Gene Symbol: Slc17a6
Description: solute carrier family 17 (sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter), member 6
Alias: 2900073D12Rik, DNPI, VGLUT2, vesicular glutamate transporter 2, differentiation-associated BNPI, differentiation-associated Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter, solute carrier family 17 (vesicular glutamate transporter), member 6, solute carrier family 17 member 6
Species: mouse
Products:     Slc17a6

Top Publications

  1. Mizuguchi R, Kriks S, Cordes R, Gossler A, Ma Q, Goulding M. Ascl1 and Gsh1/2 control inhibitory and excitatory cell fate in spinal sensory interneurons. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:770-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that this switch in Ascl1 function enables the cogeneration of inhibitory and excitatory sensory interneurons from a common pool of dorsal progenitors. ..
  2. Scherrer G, Low S, Wang X, Zhang J, Yamanaka H, Urban R, et al. VGLUT2 expression in primary afferent neurons is essential for normal acute pain and injury-induced heat hypersensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we generated mice in which the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is ablated selectively from DRG neurons...
  3. Wootz H, Enjin A, Wallén Mackenzie A, Lindholm D, Kullander K. Reduced VGLUT2 expression increases motor neuron viability in Sod1(G93A) mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Nerve terminals that envelop motor neurons in the spinal cord contain VGLUT2 and are likely responsible for most glutamate release on motor neurons...
  4. Maricich S, Xia A, Mathes E, Wang V, Oghalai J, Fritzsch B, et al. Atoh1-lineal neurons are required for hearing and for the survival of neurons in the spiral ganglion and brainstem accessory auditory nuclei. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These new mouse models of predominantly central deafness illuminate the importance of the CN for support of a subset of peripheral and central auditory neurons. ..
  5. Cheng L, Samad O, Xu Y, Mizuguchi R, Luo P, Shirasawa S, et al. Lbx1 and Tlx3 are opposing switches in determining GABAergic versus glutamatergic transmitter phenotypes. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1510-5 pubmed
    ..These genetic studies suggest that Lbx1 expression defines a basal GABAergic differentiation state, and Tlx3 acts to antagonize Lbx1 to promote glutamatergic differentiation. ..
  6. Delwig A, Majumdar S, Ahern K, Lavail M, Edwards R, Hnasko T, et al. Glutamatergic neurotransmission from melanopsin retinal ganglion cells is required for neonatal photoaversion but not adult pupillary light reflex. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83974 pubmed publisher
    ..mRGCs in neonatal aversion to light and in adult PLR, we conditionally deleted vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2) selectively from mRGCs in mice...
  7. Gray P, Hayes J, Ling G, Llona I, Tupal S, Picardo M, et al. Developmental origin of preBötzinger complex respiratory neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Dbx1-derived neurons are essential for the expression and, we hypothesize, are responsible for the generation of respiratory behavior both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  8. Liu Y, Abdel Samad O, Zhang L, Duan B, Tong Q, Lopes C, et al. VGLUT2-dependent glutamate release from nociceptors is required to sense pain and suppress itch. Neuron. 2010;68:543-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated conditional null mice in which vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (VGLUT2)-dependent synaptic glutamate release from mainly Nav1.8-expressing nociceptors was abolished...
  9. Peltopuro P, Kala K, Partanen J. Distinct requirements for Ascl1 in subpopulations of midbrain GABAergic neurons. Dev Biol. 2010;343:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our results have implications on understanding the origins of the various midbrain GABAergic neuron groups in the embryonic neuroepithelium. ..

More Information


  1. Rogoz K, Andersen H, Lagerström M, Kullander K. Multimodal use of calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in itch and acute pain uncovered by the elimination of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 from transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 neurons. J Neurosci. 2014;34:14055-68 pubmed publisher
    ..subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) population by either ablating Trpv1-Cre-expressing neurons or inducing vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) deficiency in Trpv1-Cre-expressing neurons...
  2. Joshi K, Lee S, Lee B, Lee J, Lee S. LMO4 controls the balance between excitatory and inhibitory spinal V2 interneurons. Neuron. 2009;61:839-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, LMO4 plays essential roles in directing a balanced generation of inhibitory and excitatory neurons in the ventral spinal cord. ..
