Gene Symbol: Slc18a2
Description: solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine), member 2
Alias: 1110037L13Rik, 9330105E13, Vmat2, synaptic vesicular amine transporter, VAT2, monoamine transporter, solute carrier family 18 member 2, vesicular amine transporter 2, vesicular monoamine transporter 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Slc18a2

Top Publications

  1. Guillot T, Richardson J, Wang M, Li Y, Taylor T, Ciliax B, et al. PACAP38 increases vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression and attenuates methamphetamine toxicity. Neuropeptides. 2008;42:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..PACAP38 treated animals exhibited a preferential increase in the expression and function of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2)...
  2. Hendricks T, Fyodorov D, Wegman L, Lelutiu N, Pehek E, Yamamoto B, et al. Pet-1 ETS gene plays a critical role in 5-HT neuron development and is required for normal anxiety-like and aggressive behavior. Neuron. 2003;37:233-47 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Pet-1 is a critical determinant of 5-HT neuron identity and implicate a Pet-1-dependent program in serotonergic modulation of behavior. ..
  3. Jacobs F, Veenvliet J, Almirza W, Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent and -independent gene-regulatory pathways of Pitx3 in meso-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Development. 2011;138:5213-22 pubmed publisher that regulation of Ahd2-mediated RA signaling represents only one aspect of the Pitx3 downstream cascade, as Vmat2, Dat, Ahd2 (Aldh1a1), En1, En2 and Cck were unaffected by RA treatment and are (subset) specifically modulated by ..
  4. Cheng L, Chen C, Luo P, Tan M, Qiu M, Johnson R, et al. Lmx1b, Pet-1, and Nkx2.2 coordinately specify serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9961-7 pubmed
    ..2, drives 5-HT differentiation in the dorsal spinal cord. Our studies therefore define a molecular pathway necessary and sufficient to specify the serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype. ..
  5. Mooslehner K, Chan P, Xu W, Liu L, Smadja C, Humby T, et al. Mice with very low expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene survive into adulthood: potential mouse model for parkinsonism. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5321-31 pubmed
    We have created a transgenic mouse with a hypomorphic allele of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (Vmat2) gene by gene targeting. These mice (KA1) have profound changes in monoamine metabolism and function and survive into adulthood...
  6. Narboux Nême N, Angenard G, Mosienko V, Klempin F, Pitychoutis P, Deneris E, et al. Postnatal growth defects in mice with constitutive depletion of central serotonin. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013;4:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse strains with severe (-95%) depletions of 5-HT, the tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) 2(-/-) mouse line and VMAT2(sert-cre) mice, with a new strain, in which VMAT2 deletion is driven by Pet1 (VMAT2(pet1-cre)) in 5-HT raphe ..
  7. Caudle W, Richardson J, Wang M, Taylor T, Guillot T, McCormack A, et al. Reduced vesicular storage of dopamine causes progressive nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8138-48 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2) is responsible for packaging dopamine into vesicles for subsequent release and has been suggested to serve a neuroprotective role in the dopamine system...
  8. Zhang Z, Li X, Xie W, Tuo H, Hintermann S, Jankovic J, et al. Anti-parkinsonian effects of Nurr1 activator in ubiquitin-proteasome system impairment induced animal model of Parkinson's disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2012;11:768-73 pubmed
    ..loss and nigrostriatal dopamine reduction, increased expression of Nurr1, dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2, and alleviated microglial activation in the substantia nigra of lactacystin-lesioned mice...
  9. Xu Y, Lu Y, Xu P, Mangieri L, Isingrini E, Xu Y, et al. VMAT2-Mediated Neurotransmission from Midbrain Leptin Receptor Neurons in Feeding Regulation. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Specific removal of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in midbrain LepR neurons (KO mice) disrupted DA accumulation in vesicles, but failed to ..

More Information


  1. Upton A, Salichon N, Lebrand C, Ravary A, Blakely R, Seif I, et al. Excess of serotonin (5-HT) alters the segregation of ispilateral and contralateral retinal projections in monoamine oxidase A knock-out mice: possible role of 5-HT uptake in retinal ganglion cells during development. J Neurosci. 1999;19:7007-24 pubmed
    ..We show that, in addition to SERT, developing RGCs also transiently express the vesicular monoamine transporter gene VMAT2: thus, retinal axons could store 5-HT in synaptic vesicles and possibly use it as a borrowed ..
