Gene Symbol: Slc11a1
Description: solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 1
Alias: Bcg, Ity, Ity1, Lsh, Nramp, Nramp1, ity, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1, NRAMP 1, host resistance locus Bcg/Ity/Lsh, solute carrier family 11 member 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Slc11a1

Top Publications

  1. Jabado N, Jankowski A, Dougaparsad S, Picard V, Grinstein S, Gros P. Natural resistance to intracellular infections: natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) functions as a pH-dependent manganese transporter at the phagosomal membrane. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1237-48 pubmed
    Mutations at the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) locus cause susceptibility to infection with antigenically unrelated intracellular pathogens...
  2. Lecoeur H, Lagrange P, Truffot Pernot C, Gheorghiu M, Grosset J. Relapses after stopping chemotherapy for experimental tuberculosis in genetically resistant and susceptible strains of mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 1989;76:458-62 pubmed
    ..It seems that the C3H strain of mice, known to carry the Bcg-r allele of the Bcg gene, might be less able to develop a specific acquired resistance capable of stopping the ..
  3. Gros P, Skamene E, Forget A. Genetic control of natural resistance to Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) in mice. J Immunol. 1981;127:2417-21 pubmed
    Mice of 12 inbred strains infected i.v. with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) exhibited 2 distinct patterns of response as determined by the degree of BCG burden in the spleens of animals at 3 wk after infection with 10(4) viable bacilli: ..
  4. Vidal S, Belouchi A, Cellier M, Beatty B, Gros P. Cloning and characterization of a second human NRAMP gene on chromosome 12q13. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:224-30 pubmed
    The mouse Nramp1 gene was initially identified by positional cloning as a candidate for the host resistance locus Bcg on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 1...
  5. Hill N, Lyons P, Armitage N, Todd J, Wicker L, Peterson L. NOD Idd5 locus controls insulitis and diabetes and overlaps the orthologous CTLA4/IDDM12 and NRAMP1 loci in humans. Diabetes. 2000;49:1744-7 pubmed
    ..This locus was designated Idd5 and encompassed candidate genes including Il1r1, Il1r2, Stat1, Stat4, Nramp1, and Bcl2...
  6. White J, Stewart A, Popoff J, Wilson S, Blackwell J. Incomplete glycosylation and defective intracellular targeting of mutant solute carrier family 11 member 1 (Slc11a1). Biochem J. 2004;382:811-9 pubmed
    b>Solute carrier family 11 member 1 (Slc11a1, formerly Nramp1) is a highly glycosylated, 12 transmembrane domain protein expressed in macrophages...
  7. Crocker P, Blackwell J, Bradley D. Expression of the natural resistance gene Lsh in resident liver macrophages. Infect Immun. 1984;43:1033-40 pubmed Leishmania donovani infection in mice is controlled by a single gene (Lsh) thought to be identical to the genes Ity and Bcg which control the early response to Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium bovis infections, respectively...
  8. De Franco M, Carneiro P, Peters L, Vorraro F, Borrego A, Ribeiro O, et al. Slc11a1 (Nramp1) alleles interact with acute inflammation loci to modulate wound-healing traits in mice. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:263-9 pubmed
    ..present distinct neutrophil influx and show frequency disequilibrium of the solute carrier family 11a member 1 (Slc11a1) alleles...
  9. Xi S, Geiman T, Briones V, Guang Tao Y, Xu H, Muegge K. Lsh participates in DNA methylation and silencing of stem cell genes. Stem Cells. 2009;27:2691-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Lsh, a regulator of repressive chromatin at retrotransposons, also plays an important role in silencing of stem cell-..

More Information


  1. Malo D, Vogan K, Vidal S, Hu J, Cellier M, Schurr E, et al. Haplotype mapping and sequence analysis of the mouse Nramp gene predict susceptibility to infection with intracellular parasites. Genomics. 1994;23:51-61 pubmed
    ..based on genetic and physical mapping, YAC cloning, and exon trapping to isolate a candidate gene for Bcg (Nramp) that encodes a predicted macrophage-specific transport protein...
  2. Gruenheid S, Cellier M, Vidal S, Gros P. Identification and characterization of a second mouse Nramp gene. Genomics. 1995;25:514-25 pubmed
    The Nramp gene was isolated as a candidate for the host resistance locus Bcg/Ity/Lsh, which controls natural resistance of mice to several types of infections...
