Gene Symbol: Slc18a3
Description: solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine), member 3
Alias: VAChT, VAT, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, solute carrier family 18 member 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Slc18a3

Top Publications

  1. Schmid S, Azzopardi E, De Jaeger X, Prado M, Prado V. VAChT knock-down mice show normal prepulse inhibition but disrupted long-term habituation. Genes Brain Behav. 2011;10:457-64 pubmed publisher long-term habituation (LTH) of startle using mice with a 65% knockdown (KD) of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT)...
  2. Prado V, Martins Silva C, de Castro B, Lima R, Barros D, Amaral E, et al. Mice deficient for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter are myasthenic and have deficits in object and social recognition. Neuron. 2006;51:601-12 pubmed
    ..transmission involves the vesicular storage of acetylcholine (ACh), a process mediated by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
  3. Mori T, Yuxing Z, Takaki H, Takeuchi M, Iseki K, Hagino S, et al. The LIM homeobox gene, L3/Lhx8, is necessary for proper development of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:3129-41 pubmed
    ..In these mice, cells expressing cholinergic neuron markers, such as choline acetyltransferase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter and p75 low-affinity NGF receptor, were markedly reduced in the basal forebrain, whereas other ..
  4. Beigneux A, Kosinski C, Gavino B, Horton J, Skarnes W, Young S. ATP-citrate lyase deficiency in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9557-64 pubmed
    ..The Acly knockout allele is useful for identifying cell types with a high demand for acetyl-CoA synthesis. ..
  5. Guidine P, Rezende G, Queiroz C, Mello L, Prado V, Prado M, et al. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock-down mice are more susceptible to pilocarpine induced status epilepticus. Neurosci Lett. 2008;436:201-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We took advantage of a knock-down animal model for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT KD) to investigate seizure genesis in a model of cholinergic dysfunction...
  6. de Castro B, Pereira G, Magalhaes V, Rossato J, De Jaeger X, Martins Silva C, et al. Reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter causes learning deficits in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used mice with a targeted mutation in the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) gene that reduces transporter expression by 40% to investigate cognitive processing under ..
  7. Lara A, Damasceno D, Pires R, Gros R, Gomes E, Gavioli M, et al. Dysautonomia due to reduced cholinergic neurotransmission causes cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..By using a unique genetically modified mouse line with reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and consequently decreased release of acetylcholine, we investigated the consequences of ..
  8. Martins Silva C, De Jaeger X, Guzman M, Lima R, Santos M, Kushmerick C, et al. Novel strains of mice deficient for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter: insights on transcriptional regulation and control of locomotor behavior. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17611 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that, by targeting the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) gene, it is possible to generate genetically modified mice with cholinergic deficiency...
  9. Ferreira L, Santos M, Kolmakova N, Koenen J, Barbosa J, Gomez M, et al. Structural requirements for steady-state localization of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. J Neurochem. 2005;94:957-69 pubmed
    The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) regulates the amount of acetylcholine stored in synaptic vesicles...

More Information


  1. Naciff J, Behbehani M, Misawa H, Dedman J. Identification and transgenic analysis of a murine promoter that targets cholinergic neuron expression. J Neurochem. 1999;72:17-28 pubmed
    ..This 6.4-kb DNA fragment encompasses 633 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the entire open reading frame of the VAChT gene, contained within the first intron of the ..
  2. Misgeld T, Burgess R, Lewis R, Cunningham J, Lichtman J, Sanes J. Roles of neurotransmitter in synapse formation: development of neuromuscular junctions lacking choline acetyltransferase. Neuron. 2002;36:635-48 pubmed
    ..At subsequent stages, neurotransmission delays some steps in synaptic maturation but accelerates others. Thus, neurotransmission affects synaptogenesis from early stages and coordinates rather than drives synaptic maturation. ..
  3. Martyn A, De Jaeger X, Magalhaes A, Kesarwani R, Gonçalves D, Raulic S, et al. Elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the forebrain causes hyperactivity and deficits in spatial memory and long-term potentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:17651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover the specific contribution of forebrain cholinergic tone for synaptic plasticity and behavior. Moreover, these experiments define specific cognitive functions that could be targeted by cholinergic replacement therapy. ..