  2. Gainetdinov R, Fumagalli F, Wang Y, Jones S, Levey A, Miller G, et al. Increased MPTP neurotoxicity in vesicular monoamine transporter 2 heterozygote knockout mice. J Neurochem. 1998;70:1973-8 pubmed
    ..MPTP) has been proposed to be attenuated by sequestration into intracellular vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2)...
  3. Higashi S, Moore D, Colebrooke R, Biskup S, Dawson V, Arai H, et al. Expression and localization of Parkinson's disease-associated leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 in the mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2007;100:368-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, expression of LRRK2 mRNA in the striatum of VMAT2-deficient mice is unaltered relative to wild-type littermate controls despite extensive dopamine depletion in this ..
  4. Kumar A, Kopra J, Varendi K, Porokuokka L, Panhelainen A, Kuure S, et al. GDNF Overexpression from the Native Locus Reveals its Role in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System Function. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005710 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that 3'UTR targeting may constitute a useful tool in analyzing gene function. ..
  5. Isingrini E, Perret L, Rainer Q, Amilhon B, Guma E, Tanti A, et al. Resilience to chronic stress is mediated by noradrenergic regulation of dopamine neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2016;19:560-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that NE neurons regulate vulnerability to social defeat through inhibitory control of VTA DA neurons. ..
  6. Boldogkoi Z, Schütz B, Sallach J, Zimmer A. P2X(3) receptor expression at early stage of mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2002;118:255-60 pubmed
  7. Guillot T, Shepherd K, Richardson J, Wang M, Li Y, Emson P, et al. Reduced vesicular storage of dopamine exacerbates methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration and astrogliosis. J Neurochem. 2008;106:2205-17 pubmed publisher
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) controls the loading of dopamine (DA) into vesicles and therefore determines synaptic properties such as quantal size, receptor sensitivity, and vesicular and cytosolic DA concentration...
  8. Andersson E, Jensen J, Parmar M, Guillemot F, Bjorklund A. Development of the mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron system is compromised in the absence of neurogenin 2. Development. 2006;133:507-16 pubmed
  9. Egaña L, Cuevas R, Baust T, Parra L, Leak R, Hochendoner S, et al. Physical and functional interaction between the dopamine transporter and the synaptic vesicle protein synaptogyrin-3. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4592-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, the synaptogyrin-3 effect on DAT activity was abolished in the presence of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitor reserpine, suggesting a dependence on the vesicular DA storage system...
  10. Reveron M, Savelieva K, Tillerson J, McCormack A, Di Monte D, Miller G. L-DOPA does not cause neurotoxicity in VMAT2 heterozygote knockout mice. Neurotoxicology. 2002;23:611-9 pubmed
    ..Sequestration of DA and dopaminergic neurotoxins into vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is a key factor in preventing cellular damage...
  11. Taylor T, Alter S, Wang M, Goldstein D, Miller G. Reduced vesicular storage of catecholamines causes progressive degeneration in the locus ceruleus. Neuropharmacology. 2014;76 Pt A:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..reported a mouse model of dopaminergic neurodegeneration based on reduced expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2 LO)...
  12. Travis E, Wang Y, Michael D, Caron M, Wightman R. Differential quantal release of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine from mast cells of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:162-7 pubmed
    The recent availability of mice lacking the neuronal form of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) affords the opportunity to study its roles in storage and release...
  13. Iritani S, Sekiguchi H, Habuchi C, Hikita T, Taya S, Kaibuchi K, et al. Immunohistochemical study of vesicle monoamine transporter 2 in the hippocampal region of genetic animal model of schizophrenia. Synapse. 2010;64:948-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the expression of vesicle monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), which has a significant role in neurotransmission, in the hippocampal formation of the animal ..