  3. Gomez M, Li S, Tremblay M, Olivier M. NRAMP-1 expression modulates protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity in macrophages: impact on host cell signaling and functions. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36190-8 pubmed
    b>NRAMP-1 (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-1) has been associated with innate resistance to unrelated intracellular pathogen infections, up-regulation of proinflammatory phagocyte functions, and susceptibility to ..
  4. de Chastellier C, Frehel C, Offredo C, Skamene E. Implication of phagosome-lysosome fusion in restriction of Mycobacterium avium growth in bone marrow macrophages from genetically resistant mice. Infect Immun. 1993;61:3775-84 pubmed a variety of intracellular pathogens, including mycobacteria, is strongly dependent upon the expression of the Bcg gene...
  5. Cellier M, Shustik C, Dalton W, Rich E, Hu J, Malo D, et al. Expression of the human NRAMP1 gene in professional primary phagocytes: studies in blood cells and in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia. J Leukoc Biol. 1997;61:96-105 pubmed
    In the mouse, mutations at the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) gene abrogate resistance to infection with antigenically unrelated intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium, Salmonella, and Leishmania...
  6. Vidal S, Gros P, Skamene E. Natural resistance to infection with intracellular parasites: molecular genetics identifies Nramp1 as the Bcg/Ity/Lsh locus. J Leukoc Biol. 1995;58:382-90 pubmed
    ..based on genetic and physical mapping, YAC cloning, and exon trapping to isolate a candidate gene for Bcg, named Nramp1, which codes for a macrophage-specific polytopic protein with 12 predicted transmembrane domains and a consensus ..
  7. Hackam D, Rotstein O, Zhang W, Gruenheid S, Gros P, Grinstein S. Host resistance to intracellular infection: mutation of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) impairs phagosomal acidification. J Exp Med. 1998;188:351-64 pubmed
    ..In mice, mutations at the Nramp1 gene (for natural resistance-associated macrophage protein), cause susceptibility to mycobacterial infections...
  8. Cellier M, Prive G, Belouchi A, Kwan T, Rodrigues V, Chia W, et al. Nramp defines a family of membrane proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10089-93 pubmed
    b>Nramp (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein) is a newly identified family of integral membrane proteins whose biochemical function is unknown...
  9. Zhang G, Wu H, Ross C, Minton J, Blecha F. Cloning of porcine NRAMP1 and its induction by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1beta: role of CD14 and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Infect Immun. 2000;68:1086-93 pubmed
    The gene for natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) plays a dominant role in controlling the resistance of inbred mice to infection with intracellular bacteria, such as Mycobacteria, Salmonella, and Leishmania...
  10. Stach J, Gros P, Forget A, Skamene E. Phenotypic expression of genetically-controlled natural resistance to Mycobacterium bovis (BCG). J Immunol. 1984;132:888-92 pubmed
    Mycobacterium bovis (BCG), when maintained in vitro, readily incorporates [3H]uracil, the RNA precursor...
  11. Monack D, Bouley D, Falkow S. Salmonella typhimurium persists within macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes of chronically infected Nramp1+/+ mice and can be reactivated by IFNgamma neutralization. J Exp Med. 2004;199:231-41 pubmed
    ..typhimurium can persist for as long as 1 yr in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of 129sv Nramp1(+)(/)(+) (Slc11a1(+)(/)(+)) mice despite the presence of high levels of anti-S. typhimurium antibody...
  12. Gomes M, Appelberg R. Evidence for a link between iron metabolism and Nramp1 gene function in innate resistance against Mycobacterium avium. Immunology. 1998;95:165-8 pubmed
    In the mouse, the progression of the Mycobacterium avium infection is highly dependent on the Nramp1 gene. Strains of mice that express the Nramp1D169 allele are highly susceptible to M...
  13. Govoni G, Gauthier S, Billia F, Iscove N, Gros P. Cell-specific and inducible Nramp1 gene expression in mouse macrophages in vitro and in vivo. J Leukoc Biol. 1997;62:277-86 pubmed
    Mutations in the Nramp1 gene abolish natural resistance to infections with many unrelated intracellular parasites in vivo...
  14. Blackwell J, Searle S, Mohamed H, White J. Divalent cation transport and susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune disease: continuation of the Ity/Lsh/Bcg/Nramp1/Slc11a1 gene story. Immunol Lett. 2003;85:197-203 pubmed
    Solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1), formerly known as Nramp1/Ity/Lsh/Bcg, is a proton/divalent cation antiporter that regulates susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune disease...