  4. Guzman M, De Jaeger X, Raulic S, Souza I, Li A, Schmid S, et al. Elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the striatum reveals regulation of behaviour by cholinergic-glutamatergic co-transmission. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001194 pubmed publisher
    ..of acetylcholine release for striatal-dependent behaviour in mice by selective elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) from striatal cholinergic neurons...
  5. Lima R, Prado V, Prado M, Kushmerick C. Quantal release of acetylcholine in mice with reduced levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. J Neurochem. 2010;113:943-51 pubmed publisher
    ..and newly formed vesicles are refilled with acetylcholine through a process that depends on the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
  6. de Castro B, De Jaeger X, Martins Silva C, Lima R, Amaral E, Menezes C, et al. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter is required for neuromuscular development and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5238-50 pubmed publisher
    The vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT) mediates ACh storage by synaptic vesicles. However, the VAChT-independent release of ACh is believed to be important during development...
  7. Misawa H, Inomata D, Kikuchi M, Maruyama S, Moriwaki Y, Okuda T, et al. Reappraisal of VAChT-Cre: Preference in slow motor neurons innervating type I or IIa muscle fibers. Genesis. 2016;54:568-572 pubmed publisher
    b>VAChT-Cre.Fast and VAChT-Cre.Slow mice selectively express Cre recombinase in approximately one half of postnatal somatic motor neurons...
  8. Gallart Palau X, Tarabal O, Casanovas A, S bado J, Correa F, Hereu M, et al. Neuregulin-1 is concentrated in the postsynaptic subsurface cistern of C-bouton inputs to ?-motoneurons and altered during motoneuron diseases. FASEB J. 2014;28:3618-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In both models, a transient increase in NRG1 in C boutons occurs during disease progression. These data increase our understanding of the role of C boutons in MN physiology and pathology...
  9. Georgas K, Armstrong J, Keast J, Larkins C, McHugh K, Southard Smith E, et al. An illustrated anatomical ontology of the developing mouse lower urogenital tract. Development. 2015;142:1893-908 pubmed publisher
    ..The revised ontology will be an important tool for researchers studying urogenital development/malformation in mouse models and will improve our capacity to appropriately interpret these with respect to the human situation. ..
  10. Duan X, Krishnaswamy A, De la Huerta I, Sanes J. Type II cadherins guide assembly of a direction-selective retinal circuit. Cell. 2014;158:793-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal cellular components of a retinal circuit and demonstrate roles of type II cadherins in synaptic choice and circuit function. ..
  11. Kay J, Chu M, Sanes J. MEGF10 and MEGF11 mediate homotypic interactions required for mosaic spacing of retinal neurons. Nature. 2012;483:465-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that members of this gene family can also serve as subtype-specific ligands that pattern neuronal arrays. ..
  12. Pinheiro N, Miranda C, Perini A, Câmara N, Costa S, Alonso Vale M, et al. Pulmonary inflammation is regulated by the levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120441 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question we have used mice with reduced levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a protein required for ACh storage in secretory vesicles...
  13. Lopes R, Verhey van Wijk N, Neves G, Pachnis V. Transcription factor LIM homeobox 7 (Lhx7) maintains subtype identity of cholinergic interneurons in the mammalian striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3119-24 pubmed publisher
  14. Carcagno A, Di Bella D, Goulding M, Guillemot F, Lanuza G. Neurogenin3 restricts serotonergic neuron differentiation to the hindbrain. J Neurosci. 2014;34:15223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results explain how equivalent p3 progenitors within the hindbrain and the spinal cord produce functionally distinct neuron cell types. ..
  15. Bedore J, Martyn A, Li A, Dolinar E, McDonald I, Coupland S, et al. Whole-Retina Reduced Electrophysiological Activity in Mice Bearing Retina-Specific Deletion of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133989 pubmed publisher investigates the effects of disrupting cholinergic signalling in mice, through deletion of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the developing retina, pigmented epithelium, optic nerve and optic stalk, on ..
  16. Sang Q, Young H. The origin and development of the vagal and spinal innervation of the external muscle of the mouse esophagus. Brain Res. 1998;809:253-68 pubmed
    ..Cholinergic nerve terminals were localised using an antiserum to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and cholinergic cell bodies were localised using an antiserum to choline acetyltransferase...
