamate transporter GLAST-knockout mice...
  49. Nishino J, Yamashita K, Hashiguchi H, Fujii H, Shimazaki T, Hamada H. Meteorin: a secreted protein that regulates glial cell differentiation and promotes axonal extension. EMBO J. 2004;23:1998-2008 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that Meteorin plays important roles in both glial cell differentiation and axonal network formation during neurogenesis. ..
  50. Sheean R, Lau C, Shin Y, O Shea R, Beart P. Links between L-glutamate transporters, Na+/K+-ATPase and cytoskeleton in astrocytes: evidence following inhibition with rottlerin. Neuroscience. 2013;254:335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..blotting and immunocytochemistry, in concert with image analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein, F-actin and EAAT1/2. Rottlerin induced a time-dependent inhibition of glutamate transport (Vmax)...
  51. Hack I, Hellwig S, Junghans D, Brunne B, Bock H, Zhao S, et al. Divergent roles of ApoER2 and Vldlr in the migration of cortical neurons. Development. 2007;134:3883-91 pubmed
    ..We present evidence for divergent roles of the two reelin receptors Vldlr and ApoER2, with Vldlr mediating a stop signal for migrating neurons and ApoER2 being essential for the migration of late generated neocortical neurons. ..
  52. Mishina M, Sakimura K. Conditional gene targeting on the pure C57BL/6 genetic background. Neurosci Res. 2007;58:105-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have established an inducible and neuron-specific gene targeting system on the pure C57BL/6 genetic background. ..
  53. Xia X, Zhou X, Zeng Q. [Study on glutamate substrate-induced regulation on expression of glutamate transporter GLAST of mouse retinal Müller cells]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2008;44:332-6 pubmed
    ..substrate-induced regulation on the expression of glutamate transporter L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter (GLAST) of retinal Müller cells (RMCs) in mice. Activity of GLAST was measured through L-3 H-glutamate uptake detection...
  54. Tsai H, Niu J, MUNJI R, Davalos D, Chang J, Zhang H, et al. Oligodendrocyte precursors migrate along vasculature in the developing nervous system. Science. 2016;351:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify Wnt-Cxcr4 (chemokine receptor 4) signaling in regulation of OPC-endothelial interactions and propose that this signaling coordinates OPC migration with differentiation. ..
  55. Aida T, Ito Y, Takahashi Y, Tanaka K. Overstimulation of NMDA receptors impairs early brain development in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36853 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamate transporter GLAST/GLT1 double-knockout (DKO) mice carrying the NMDA receptor 1 subunit (NR1)-null mutation were generated...
  56. Machon O, Backman M, Machonova O, Kozmik Z, Vacik T, Andersen L, et al. A dynamic gradient of Wnt signaling controls initiation of neurogenesis in the mammalian cortex and cellular specification in the hippocampus. Dev Biol. 2007;311:223-37 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the dose of canonical Wnt signaling determines cellular fate in the developing cortex and hippocampus, and that recession of Wnt signaling acts as a morphogenetic gradient regulating neurogenesis in the cortex. ..
  57. Kirschner M, Arriza J, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Magenis E, et al. The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5. Genomics. 1994;22:631-3 pubmed
    The gene for human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1) was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosome spreads...
  58. Hagiwara T, Tanaka K, Takai S, Maeno Hikichi Y, Mukainaka Y, Wada K. Genomic organization, promoter analysis, and chromosomal localization of the gene for the mouse glial high-affinity glutamate transporter Slc1a3. Genomics. 1996;33:508-15 pubmed
    The mouse gene encoding glial high-affinity, Na+-dependent glutamate transporter Slc1a3 (GluT-1/GLAST) was isolated, and its structural organization was characterized...
  59. Yamada K, Wada S, Watanabe M, Tanaka K, Wada K, Inoue Y. Changes in expression and distribution of the glutamate transporter EAAT4 in developing mouse Purkinje cells. Neurosci Res. 1997;27:191-8 pubmed
  60. Stewart C, Corella K, Samberg B, Jones P, Linscott M, Chung W. Perinatal midline astrocyte development is impaired in fibroblast growth factor 8 hypomorphic mice. Brain Res. 2016;1646:287-296 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide an experimentally-based mechanistic explanation as to why corpus callosum formation may fail in KS patients with deficits in FGF signaling. ..
  61. Ono K, Takebayashi H, Ikeda K, Furusho M, Nishizawa T, Watanabe K, et al. Regional- and temporal-dependent changes in the differentiation of Olig2 progenitors in the forebrain, and the impact on astrocyte development in the dorsal pallium. Dev Biol. 2008;320:456-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that embryonic Olig2+ progenitor cells change their differentiative properties during development, and also that Olig2 plays a role in astrocyte development in a region-specific manner. ..