  15. Stecher B, Paesold G, Barthel M, Kremer M, Jantsch J, Stallmach T, et al. Chronic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-induced colitis and cholangitis in streptomycin-pretreated Nramp1+/+ mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5047-57 pubmed
    ..In susceptible Nramp1(-/-) (Slc11alpha1(-/-)) mice, serovar Typhimurium cannot efficiently colonize the intestine but causes a systemic ..
  16. Borrego A, Peters L, Jensen J, Ribeiro O, Koury Cabrera W, Starobinas N, et al. Genetic determinants of acute inflammation regulate Salmonella infection and modulate Slc11a1 gene (formerly Nramp1) effects in selected mouse lines. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2766-71 pubmed
    ..The LD(50) for AIRmax mice is 1000 times higher than that observed for AIRmin mice, and higher frequencies of Slc11a1 alleles (known to confer either resistance (R) or high susceptibility (S) to S...
  17. Vidal S, Malo D, Vogan K, Skamene E, Gros P. Natural resistance to infection with intracellular parasites: isolation of a candidate for Bcg. Cell. 1993;73:469-85 pubmed
    ..RNA expression studies showed that one of them, designated Nramp, was expressed exclusively in macrophage populations from reticuloendothelial organs and in the macrophage line ..
  18. Soe Lin S, Sheftel A, Wasyluk B, Ponka P. Nramp1 equips macrophages for efficient iron recycling. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:929-37 pubmed publisher
    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) is a divalent metal transporter expressed exclusively in phagocytic cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils...
  19. Malo D, Vidal S, Hu J, Skamene E, Gros P. High-resolution linkage map in the vicinity of the host resistance locus Bcg. Genomics. 1993;16:655-63 pubmed
    The mouse chromosome 1 locus Bcg determines natural resistance/susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to infection with antigenically unrelated intracellular parasites, including several Mycobacterium species, Salmonella typhimurium, and ..
  20. Fritsche G, Nairz M, Werner E, Barton H, Weiss G. Nramp1-functionality increases iNOS expression via repression of IL-10 formation. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3060-7 pubmed publisher
    ..on the expression of a late phagosomal protein termed natural-resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1, Slc11a1)...
  21. Stober C, Brode S, White J, Popoff J, Blackwell J. Slc11a1, formerly Nramp1, is expressed in dendritic cells and influences major histocompatibility complex class II expression and antigen-presenting cell function. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5059-67 pubmed
    Solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1; formerly Nramp1) encodes a late endosomal/lysosomal protein/divalent cation transporter that regulates iron homeostasis in macrophages...
  22. Gruenheid S, Pinner E, Desjardins M, Gros P. Natural resistance to infection with intracellular pathogens: the Nramp1 protein is recruited to the membrane of the phagosome. J Exp Med. 1997;185:717-30 pubmed
    The Nramp1 (natural-resistance-associated macrophage protein 1) locus (Bcg, Ity, Lsh) controls the innate resistance or susceptibility of mice to infection with a group of unrelated intracellular parasites which includes Salmonella, ..
  23. Skamene E, Gros P, Forget A, Kongshavn P, St Charles C, Taylor B. Genetic regulation of resistance to intracellular pathogens. Nature. 1982;297:506-9 pubmed
  24. Potter M, O Brien A, Skamene E, Gros P, Forget A, Kongshavn P, et al. A BALB/c congenic strain of mice that carries a genetic locus (Ityr) controlling resistance to intracellular parasites. Infect Immun. 1983;40:1234-5 pubmed
    ..BALB/c.DBA/2 Idh-1b-Ityr-Pep-3b mice were resistant to in vivo infections by Salmonella typhimurium, Mycobacterium bovis, and Leishmania donovani. ..
  25. Vidal S, Tremblay M, Govoni G, Gauthier S, Sebastiani G, Malo D, et al. The Ity/Lsh/Bcg locus: natural resistance to infection with intracellular parasites is abrogated by disruption of the Nramp1 gene. J Exp Med. 1995;182:655-66 pubmed
    ..We have identified by positional cloning a candidate gene for Bcg, Nramp1, which codes for a novel macrophage-specific membrane transport protein...