  17. Janickova H, Rosborough K, Al Onaizi M, Kljakic O, Guzman M, Gros R, et al. Deletion of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter from pedunculopontine/laterodorsal tegmental neurons modifies gait. J Neurochem. 2017;140:787-798 pubmed publisher
    ..We selectively eliminated the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei cholinergic neurons to generate mice ..
  18. Coppola E, D Autréaux F, Rijli F, Brunet J. Ongoing roles of Phox2 homeodomain transcription factors during neuronal differentiation. Development. 2010;137:4211-20 pubmed publisher
  19. Kobayashi K, Masuda T, Takahashi M, Miyazaki J, Nakagawa M, Uchigashima M, et al. Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathway controls axon patterning of a specified subset of cranial motor neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:612-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathway plays an essential role in the axon patterning of cranial SM neurons during development. ..
  20. Espinosa Medina I, Saha O, Boismoreau F, Chettouh Z, Rossi F, Richardson W, et al. The sacral autonomic outflow is sympathetic. Science. 2016;354:893-897 pubmed
    ..This simplified, bipartite architecture offers a new framework to understand pelvic neurophysiology as well as development and evolution of the autonomic nervous system. ..
  21. Sugita S, Fleming L, Wood C, Vaughan S, Gomes M, Camargo W, et al. VAChT overexpression increases acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft and accelerates aging of neuromuscular junctions. Skelet Muscle. 2016;6:31 pubmed
    ..Chat-ChR2-EYFP (VAChTHyp) mice containing multiple copies of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A), and Chat-IRES-Cre and tdTomato ..
  22. Palmer D, Creighton S, Prado V, Prado M, Choleris E, Winters B. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory. Behav Brain Res. 2016;311:267-278 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum...
  23. Hiltunen J, Laurikainen A, Airaksinen M, Saarma M. GDNF family receptors in the embryonic and postnatal rat heart and reduced cholinergic innervation in mice hearts lacking ret or GFRalpha2. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:28-39 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that GFRalpha2/Ret signaling is required for normal cholinergic innervation of heart. ..
  24. Rose M, Ren J, Ahmad K, Chao H, Klisch T, Flora A, et al. Math1 is essential for the development of hindbrain neurons critical for perinatal breathing. Neuron. 2009;64:341-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies Math1-dependent neurons that are critical for perinatal breathing that may link proprioception and arousal with respiration. ..
  25. Wallén Mackenzie A, Gezelius H, Thoby Brisson M, Nygård A, Enjin A, Fujiyama F, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 is required for central respiratory rhythm generation but not for locomotor central pattern generation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12294-307 pubmed
    ..Hence, the present study identifies VGLUT2-mediated signaling as an obligatory component of the developing respiratory rhythm generator. ..
  26. Rossi J, Tomac A, Saarma M, Airaksinen M. Distinct roles for GFRalpha1 and GFRalpha2 signalling in different cranial parasympathetic ganglia in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:3944-52 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that GDNF and NRTN have distinct functions in developing parasympathetic neurons, and suggest heterogeneity among and within different parasympathetic ganglia. ..
  27. Huber K, Ernsberger U. Cholinergic differentiation occurs early in mouse sympathetic neurons and requires Phox2b. Gene Expr. 2006;13:133-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that expression of mRNAs for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), both encoded by the cholinergic gene locus, is induced in mouse sympathetic ganglia at ..
  28. Muñoz Bravo J, Hidalgo Figueroa M, Pascual A, Lopez Barneo J, Leal Cerro A, Cano D. GDNF is required for neural colonization of the pancreas. Development. 2013;140:3669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data further show that exogenous GDNF promotes the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells in organ culture. In summary, our results point to GDNF as crucial for the development of the intrinsic innervation of the pancreas. ..
  29. Kolisnyk B, Al Onaizi M, Xu J, Parfitt G, Ostapchenko V, Hanin G, et al. Cholinergic Regulation of hnRNPA2/B1 Translation by M1 Muscarinic Receptors. J Neurosci. 2016;36:6287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of cholinergic activity can have profound effects in target cells by modulating hnRNPA2/B1 levels. ..