  14. Kadkhodaei B, Ito T, Joodmardi E, Mattsson B, Rouillard C, Carta M, et al. Nurr1 is required for maintenance of maturing and adult midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15923-32 pubmed publisher
  15. Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, Schellevis R, Scheppink G, Holstege F, et al. Lmx1a is an activator of Rgs4 and Grb10 and is responsible for the correct specification of rostral and medial mdDA neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;37:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the DA marker Vmat2 was significantly up-regulated as a consequence of increased LMX1A dose, and subsequent analysis on Lmx1a-mutant ..
  16. Roghani A, Welch C, Xia Y, Liu Y, Peter D, Finn J, et al. Assignment of the mouse vesicular monoamine transporter genes, Slc18a1 and Slc18a2, to chromosomes 8 and 19 by linkage analysis. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:393-4 pubmed
  17. Nouri N, Awatramani R. A novel floor plate boundary defined by adjacent En1 and Dbx1 microdomains distinguishes midbrain dopamine and hypothalamic neurons. Development. 2017;144:916-927 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insights into subdivisions in the mdFP, and will impact current strategies for the conversion of stem cells into DA neurons. ..
  18. Lebrand C, Cases O, Wehrle R, Blakely R, Edwards R, Gaspar P. Transient developmental expression of monoamine transporters in the rodent forebrain. J Comp Neurol. 1998;401:506-24 pubmed
    ..thalamic nuclei have been shown to express functional plasma membrane serotonin (SERT) and vesicular monoamine (VMAT2) transporters during early postnatal development...
  19. Narboux Nême N, Sagné C, Doly S, Diaz S, Martin C, Angenard G, et al. Severe serotonin depletion after conditional deletion of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene in serotonin neurons: neural and behavioral consequences. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2538-50 pubmed publisher
    The vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 gene (VMAT2) has a crucial role in the storage and synaptic release of all monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT)...
  20. Liu C, Maejima T, Wyler S, Casadesus G, Herlitze S, Deneris E. Pet-1 is required across different stages of life to regulate serotonergic function. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that Pet-1 is required across the lifespan of the mouse and that behavioral pathogenesis can result from both developmental and adult-onset alterations in serotonergic transcription. ..
  21. Salek R, Colebrooke R, Macintosh R, Lynch P, Sweatman B, Emson P, et al. A metabolomic study of brain tissues from aged mice with low expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) gene. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:292-300 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) sequesters monoamines into synaptic vesicles in preparation for neurotransmission...
  22. Wang Y, Gainetdinov R, Fumagalli F, Xu F, Jones S, Bock C, et al. Knockout of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene results in neonatal death and supersensitivity to cocaine and amphetamine. Neuron. 1997;19:1285-96 pubmed
    ..We have used homologous recombination to generate mutant mice lacking the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), the predominant form expressed in the brain...
  23. Fumagalli F, Gainetdinov R, Wang Y, Valenzano K, Miller G, Caron M. Increased methamphetamine neurotoxicity in heterozygous vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:2424-31 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used mice heterozygous for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 +/- mice) to determine whether impaired vesicular function alters the effects of METH...
  24. Lohr K, Chen M, Hoffman C, McDaniel M, Stout K, Dunn A, et al. Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) Level Regulates MPTP Vulnerability and Clearance of Excess Dopamine in Mouse Striatal Terminals. Toxicol Sci. 2016;153:79-88 pubmed publisher
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) packages neurotransmitters for release during neurotransmission and sequesters toxicants into vesicles to prevent neuronal damage...
  25. Mooslehner K, Allen N. Cloning of the mouse organic cation transporter 2 gene, Slc22a2, from an enhancer-trap transgene integration locus. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:218-24 pubmed
    ..The genomic DNA flanking the 3' transgene integration site in the enhancer-trap mutation TKZ736 encodes the second exon of the Oct2/Slc22a2 gene. ..
  26. Hwang D, Hong S, Jeong J, Choi S, Kim H, Kim J, et al. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and dopamine transporter are molecular targets of Pitx3 in the ventral midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurochem. 2009;111:1202-12 pubmed publisher
    ..expression analysis revealed many potential target genes of Pitx3; in particular, the expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and dopamine transporter, responsible for dopamine storage and reuptake, respectively, is greatly ..