  3. Lagerström M, Rogoz K, Abrahamsen B, Persson E, Reinius B, Nordenankar K, et al. VGLUT2-dependent sensory neurons in the TRPV1 population regulate pain and itch. Neuron. 2010;68:529-42 pubmed publisher
    ..drugs and by genetic deletion of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, demonstrating a dependence on VGLUT2 to maintain normal levels of both histaminergic and nonhistaminergic itch...
  4. Renier N, Schonewille M, Giraudet F, Badura A, Tessier Lavigne M, Avan P, et al. Genetic dissection of the function of hindbrain axonal commissures. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000325 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to link defects in commissural axon guidance with specific cellular and behavioral phenotypes. ..
  5. Hnasko T, Chuhma N, Zhang H, Goh G, Sulzer D, Palmiter R, et al. Vesicular glutamate transport promotes dopamine storage and glutamate corelease in vivo. Neuron. 2010;65:643-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess a physiological role for glutamate corelease, we disrupted the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 selectively in dopamine neurons...
  6. Fujiyama T, Yamada M, Terao M, Terashima T, Hioki H, Inoue Y, et al. Inhibitory and excitatory subtypes of cochlear nucleus neurons are defined by distinct bHLH transcription factors, Ptf1a and Atoh1. Development. 2009;136:2049-58 pubmed publisher
  7. Maricich S, Wellnitz S, Nelson A, Lesniak D, Gerling G, Lumpkin E, et al. Merkel cells are essential for light-touch responses. Science. 2009;324:1580-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Merkel cells are, therefore, required for the proper encoding of Merkel receptor responses, suggesting that these cells form an indispensible part of the somatosensory system. ..
  8. Morrison K, Miesegaes G, Lumpkin E, Maricich S. Mammalian Merkel cells are descended from the epidermal lineage. Dev Biol. 2009;336:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mammalian Merkel cells are derived from the skin lineage. ..
  9. Miyazaki T, Fukaya M, Shimizu H, Watanabe M. Subtype switching of vesicular glutamate transporters at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses in developing mouse cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:2563-72 pubmed
    ..e. parallel fibres; PFs) and VGluT2 (DNPI) in those of the inferior olivary neurons (climbing fibres; CFs)...
  10. Vong L, Ye C, Yang Z, Choi B, Chua S, Lowell B. Leptin action on GABAergic neurons prevents obesity and reduces inhibitory tone to POMC neurons. Neuron. 2011;71:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..approach and test whether first-order neurons are inhibitory (GABAergic, VGAT?) or excitatory (glutamatergic, VGLUT2?)...
  11. Leo S, Moechars D, Callaerts Vegh Z, D Hooge R, Meert T. Impairment of VGLUT2 but not VGLUT1 signaling reduces neuropathy-induced hypersensitivity. Eur J Pain. 2009;13:1008-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Null mutants for VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were poorly viable, thus, pain-related behavior was presently compared between heterozygote VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mice ..
  12. Wässle H, Regus Leidig H, Haverkamp S. Expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter vGluT2 in a subset of cones of the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:544-55 pubmed
    ..In the present study mouse retinas were immunostained for vGluT1 and vGluT2. vGluT1 was localized to all cone pedicles and rod spherules, whereas vGluT2 was found in only 10% of the cone ..
  13. Pillai A, Mansouri A, Behringer R, Westphal H, Goulding M. Lhx1 and Lhx5 maintain the inhibitory-neurotransmitter status of interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord. Development. 2007;134:357-66 pubmed
    ..Lhx1 and Lhx5 therefore function together with Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 to establish a GABAergic inhibitory-neurotransmitter program in dorsal horn interneurons. ..
  14. Wallén Mackenzie A, Gezelius H, Thoby Brisson M, Nygård A, Enjin A, Fujiyama F, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 is required for central respiratory rhythm generation but not for locomotor central pattern generation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12294-307 pubmed dependent on glutamate release from presynaptic vesicles loaded by three members of the solute carrier family, Slc17a6-8, which function as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs)...
  15. Fremeau R, Kam K, Qureshi T, Johnson J, Copenhagen D, Storm Mathisen J, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 target to functionally distinct synaptic release sites. Science. 2004;304:1815-9 pubmed
    ..Developing hippocampal neurons transiently coexpressed VGLUT2 and VGLUT1 at distinct synaptic sites with different short-term plasticity...