  30. Sang Q, Young H. Development of nicotinic receptor clusters and innervation accompanying the change in muscle phenotype in the mouse esophagus. J Comp Neurol. 1997;386:119-36 pubmed synaptophysin (a synaptic vesicle protein that was used to label all nerve terminals), the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and vasoactive ..
  31. Krishnaswamy A, Yamagata M, Duan X, Hong Y, Sanes J. Sidekick 2 directs formation of a retinal circuit that detects differential motion. Nature. 2015;524:466-470 pubmed publisher
    ..This non-canonical circuit introduces a delay into the pathway from photoreceptors in the centre of the receptive field to W3B-RGCs, which could improve their ability to judge the synchrony of local and global motion. ..
  32. Tsutsumi T, Houtani T, Toida K, Kase M, Yamashita T, Ishimura K, et al. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive axon terminals enriched in the pontine nuclei of the mouse. Neuroscience. 2007;146:1869-78 pubmed
    ..cholinergic terminal-like structures in the mouse precerebellar nuclei by immunohistochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
  33. Trokovic R, Trokovic N, Hernesniemi S, Pirvola U, Vogt Weisenhorn D, Rossant J, et al. FGFR1 is independently required in both developing mid- and hindbrain for sustained response to isthmic signals. EMBO J. 2003;22:1811-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, FGFR1 appears to modify cell adhesion properties critical for maintaining a coherent organizing center. This may be achieved by regulating expression of specific cell-adhesion molecules at the midbrain-hindbrain border. ..
  34. Hippenmeyer S, Huber R, Ladle D, Murphy K, Arber S. ETS transcription factor Erm controls subsynaptic gene expression in skeletal muscles. Neuron. 2007;55:726-40 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings define Erm as an upstream regulator of a transcriptional program selective to subsynaptic nuclei at the NMJ and underscore the importance of transcriptional control of local synaptic protein accumulation. ..
  35. Gould T, Yonemura S, Oppenheim R, Ohmori S, Enomoto H. The neurotrophic effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on spinal motoneurons are restricted to fusimotor subtypes. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2131-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, although GDNF influences several aspects of MN development, the survival-promoting effects of GDNF during programmed cell death are mostly confined to spindle-innervating MNs. ..
  36. Nagy P, Aubert I. Overexpression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter increased acetylcholine release in the hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2012;218:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) activity limits the rate of formation of the readily releasable ACh pool...
  37. Meier F, Giesert F, Delic S, Faus Kessler T, Matheus F, Simeone A, et al. FGF/FGFR2 signaling regulates the generation and correct positioning of Bergmann glia cells in the developing mouse cerebellum. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101124 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our findings reveal the specific functions of the FGFR2-mediated signaling pathway in the generation and positioning of Bergmann glia cells during cerebellar development in the mouse. ..
  38. Reinert R, Cai Q, Hong J, Plank J, Aamodt K, Prasad N, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding. Development. 2014;141:1480-91 pubmed publisher
  39. Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Development of cranial parasympathetic ganglia requires sequential actions of GDNF and neurturin. Development. 2000;127:4877-89 pubmed
  40. Kolisnyk B, Al Onaizi M, Hirata P, Guzman M, Nikolova S, Barbash S, et al. Forebrain deletion of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter results in deficits in executive function, metabolic, and RNA splicing abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14908-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of synaptically released acetylcholine (ACh) to executive function by genetically targeting the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the mouse forebrain...
  41. Stubbusch J, Narasimhan P, Hennchen M, Huber K, Unsicker K, Ernsberger U, et al. Lineage and stage specific requirement for Dicer1 in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla formation and maintenance. Dev Biol. 2015;400:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons is demonstrated by the selective increase in the expression of Tlx3 and the cholinergic marker genes VAChT and ChAT at E16.5...
  42. Kolisnyk B, Guzman M, Raulic S, Fan J, Magalhaes A, Feng G, et al. ChAT-ChR2-EYFP mice have enhanced motor endurance but show deficits in attention and several additional cognitive domains. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10427-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that a mouse line used for this purpose also carries several copies of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene (VAChT), which leads to overexpression of functional VAChT and consequently increased ..