  27. Fon E, Pothos E, Sun B, Killeen N, Sulzer D, Edwards R. Vesicular transport regulates monoamine storage and release but is not essential for amphetamine action. Neuron. 1997;19:1271-83 pubmed
    To assess the role of exocytotic release in signaling by monoamines, we have disrupted the neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) gene. VMAT2-/- mice move little, feed poorly, and die within a few days after birth...
  28. Sang Q, Young H. Development of nicotinic receptor clusters and innervation accompanying the change in muscle phenotype in the mouse esophagus. J Comp Neurol. 1997;386:119-36 pubmed
    ..However, many of the receptor clusters that were observed first were apparently uninnervated. ..
  29. Colebrooke R, Humby T, Lynch P, McGowan D, Xia J, Emson P. Age-related decline in striatal dopamine content and motor performance occurs in the absence of nigral cell loss in a genetic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:2622-30 pubmed
    ..However, the long-term toxicity of dopamine in vivo has not previously been established. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) sequesters monoamines into synaptic vesicles, a process that, in addition to being important ..
  30. Duchemin A, Zhang H, Neff N, Hadjiconstantinou M. Increased expression of VMAT2 in dopaminergic neurons during nicotine withdrawal. Neurosci Lett. 2009;467:182-6 pubmed publisher
    Evidence suggests that the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) is regulated in striatum and dopamine (DA) may play a role in its regulation...
  31. Welch C, Xia Y, Edwards P, Lusis A, Ericsson J. Assignment of Gpam to distal mouse chromosome 19 by linkage analysis. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:93 pubmed
  32. Itokawa K, Sora I, Schindler C, Itokawa M, Takahashi N, Uhl G. Heterozygous VMAT2 knockout mice display prolonged QT intervals: possible contributions to sudden death. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999;71:354-7 pubmed
    Heterozygous knockout (KO) mice with half of wild-type levels of expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) can suddenly die in midlife...
  33. Vincentz J, Firulli B, Lin A, Spicer D, Howard M, Firulli A. Twist1 controls a cell-specification switch governing cell fate decisions within the cardiac neural crest. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003405 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Twist1 functions in post-migratory neural crest cells to repress pro-neural factors and thereby regulate cell fate determination between ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. ..
  34. Höltje M, Winter S, Walther D, Pahner I, Hörtnagl H, Ottersen O, et al. The vesicular monoamine content regulates VMAT2 activity through Galphaq in mouse platelets. Evidence for autoregulation of vesicular transmitter uptake. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15850-8 pubmed
    ..down-regulates the activity of the vesicular monoamine transmitter transporters VMAT1 in neuroendocrine cells and VMAT2 in neurons. Blood platelets resemble serotonergic neurons with respect to transmitter storage and release...
  35. Stankovski L, Alvarez C, Ouimet T, Vitalis T, El Hachimi K, Price D, et al. Developmental cell death is enhanced in the cerebral cortex of mice lacking the brain vesicular monoamine transporter. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1315-24 pubmed
    ..We report that genetic depletion of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in mice lacking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2 KO mice) causes an increase in cell death in the superficial layers of the cingulate and ..
  36. Persico A, Mengual E, Moessner R, Hall F, Revay R, Sora I, et al. Barrel pattern formation requires serotonin uptake by thalamocortical afferents, and not vesicular monoamine release. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6862-73 pubmed synaptic vesicles by expressing the plasma membrane serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2)...
  37. Pratt T, Vitalis T, Warren N, Edgar J, Mason J, Price D. A role for Pax6 in the normal development of dorsal thalamus and its cortical connections. Development. 2000;127:5167-78 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that normal thalamocortical development requires the actions of Pax6 within the dorsal thalamus itself. ..
  38. Fukui M, Rodriguiz R, Zhou J, Jiang S, Phillips L, Caron M, et al. Vmat2 heterozygous mutant mice display a depressive-like phenotype. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10520-9 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is localized primarily within the CNS and is responsible for transporting monoamines from the cytoplasm into secretory vesicles...
  39. Hermanson E, Joseph B, Castro D, Lindqvist E, Aarnisalo P, Wallén A, et al. Nurr1 regulates dopamine synthesis and storage in MN9D dopamine cells. Exp Cell Res. 2003;288:324-34 pubmed
    ..increases DA content and the expression of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) in MN9D cells...