  16. Dubreuil V, Thoby Brisson M, Rallu M, Persson K, Pattyn A, Birchmeier C, et al. Defective respiratory rhythmogenesis and loss of central chemosensitivity in Phox2b mutants targeting retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14836-46 pubmed publisher
    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is a group of neurons in the rostral medulla, defined here as Phox2b-, Vglut2-, neurokinin1 receptor-, and Atoh1-expressing cells in the parafacial region, which have been proposed to function both as ..
  17. Rogoz K, Lagerström M, Dufour S, Kullander K. VGLUT2-dependent glutamatergic transmission in primary afferents is required for intact nociception in both acute and persistent pain modalities. Pain. 2012;153:1525-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the role of VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic contribution to pain transmission from the entire primary sensory population, we crossed ..
  18. Tong Q, Ye C, McCrimmon R, Dhillon H, Choi B, Kramer M, et al. Synaptic glutamate release by ventromedial hypothalamic neurons is part of the neurocircuitry that prevents hypoglycemia. Cell Metab. 2007;5:383-93 pubmed
    ..Ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons are predominantly glutamatergic and express VGLUT2. To evaluate the role of glutamate release from VMH neurons, we generated mice lacking VGLUT2 selectively in SF1 ..
  19. Rose M, Ren J, Ahmad K, Chao H, Klisch T, Flora A, et al. Math1 is essential for the development of hindbrain neurons critical for perinatal breathing. Neuron. 2009;64:341-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies Math1-dependent neurons that are critical for perinatal breathing that may link proprioception and arousal with respiration. ..
  20. Dougherty K, Zagoraiou L, Satoh D, Rozani I, Doobar S, Arber S, et al. Locomotor rhythm generation linked to the output of spinal shox2 excitatory interneurons. Neuron. 2013;80:920-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings focus attention on a subset of Shox2 INs that appear to participate in the rhythm-generating kernel for spinal locomotion. ..
  21. Stuber G, Hnasko T, Britt J, Edwards R, Bonci A. Dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens but not the dorsal striatum corelease glutamate. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8229-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we used a conditional knock-out mouse lacking vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) specifically in dopamine neurons to determine whether VGLUT2 is required for the exocytotic ..
  22. Wojcik S, Katsurabayashi S, Guillemin I, Friauf E, Rosenmund C, Brose N, et al. A shared vesicular carrier allows synaptic corelease of GABA and glycine. Neuron. 2006;50:575-87 pubmed
    ..Since GABA and glycine compete for vesicular uptake, these data point to a close association of Viaat with GABA-synthesizing enzymes as a key factor in specifying GABAergic neuronal phenotypes. ..
  23. Wallén Mackenzie A, Nordenankar K, Fejgin K, Lagerström M, Emilsson L, Fredriksson R, et al. Restricted cortical and amygdaloid removal of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 in preadolescent mice impacts dopaminergic activity and neuronal circuitry of higher brain function. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2238-51 pubmed publisher
    ..we wanted to determine the role of a restricted subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons within the forebrain, the Vglut2-expressing neurons, in neuronal circuitry of higher brain function...
  24. Koch S, Dela Cruz C, Hnasko T, Edwards R, Huberman A, Ullian E. Pathway-specific genetic attenuation of glutamate release alters select features of competition-based visual circuit refinement. Neuron. 2011;71:235-42 pubmed publisher
  25. Moechars D, Weston M, Leo S, Callaerts Vegh Z, Goris I, Daneels G, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2 expression levels control quantal size and neuropathic pain. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12055-66 pubmed
    ..transporters (VGLUT1-VGLUT3) are expressed in the mammalian CNS, with partial overlapping expression patterns, and VGLUT2 is the most abundantly expressed paralog in the thalamus, midbrain, and brainstem...
  26. Brumovsky P, Watanabe M, Hokfelt T. Expression of the vesicular glutamate transporters-1 and -2 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and their regulation by nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2007;147:469-90 pubmed
    The expression of two vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, was studied with immunohistochemistry in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), the lumbar spinal cord and the skin of the adult mouse...
  27. Cheng L, Arata A, Mizuguchi R, Qian Y, Karunaratne A, Gray P, et al. Tlx3 and Tlx1 are post-mitotic selector genes determining glutamatergic over GABAergic cell fates. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:510-7 pubmed
    ..Both generic and region-specific glutamatergic markers, including VGLUT2 and the AMPA receptor Gria2, were absent in Tlx mutant dorsal horn...