  43. Lee S, Lee B, Lee J, Lee S. Retinoid signaling and neurogenin2 function are coupled for the specification of spinal motor neurons through a chromatin modifier CBP. Neuron. 2009;62:641-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study uncovers the mechanism by which extrinsic RA-signal and intrinsic transcription factor Ngn2 cooperate for cell fate specification through their synergistic activity to trigger transcriptionally active chromatin. ..
  44. Guzman M, De Jaeger X, Drangova M, Prado M, Gros R, Prado V. Mice with selective elimination of striatal acetylcholine release are lean, show altered energy homeostasis and changed sleep/wake cycle. J Neurochem. 2013;124:658-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice, in which we selectively ablated the vesicular acetylcholine ..
  45. Stam F, Hendricks T, Zhang J, Geiman E, Francius C, Labosky P, et al. Renshaw cell interneuron specialization is controlled by a temporally restricted transcription factor program. Development. 2012;139:179-90 pubmed publisher
  46. Zagoraiou L, Akay T, Martin J, Brownstone R, Jessell T, Miles G. A cluster of cholinergic premotor interneurons modulates mouse locomotor activity. Neuron. 2009;64:645-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, V0(C) interneurons represent a defined class of spinal cholinergic interneurons with an intrinsic neuromodulatory role in the control of locomotor behavior. ..
  47. Wolpowitz D, Mason T, Dietrich P, Mendelsohn M, Talmage D, Role L. Cysteine-rich domain isoforms of the neuregulin-1 gene are required for maintenance of peripheral synapses. Neuron. 2000;25:79-91 pubmed
  48. Keimpema E, Tortoriello G, Alpar A, Capsoni S, Arisi I, Calvigioni D, et al. Nerve growth factor scales endocannabinoid signaling by regulating monoacylglycerol lipase turnover in developing cholinergic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1935-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that NGF can orchestrate endocannabinoid signaling to promote cholinergic differentiation and implicate BRCA1 in determining neuronal morphology. ..
  49. Woldeyesus M, Britsch S, Riethmacher D, Xu L, Sonnenberg Riethmacher E, Abou Rebyeh F, et al. Peripheral nervous system defects in erbB2 mutants following genetic rescue of heart development. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2538-48 pubmed
    ..Our results define the roles of Schwann cells during motoneuron and synapse development, and reveal different survival requirements for distinct motoneuron populations. ..
  50. Stewart L, Potok M, Camper S, Stifani S. Runx1 expression defines a subpopulation of displaced amacrine cells in the developing mouse retina. J Neurochem. 2005;94:1739-45 pubmed
    ..These findings identify Runx1 as a novel marker for a restricted amacrine cell subtype and suggest a role for this gene in regulating the post-mitotic development of these cells. ..
  51. Ribeiro F, Ferreira L, Marion S, Fontes S, Gomez M, Ferguson S, et al. SEC14-like protein 1 interacts with cholinergic transporters. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:356-64 pubmed
    Trafficking of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) to synaptic vesicles has the potential to regulate storage and release of acetylcholine...
  52. Jamain S, Radyushkin K, Hammerschmidt K, Granon S, Boretius S, Varoqueaux F, et al. Reduced social interaction and ultrasonic communication in a mouse model of monogenic heritable autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1710-5 pubmed publisher
  53. Reddy T, Kablar B. Evidence for the involvement of neurotrophins in muscle transdifferentiation and acetylcholine receptor transformation in the esophagus of Myf5(-/-):MyoD(-/-) and NT-3(-/-) embryos. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:683-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data suggest a role for NT-3 in the esophageal muscle transdifferentiation. ..
  54. Dyachuk V, Furlan A, Shahidi M, Giovenco M, Kaukua N, Konstantinidou C, et al. Neurodevelopment. Parasympathetic neurons originate from nerve-associated peripheral glial progenitors. Science. 2014;345:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This nerve origin places cellular elements for generating parasympathetic neurons in diverse tissues and organs, which may enable wiring of the developing parasympathetic nervous system. ..