  40. Choi W, Kim H, Xia Z. JNK inhibition of VMAT2 contributes to rotenone-induced oxidative stress and dopamine neuron death. Toxicology. 2015;328:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, rotenone inhibits VMAT2 activity but not VMAT2 protein levels...
  41. Jacobs F, Smits S, Noorlander C, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, Burbach J, et al. Retinoic acid counteracts developmental defects in the substantia nigra caused by Pitx3 deficiency. Development. 2007;134:2673-84 pubmed
    ..Here, we propose a novel mechanism in which RA is involved in mdDA neuronal development and maintenance, providing new insights into subset-specific vulnerability in PD. ..
  42. Diaz S, Narboux Nême N, Trowbridge S, Scotto Lomassese S, Kleine Borgmann F, Jessberger S, et al. Paradoxical increase in survival of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of mice with constitutive depletion of serotonin. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;38:2650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analysed two genetic models of 5-HT depletion, the Pet1(-/-) and the VMAT2(f/f) ; SERT(cre/+) mice, which have, respectively, 80 and 95% reductions in hippocampal 5-HT...
  43. Zhou Z, Kim J, Insolera R, Peng X, Fink D, Mata M. Rho GTPase regulation of ?-synuclein and VMAT2: implications for pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;48:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho inhibition-induced neurite extension was associated with increased VMAT2 and SNARE proteins synaptophysin and synapsin I...
  44. Takahashi N, Uhl G. Murine vesicular monoamine transporter 2: molecular cloning and genomic structure. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997;49:7-14 pubmed
    The principal brain vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) pumps monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and histamine from neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles and is implicated in actions of certain ..
  45. Ohara A, Kasahara Y, Yamamoto H, Hata H, Kobayashi H, Numachi Y, et al. Exclusive expression of VMAT2 in noradrenergic neurons increases viability of homozygous VMAT2 knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;432:526-32 pubmed publisher
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) translocates monoamine neurotransmitters from the neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles...
  46. Tallaksen Greene S, Ordway J, Crouse A, Jackson W, Detloff P, Albin R. Hprt(CAG)146 mice: age of onset of behavioral abnormalities, time course of neuronal intranuclear inclusion accumulation, neurotransmitter marker alterations, mitochondrial function markers, and susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrop. J Comp Neurol. 2003;465:205-19 pubmed
    ..acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptors, dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors, and type 2 vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) binding sites were assayed before and after the onset of behavioral abnormalities...
  47. Finotto S, Krieglstein K, Schober A, Deimling F, Lindner K, Brühl B, et al. Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations of the glucocorticoid receptor gene argues against an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for generating adrenal chromaffin cells. Development. 1999;126:2935-44 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that the dogma of an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for the development of chromaffin cells must be abandoned. ..
  48. Yamamoto H, Kamegaya E, Hagino Y, Imai K, Fujikawa A, Tamura K, et al. Genetic deletion of vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) reduces dopamine transporter activity in mesencephalic neurons in primary culture. Neurochem Int. 2007;51:237-44 pubmed
    Our aim was to investigate whether a defect in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) activities would affect dopaminergic cell functions or not...
  49. Borisovska M, Bensen A, Chong G, Westbrook G. Distinct modes of dopamine and GABA release in a dual transmitter neuron. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..TH(+) cells expressed both VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) and VGAT (vesicular GABA transporter), consistent with vesicular storage of both dopamine and GABA...
  50. Schäfer M, Hartwig N, Kalmbach N, Klietz M, Anlauf M, Eiden L, et al. Species-specific vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression in mammalian pancreatic beta cells: implications for optimising radioligand-based human beta cell mass (BCM) imaging in animal models. Diabetologia. 2013;56:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    Imaging of beta cell mass (BCM) is a major challenge in diabetes research. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is abundantly expressed in human beta cells...
  51. Kouwenhoven W, Veenvliet J, van Hooft J, van der Heide L, Smidt M. Engrailed 1 shapes the dopaminergic and serotonergic landscape through proper isthmic organizer maintenance and function. Biol Open. 2016;5:279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests a newly-discovered role for En1: the repression of Otx2, Wnt1 and canonical Wnt-signaling in R1. Overall, our results suggest that En1 is essential for proper IsO maintenance and function. ..