  62. Shin D, Korada S, Raballo R, Shashikant C, Simeone A, Taylor J, et al. Loss of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in frontal and temporal cortex resulting from attenuation of FGFR1 signaling is associated with spontaneous hyperactivity in mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2247-58 pubmed
  63. Dai M, Xia X, Xiong S. BDNF regulates GLAST and glutamine synthetase in mouse retinal Müller cells. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in mouse retinal Müller cells (RMCs) under normal and hypoxic conditions...
  64. Herms J, Anliker B, Heber S, Ring S, Fuhrmann M, Kretzschmar H, et al. Cortical dysplasia resembling human type 2 lissencephaly in mice lacking all three APP family members. EMBO J. 2004;23:4106-15 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data reveal an essential role for APP family members in normal brain development and early postnatal survival. ..
  65. Brunne B, Zhao S, Derouiche A, Herz J, May P, Frotscher M, et al. Origin, maturation, and astroglial transformation of secondary radial glial cells in the developing dentate gyrus. Glia. 2010;58:1553-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the expression of brain lipid-binding protein, GLAST, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) characterizes immature differentiating cells confined to an astrocytic ..
  66. Takayasu Y, Iino M, Kakegawa W, Maeno H, Watase K, Wada K, et al. Differential roles of glial and neuronal glutamate transporters in Purkinje cell synapses. J Neurosci. 2005;25:8788-93 pubmed
    ..Two distinct glutamate transporters, glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4), are expressed most abundantly in the molecular layer of the ..
  67. Parmigiani E, Leto K, Rolando C, Figueres Oñate M, López Mascaraque L, Buffo A, et al. Heterogeneity and Bipotency of Astroglial-Like Cerebellar Progenitors along the Interneuron and Glial Lineages. J Neurosci. 2015;35:7388-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo clonal analyses we provide evidence that the postnatal PWM hosts a bipotent progenitor that gives rise to both interneurons and white matter astrocytes. ..
  68. Weimer J, Yokota Y, Stanco A, Stumpo D, Blackshear P, Anton E. MARCKS modulates radial progenitor placement, proliferation and organization in the developing cerebral cortex. Development. 2009;136:2965-75 pubmed publisher
  69. Takasaki C, Okada R, Mitani A, Fukaya M, Yamasaki M, Fujihara Y, et al. Glutamate transporters regulate lesion-induced plasticity in the developing somatosensory cortex. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4995-5006 pubmed publisher
    ..Diminished lesion-induced plasticity was further found in mutant mice lacking glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST), an astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter throughout development...
  70. Müller Fielitz H, Stahr M, Bernau M, Richter M, Abele S, Krajka V, et al. Tanycytes control the hormonal output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Nat Commun. 2017;8:484 pubmed publisher
  71. Chaboub L, Manalo J, Lee H, Glasgow S, Chen F, Kawasaki Y, et al. Temporal Profiling of Astrocyte Precursors Reveals Parallel Roles for Asef during Development and after Injury. J Neurosci. 2016;36:11904-11917 pubmed
    ..These studies identify distinct stages of astrocyte lineage development and highlight the parallels between astrocyte development and their reactive counterparts associated with injury. ..
  72. Gobius I, Morcom L, Suárez R, Bunt J, Bukshpun P, Reardon W, et al. Astroglial-Mediated Remodeling of the Interhemispheric Midline Is Required for the Formation of the Corpus Callosum. Cell Rep. 2016;17:735-747 pubmed publisher
    ..Crucially, our findings from human neuroimaging studies reveal that developmental defects in interhemispheric remodeling are likely to be a primary etiology underlying human callosal agenesis. ..
  73. García Cáceres C, Quarta C, Varela L, Gao Y, Gruber T, Legutko B, et al. Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability. Cell. 2016;166:867-880 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypothalamus-specific knockout of astrocytic IRs, as well as postnatal ablation by targeting glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-expressing cells, replicates such alterations...
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    ..Thus, robust SHH signaling in the human fetal neocortex may contribute to bRG and IPC expansion and neocortical growth and folding. ..
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    ..These observations demonstrate that the Phgdh-dependent phosphorylated pathway is essential for normal embryonic development, especially for brain morphogenesis. ..
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    ..In the hypothalamus, NFκB-p50, NFκB-p65, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), and 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo 2,3-dihydro-1,2 oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptor subunit 1 (GluA1) were ..
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    ..We now show that expression of glutamate and aspartate transporter, GLAST, is decreased in cerebellar astrocytes in a mouse model of SCA1...
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    ..Loss of Zfp423 results in diminished proliferation by granule cell precursors in the external germinal layer, especially near the midline, and abnormal differentiation and migration of ventricular zone-derived neurons and Bergmann glia. ..
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    ..The present study revealed that Sept2 co-localizes with the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLAST in the Bergmann glial processes facing axons and synapses...