  28. Lagerström M, Rogoz K, Abrahamsen B, Lind A, Olund C, Smith C, et al. A sensory subpopulation depends on vesicular glutamate transporter 2 for mechanical pain, and together with substance P, inflammatory pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that deleting Vglut2 in Na(v)1...
  29. Schallier A, Massie A, Loyens E, Moechars D, Drinkenburg W, Michotte Y, et al. vGLUT2 heterozygous mice show more susceptibility to clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:41-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There are three known vGLUT isoforms, vGLUT1-3. In this study, we are particularly interested in the vGLUT2 isoform. We investigated the possible role of vGLUT2 in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure generation...
  30. Xu Y, Wu Z, Sun H, Zhu Y, Kim E, Lowell B, et al. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation. Cell Metab. 2013;18:860-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study establishes glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter that mediates MC4Rs on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation. ..
  31. Hubsch M, Neuhuber W, Raab M. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the mouse esophagus: focus on intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs). Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25:e560-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, close relationships of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) immunopositive IGLEs and cholinergic varicosities suggestive for direct contacts were ..
  32. Lammel S, Steinberg E, Földy C, Wall N, Beier K, Luo L, et al. Diversity of transgenic mouse models for selective targeting of midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuron. 2015;85:429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This Matters Arising paper is in response to Stamatakis et al. (2013), published in Neuron. See also the Matters Arising Response paper by Stuber et al. (2015), published concurrently with this Matters Arising in Neuron. ..
  33. Fife K, Gutierrez Reed N, Zell V, Bailly J, Lewis C, Aron A, et al. Causal role for the subthalamic nucleus in interrupting behavior. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide strong evidence that the STN is both necessary and sufficient for such forms of behavioral response suppression. ..
  34. Shah B, Vong L, Olson D, Koda S, Krashes M, Ye C, et al. MC4R-expressing glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus regulate feeding and are synaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a basis for the feeding-regulating effects of MC4Rs. ..
  35. Nunzi M, Russo M, Mugnaini E. Vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 define two subsets of unipolar brush cells in organotypic cultures of mouse vestibulocerebellum. Neuroscience. 2003;122:359-71 pubmed
    ..There is agreement that the VGLUTs are differentially expressed in brain, and that two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are localized to excitatory axon terminals in the cerebellar cortex...
  36. Azim E, Jabaudon D, Fame R, Macklis J. SOX6 controls dorsal progenitor identity and interneuron diversity during neocortical development. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that SOX6 is a central regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development. ..
  37. Kondoh K, Lu Z, Ye X, Olson D, Lowell B, Buck L. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours. Nature. 2016;532:103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising <5% of the olfactory cortex, plays a key part in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents. ..
  38. Bender F, Gorbati M, Cadavieco M, Denisova N, Gao X, Holman C, et al. Theta oscillations regulate the speed of locomotion via a hippocampus to lateral septum pathway. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8521 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that changes in hippocampal theta synchronization are translated into rapid adjustment of running speed via the LS. ..
  39. Yau H, Wang D, Tsou J, Chuang Y, Chen B, Deisseroth K, et al. Pontomesencephalic Tegmental Afferents to VTA Non-dopamine Neurons Are Necessary for Appetitive Pavlovian Learning. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2699-2710 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. ..
  40. Hou X, Hyun M, Taranda J, Huang K, Todd E, Feng D, et al. Central Control Circuit for Context-Dependent Micturition. Cell. 2016;167:73-86.e12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that PMC Crh-expressing neurons are likely the integration center for context-dependent micturition behavior. ..
  41. Zhou L, Liu M, Li Q, Deng J, Mu D, Sun Y. Organization of Functional Long-Range Circuits Controlling the Activity of Serotonergic Neurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus. Cell Rep. 2017;18:3018-3032 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a framework for further deciphering the functional roles of long-range circuits controlling the activity of serotonergic neurons in the DRN. ..
  42. Ina A, Sugiyama M, Konno J, Yoshida S, Ohmomo H, Nogami H, et al. Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons differentially express vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 during development of mouse cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:615-23 pubmed
    ..these roles, we focused on the developmental expression of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)1 and VGLUT2, which are regarded as the best markers for verifying glutamatergic neuron identity, especially the spatiotemporal ..
  43. Xu Y, Lu Y, Xu P, Mangieri L, Isingrini E, Xu Y, et al. VMAT2-Mediated Neurotransmission from Midbrain Leptin Receptor Neurons in Feeding Regulation. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, leptin inhibited 24-h HFD feeding in controls but not in KO mice. Thus, VMAT2-mediated neurotransmission from midbrain LepR neurons contributes to both binge-like eating and HFD feeding regulation. ..