  52. Takahashi N, Miner L, Sora I, Ujike H, Revay R, Kostic V, et al. VMAT2 knockout mice: heterozygotes display reduced amphetamine-conditioned reward, enhanced amphetamine locomotion, and enhanced MPTP toxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9938-43 pubmed
    The brain vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) pumps monoamine neurotransmitters and Parkinsonism-inducing dopamine neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-phenypyridinium (MPP+) from neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, from ..
  53. Taylor T, Caudle W, Shepherd K, Noorian A, Jackson C, Iuvone P, et al. Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease revealed in an animal model with reduced monoamine storage capacity. J Neurosci. 2009;29:8103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have shown that mice with a 95% genetic reduction in vesicular monoamine transporter expression (VMAT2-deficient, VMAT2 LO) display progressive loss of striatal dopamine, L-DOPA-responsive ..
  54. Jacobs F, van Erp S, van der Linden A, von Oerthel L, Burbach J, Smidt M. Pitx3 potentiates Nurr1 in dopamine neuron terminal differentiation through release of SMRT-mediated repression. Development. 2009;136:531-40 pubmed publisher
  55. Patel J, Mooslehner K, Chan P, Emson P, Stamford J. Presynaptic control of striatal dopamine neurotransmission in adult vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) mutant mice. J Neurochem. 2003;85:898-910 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) plays a pivotal role in regulating the size of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine (DA) storage pools within the CNS, and can thus influence extracellular DA neurotransmission...
  56. Uhl G, Li S, Takahashi N, Itokawa K, Lin Z, Hazama M, et al. The VMAT2 gene in mice and humans: amphetamine responses, locomotion, cardiac arrhythmias, aging, and vulnerability to dopaminergic toxins. FASEB J. 2000;14:2459-65 pubmed
    ..gene and alteration in its expression levels in transgenic mice, and identify sequence polymorphisms in the human VMAT2 gene...
  57. Dunn A, Stout K, Ozawa M, Lohr K, Hoffman C, Bernstein A, et al. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) modulates dopamine release and is disrupted in Parkinson disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E2253-E2262 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish SV2C as a mediator of dopamine neuron function and suggest that SV2C disruption is a unique feature of PD that likely contributes to dopaminergic dysfunction. ..
  58. Hall F, Sora I, Uhl G. Sex-dependent modulation of ethanol consumption in vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:620-8 pubmed
    ..and plasma membrane monoamine transporters important for monoaminergic functions, including the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2, SLC18A2) and dopamine transporter (DAT, SLC6A3)...
  59. Crowley J, Brodkin E, Blendy J, Berrettini W, Lucki I. Pharmacogenomic evaluation of the antidepressant citalopram in the mouse tail suspension test. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2433-42 pubmed
    ..Three candidate genes residing in this locus include those for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2, slc18a2), alpha 2A adrenergic receptor (adra2a), and beta 1 adrenergic receptor (adrb1)...
  60. Kim J, Kim A, Zhao Z, Liu X, Chen Z. Postnatal maintenance of the 5-Ht1a-Pet1 autoregulatory loop by serotonin in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem. Mol Brain. 2014;7:48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are relevant to understanding the pathophysiology of certain psychiatric and developmental disorders. ..
  61. Goldstein D, Sullivan P, Holmes C, Miller G, Alter S, Strong R, et al. Determinants of buildup of the toxic dopamine metabolite DOPAL in Parkinson's disease. J Neurochem. 2013;126:591-603 pubmed publisher
    ..of putamen tissue catechols to examine contributions of altered activities of the type 2 vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH) to the increased DOPAL levels found in PD...
  62. Smits S, Ponnio T, Conneely O, Burbach J, Smidt M. Involvement of Nurr1 in specifying the neurotransmitter identity of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1731-8 pubmed
    ..Neonatal Nurr1 knockout mice lack expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT), the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) in addition to TH specifically in mesDA ..