  55. Al Onaizi M, Parfitt G, Kolisnyk B, Law C, Guzman M, Barros D, et al. Regulation of Cognitive Processing by Hippocampal Cholinergic Tone. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:1615-1628 pubmed publisher
    ..information processing is regulated by cholinergic tone in genetically modified mice targeting the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a protein required for acetylcholine release...
  56. Wang Y, Zhou Z, Tan H, Zhu S, Wang Y, Sun Y, et al. Nitrosylation of Vesicular Transporters in Brain of Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 Double Transgenic Mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;55:1683-1692 pubmed publisher
    ..Cholinergic and glutamatergic systems are dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) are important in packaging acetylcholine and ..
  57. Rodrigues H, Fonseca M, Camargo W, Lima P, Martinelli P, Naves L, et al. Reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and neurotransmitter content affects synaptic vesicle distribution and shape in mouse neuromuscular junction. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78342 pubmed publisher the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine packed inside synaptic vesicles by a specific vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
  58. Furlan A, Lübke M, Adameyko I, Lallemend F, Ernfors P. The transcription factor Hmx1 and growth factor receptor activities control sympathetic neurons diversification. EMBO J. 2013;32:1613-25 pubmed publisher
  59. Fregoso S, Hoover D. Development of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, glial cells, and regional cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart. Neuroscience. 2012;221:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..perikarya and varicose nerve fibers were identified in paraffin sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
  60. Krasteva G, Canning B, Hartmann P, Veres T, Papadakis T, Mühlfeld C, et al. Cholinergic chemosensory cells in the trachea regulate breathing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9478-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This identifies brush cells as cholinergic sensors of the chemical composition of the lower airway luminal microenvironment that are directly linked to the regulation of respiration...
  61. Gosgnach S, Lanuza G, Butt S, Saueressig H, Zhang Y, Velasquez T, et al. V1 spinal neurons regulate the speed of vertebrate locomotor outputs. Nature. 2006;440:215-9 pubmed
  62. Durand M, Becari C, Tezini G, Fazan R, Oliveira M, Guatimosim S, et al. Autonomic cardiocirculatory control in mice with reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT) knockdown homozygous (VAChT KD(HOM)) mouse is a useful model for examining the cardiocirculatory sympathovagal ..
  63. Fogarty M, Smallcombe K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Bellingham M, Noakes P. Genetic deficiency of GABA differentially regulates respiratory and non-respiratory motor neuron development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56257 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that for more caudal (lumbar) regions of the spinal cord, the effect of GABA is less influential on motor neuron development compared to that of glycine. ..
  64. Burau K, Stenull I, Huber K, Misawa H, Berse B, Unsicker K, et al. c-ret regulates cholinergic properties in mouse sympathetic neurons: evidence from mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:353-62 pubmed mice dramatically reduces numbers of cells positive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in stellate ganglia of homozygous newborn animals...
  65. Clovis Y, Seo S, Kwon J, Rhee J, Yeo S, Lee J, et al. Chx10 Consolidates V2a Interneuron Identity through Two Distinct Gene Repression Modes. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1642-1652 pubmed publisher
    ..This dual activity enables Chx10 to effectively separate the V2a and MN pathways. Our study uncovers a widely applicable gene regulatory principle for segregating related cell fates. ..
  66. Duffy A, Zhou P, Milner T, Pickel V. Spatial and intracellular relationships between the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the prefrontal cortex of rat and mouse. Neuroscience. 2009;161:1091-103 pubmed publisher
    ..this receptor is dependent on release of acetylcholine (ACh) from axon terminals that contain the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
  67. Luria V, Laufer E. Lateral motor column axons execute a ternary trajectory choice between limb and body tissues. Neural Dev. 2007;2:13 pubmed
    ..When making this choice, medial and lateral LMC axons exhibit different and asymmetric relative preferences for these three trajectories. These data redefine the LMC as a motor column that innervates both limb and body tissues. ..
  68. Britsch S, Goerich D, Riethmacher D, Peirano R, Rossner M, Nave K, et al. The transcription factor Sox10 is a key regulator of peripheral glial development. Genes Dev. 2001;15:66-78 pubmed
    ..Haploinsufficiency of Sox10 can thus cause pigmentation and megacolon defects, which are also observed in Sox10(Dom)/+ mice and in patients with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease caused by heterozygous SOX10 mutations. ..