  44. Gu Z, Serradj N, Ueno M, Liang M, Li J, Baccei M, et al. Skilled Movements Require Non-apoptotic Bax/Bak Pathway-Mediated Corticospinal Circuit Reorganization. Neuron. 2017;94:626-641.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal key cellular and molecular mechanisms driving postnatal motor circuit reorganization and the resulting impacts on muscle activation patterns and the execution of skilled movements. ..
  45. Alsiö J, Nordenankar K, Arvidsson E, Birgner C, Mahmoudi S, Halbout B, et al. Enhanced sucrose and cocaine self-administration and cue-induced drug seeking after loss of VGLUT2 in midbrain dopamine neurons in mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of DA neurons has been shown to express the type 2 Vesicular glutamate transporter (Vglut2) and may therefore corelease glutamate...
  46. Snow M, Fraigne J, Thibault Messier G, Chuen V, Thomasian A, Horner R, et al. GABA Cells in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Promote Cataplexy. J Neurosci. 2017;37:4007-4022 pubmed publisher
    ..We also generated a new mouse model for studying GABA neurons in narcoleptic mice, which could serve as a useful tool for studying the neurobiological underpinnings of narcolepsy. ..
  47. Nakamura K, Watakabe A, Hioki H, Fujiyama F, Tanaka Y, Yamamori T, et al. Transiently increased colocalization of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 at single axon terminals during postnatal development of mouse neocortex: a quantitative analysis with correlation coefficient. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:3054-67 pubmed
    Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and VGLUT2 show complementary distribution in neocortex; VGLUT1 is expressed mainly in axon terminals of neocortical neurons, whereas VGLUT2 is located chiefly in thalamocortical axon terminals...
  48. Mattar P, Langevin L, Markham K, Klenin N, Shivji S, Zinyk D, et al. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors cooperate to specify a cortical projection neuron identity. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1456-69 pubmed
    ..Cortical bHLH genes thus cooperate to control transcriptional strength, thereby temporally coordinating downstream gene expression. ..
  49. Teissier A, Griveau A, Vigier L, Piolot T, Borello U, Pierani A. A novel transient glutamatergic population migrating from the pallial-subpallial boundary contributes to neocortical development. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10563-74 pubmed publisher
  50. Pedersen N, Ferrari L, Venner A, Wang J, Abbott S, Vujovic N, et al. Supramammillary glutamate neurons are a key node of the arousal system. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1405 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that glutamate-releasing neurons of the supramammillary region (SuMvglut2) produce sustained behavioral and EEG arousal when chemogenetically activated...
  51. Budisantoso T, Matsui K, Kamasawa N, Fukazawa Y, Shigemoto R. Mechanisms underlying signal filtering at a multisynapse contact. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2357-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the micrometer-order structure can ultimately affect the visual information processing. ..
  52. Mickelsen L, Kolling F, Chimileski B, Fujita A, Norris C, Chen K, et al. Neurochemical Heterogeneity Among Lateral Hypothalamic Hypocretin/Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons Identified Through Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
  53. Meziane H, Fraulob V, Riet F, Krezel W, Selloum M, Geffarth M, et al. The homeodomain factor Gbx1 is required for locomotion and cell specification in the dorsal spinal cord. Peerj. 2013;1:e142 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study unveiled a role for Gbx1 in specifying a subset of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord involved in the control of posterior limb movement. ..
  54. Coleman J, Nahmani M, Gavornik J, Haslinger R, Heynen A, Erisir A, et al. Rapid structural remodeling of thalamocortical synapses parallels experience-dependent functional plasticity in mouse primary visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9670-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that the rapid plasticity of TC synapses is a key step in the sequence of events that shift OD in visual cortex. ..
  55. Abe P, Molnár Z, Tzeng Y, Lai D, Arnold S, Stumm R. Intermediate Progenitors Facilitate Intracortical Progression of Thalamocortical Axons and Interneurons through CXCL12 Chemokine Signaling. J Neurosci. 2015;35:13053-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This paracrine signal may ensure thalamocortical connectivity and dispersion of inhibitory neurons in the rapidly growing cortex. ..