  63. Isingrini E, Perret L, Rainer Q, Sagueby S, Moquin L, Gratton A, et al. Selective genetic disruption of dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission: insights into motor, emotional and addictive behaviour. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2016;41:169-81 pubmed
    ..Investigating their roles has led to the creation of vesicular monoaminergic transporter-2 (VMAT2) knockout (KO) mice...
  64. Ferrere A, Vitalis T, Gingras H, Gaspar P, Cases O. Expression of Cux-1 and Cux-2 in the developing somatosensory cortex of normal and barrel-defective mice. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:158-65 pubmed
    ..We examined Cux-1 and Cux-2 in barrel-defective mouse strains, the VMAT2 KO, the MAOA KO, and the Adcyl 1(brl) strain...
  65. Vitalis T, Fouquet C, Alvarez C, Seif I, Price D, Gaspar P, et al. Developmental expression of monoamine oxidases A and B in the central and peripheral nervous systems of the mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2002;442:331-47 pubmed
    ..These localizations are of importance for understanding the effects of monoaminergic transmission during development. ..
  66. Gazea M, Tasouri E, Tolve M, Bosch V, Kabanova A, Gojak C, et al. Primary cilia are critical for Sonic hedgehog-mediated dopaminergic neurogenesis in the embryonic midbrain. Dev Biol. 2016;409:55-71 pubmed publisher
  67. Burris R, Hebrok M. Pancreatic innervation in mouse development and beta-cell regeneration. Neuroscience. 2007;150:592-602 pubmed
  68. Smidt M, Smits S, Bouwmeester H, Hamers F, van der Linden A, Hellemons A, et al. Early developmental failure of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in mice lacking the homeodomain gene Pitx3. Development. 2004;131:1145-55 pubmed
    ..However, an overall lower activity was observed. The results suggest that Pitx3 is specifically required for the formation of the SNc subfield at the onset of dopaminergic neuron differentiation...
  69. Dean E, Mexas L, Cápiro N, McKeon J, Delong M, Pennell K, et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D depletion does not exacerbate MPTP-induced dopamine neuron damage in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39227 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that reducing 25(OH)D serum levels in mice has no effect on the vulnerability of nigral dopaminergic neurons in vivo in this model system of parkinsonism. ..
  70. Savelieva K, Caudle W, Miller G. Altered ethanol-associated behaviors in vesicular monoamine transporter heterozygote knockout mice. Alcohol. 2006;40:87-94 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the genetic reduction of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) on voluntary ethanol consumption and conditioned place preference (CPP) using VMAT2 heterozygote knockout mice [..
  71. Zhao C, Martinez V, Piqueras L, Wang L, TACHE Y, Chen D. Control of gastric acid secretion in somatostatin receptor 2 deficient mice: shift from endocrine/paracrine to neurocrine pathways. Endocrinology. 2008;149:498-505 pubmed
    ..We suggest that there is a remodeling of the neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate acid secretion in these mutant mice...
  72. Ji J, Bourque M, Di Paolo T, Dluzen D. Genetic alteration in the dopamine transporter differentially affects male and female nigrostriatal transporter systems. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:1401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of this DAT perturbation upon vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) function revealed significantly greater reserpine-evoked DA output from +/+ and +/- DAT female ..
  73. Hall F, Itokawa K, Schmitt A, Moessner R, Sora I, Lesch K, et al. Decreased vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in knockout mice affects aging of dopaminergic systems. Neuropharmacology. 2014;76 Pt A:146-55 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine (DA) is accumulated and compartmentalized by the dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC3A6) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2)...
  74. Wu H, Choi S, Levitt P. Differential patterning of genes involved in serotonin metabolism and transport in extra-embryonic tissues of the mouse. Placenta. 2016;42:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of 5-HT system-related enzymes, Tph1, Ddc, Maoa, and 5-HT transporters, Sert/Slc6a4, Oct3/Slc22a3, Vmat2/Slc18a2, and 5-HT in placenta and yolk sac were examined, with cell type-specific resolution, using multiplex fluorescent ..
  75. Asser A, Koks S, Snellman A, Haaparanta Solin M, Arponen E, Grönroos T, et al. Increased striatal VMAT2 binding in mice after chronic administration of methcathinone and manganese. Brain Res. 2016;1652:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased [11C]DTBZ binding may indicate vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) function is altered...