  56. Antal M, Beneduce B, Regehr W. The substantia nigra conveys target-dependent excitatory and inhibitory outputs from the basal ganglia to the thalamus. J Neurosci. 2014;34:8032-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamatergic SN neurons express the vesicular glutamate receptor transporter vGluT2 and receive inhibitory synapses from striatal neurons, and many also express tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of ..
  57. Borgius L, Restrepo C, Leao R, Saleh N, Kiehn O. A transgenic mouse line for molecular genetic analysis of excitatory glutamatergic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:245-57 pubmed publisher
    ..used BAC-technology to generate a BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line where Cre expression is driven by the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) promotor...
  58. Myers C, Lewcock J, Hanson M, Gosgnach S, Aimone J, Gage F, et al. Cholinergic input is required during embryonic development to mediate proper assembly of spinal locomotor circuits. Neuron. 2005;46:37-49 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the cholinergic neurotransmitter pathway is involved in configuring the CPG during a transient period of development. ..
  59. Meng X, Wang W, Lu H, He L, Chen W, Chao E, et al. Manipulations of MeCP2 in glutamatergic neurons highlight their contributions to Rett and other neurological disorders. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a role for excitatory signaling impairment in specific neurobehavioral abnormalities shared by RTT and other postnatal neurological disorders. ..
  60. Wang Z, Yu G, Wang H, Yi S, Su R, Gong Z. Changes in VGLUT2 expression and function in pain-related supraspinal regions correlate with the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain in a mouse spared nerve injury model. Brain Res. 2015;1624:515-524 pubmed publisher
    ..The VGLUT2 isoform has been found to be densely distributed in the nociceptive pathways in supraspinal regions, and VGLUT2-..
  61. Gămănuţ R, Kennedy H, Toroczkai Z, Ercsey Ravasz M, Van Essen D, Knoblauch K, et al. The Mouse Cortical Connectome, Characterized by an Ultra-Dense Cortical Graph, Maintains Specificity by Distinct Connectivity Profiles. Neuron. 2018;97:698-715.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..The consistency, precision of the connectivity profile, density, and weighted graph analysis of the present data differ significantly from those obtained in earlier studies in the mouse. ..
  62. Peirs C, Williams S, Zhao X, Walsh C, Gedeon J, Cagle N, et al. Dorsal Horn Circuits for Persistent Mechanical Pain. Neuron. 2015;87:797-812 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, using inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, we show that multiple microcircuits in the dorsal horn encode this form of pain. ..
  63. Achim K, Peltopuro P, Lahti L, Tsai H, Zachariah A, Astrand M, et al. The role of Tal2 and Tal1 in the differentiation of midbrain GABAergic neuron precursors. Biol Open. 2013;2:990-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed similarities and differences between Tal1/Tal2 and Gata2 mutants suggest both co-operative and unique roles for these factors in determination of midbrain GABAergic neuron identities. ..
  64. Uda Y, Xu S, Matsumura T, Takei Y. P2Y4 Nucleotide Receptor in Neuronal Precursors Induces Glutamatergic Subtype Markers in Their Descendant Neurons. Stem Cell Reports. 2016;6:474-482 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence that differentiating NSCs pass through a stage in which nucleotides can affect subtype marker expression of their descendant neurons. ..
  65. Weber F, Chung S, BEIER K, Xu M, Luo L, Dan Y. Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons. Nature. 2015;526:435-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify a key component of the pontomedullary network controlling REM sleep. The capability to induce REM sleep on command may offer a powerful tool for investigating its functions. ..
  66. Wende C, Zoubaa S, Blak A, Echevarria D, Martinez S, Guillemot F, et al. Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split MEGANE and Proneural MASH1 Factors Cooperate Synergistically in Midbrain GABAergic Neurogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127681 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential for cell therapy strategies to amend GABAergic deficits. ..
  67. Jia Z, Guo Y, Tang Y, Xu Q, Li B, Wu Q. Regulation of the protocadherin Celsr3 gene and its role in globus pallidus development and connectivity. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3895-910 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal the essential role of Celsr3 in GP development in the basal forebrain and shed light on the mechanisms of the axonal defects caused by the Celsr3 deletion. ..
  68. Zagoraiou L, Akay T, Martin J, Brownstone R, Jessell T, Miles G. A cluster of cholinergic premotor interneurons modulates mouse locomotor activity. Neuron. 2009;64:645-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, V0(C) interneurons represent a defined class of spinal cholinergic interneurons with an intrinsic neuromodulatory role in the control of locomotor behavior. ..
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