  26. Bradley D. Regulation of Leishmania populations within the host. II. genetic control of acute susceptibility of mice to Leishmania donovani infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 1977;30:130-40 pubmed
    ..The distribution of this character among inbred mouse strains does not correspond to any well-studied gene nor does it appear to be linked to the H2 histocompatibility locus. ..
  27. Canonne Hergaux F, Gruenheid S, Govoni G, Gros P. The Nramp1 protein and its role in resistance to infection and macrophage function. Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 1999;111:283-9 pubmed
    ..The Nramp1 gene was isolated by positional cloning the host resistance locus Bcg/Ity/Lsh, and mutations at this locus impair ..
  28. Wicker L, Chamberlain G, Hunter K, Rainbow D, Howlett S, Tiffen P, et al. Fine mapping, gene content, comparative sequencing, and expression analyses support Ctla4 and Nramp1 as candidates for Idd5.1 and Idd5.2 in the nonobese diabetic mouse. J Immunol. 2004;173:164-73 pubmed
    ..2 contains at least 45 genes. Notably, the Idd5.2 region still includes the functionally polymorphic Nramp1 gene. Future experiments to test the identity of Idd5.1 and Idd5...
  29. Malo D, Vidal S, Lieman J, Ward D, Gros P. Physical delineation of the minimal chromosomal segment encompassing the murine host resistance locus Bcg. Genomics. 1993;17:667-75 pubmed
    The host resistance locus Bcg determines resistance of mice to infection with intracellular pathogens such as certain species of Mycobacteria, Salmonella typhimurium, and Leishmania donovani...
  30. Kissler S, Stern P, Takahashi K, Hunter K, Peterson L, Wicker L. In vivo RNA interference demonstrates a role for Nramp1 in modifying susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2006;38:479-83 pubmed
    ..Here we show that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to probe candidate genes in this disease model. Slc11a1 encodes a phagosomal ion transporter, Nramp1, that affects resistance to intracellular pathogens and influences ..
  31. Yeung I, Phillips E, Mann D, Barton C. Oxidant regulation of the bivalent cation transporter Nramp1. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:1008-10 pubmed
    Nramp1 (murine natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene)/Slc11a1 (solute carrier family 11 member a1 gene) encodes a bivalent-metal/iron transporter that is expressed within late endosomes/lysosomes of macrophages...
  32. Peters L, Jensen J, Borrego A, Cabrera W, Baker N, Starobinas N, et al. Slc11a1 (formerly NRAMP1) gene modulates both acute inflammatory reactions and pristane-induced arthritis in mice. Genes Immun. 2007;8:51-6 pubmed
    ..of leukocyte infiltration and R and S allele frequency disequilibrium of the solute carrier family 11a member 1 (Slc11a1) gene...
  33. Govoni G, Vidal S, Gauthier S, Skamene E, Malo D, Gros P. The Bcg/Ity/Lsh locus: genetic transfer of resistance to infections in C57BL/6J mice transgenic for the Nramp1 Gly169 allele. Infect Immun. 1996;64:2923-9 pubmed
    ..A candidate for Bcg/Ity/Lsh, designated Nramp1, has been recently identified and shown to encode a novel integral membrane protein that is expressed exclusively ..
  34. Zhu H, Geiman T, Xi S, Jiang Q, Schmidtmann A, Chen T, et al. Lsh is involved in de novo methylation of DNA. EMBO J. 2006;25:335-45 pubmed
    Deletion of Lsh perturbs DNA methylation patterns in mice yet it is unknown whether Lsh plays a direct role in the methylation process...
  35. Caron J, Loredo Osti J, Laroche L, Skamene E, Morgan K, Malo D. Identification of genetic loci controlling bacterial clearance in experimental Salmonella enteritidis infection: an unexpected role of Nramp1 (Slc11a1) in the persistence of infection in mice. Genes Immun. 2002;3:196-204 pubmed
    ..The candidacy of Nramp1 as the gene for Ses1 was evaluated using mice carrying a null allele at Nramp1 (129sv-Nramp1(tm1Mcg))...
  36. Barrera L, Kramnik I, Skamene E, Radzioch D. I-A beta gene expression regulation in macrophages derived from mice susceptible or resistant to infection with M. bovis BCG. Mol Immunol. 1997;34:343-55 pubmed
    ..An inhibition of Nramp1 gene by Nramp1-ribozyme transfection in macrophages resulted in the impairment of MHC class II gene induction by ..
  37. Govoni G, Vidal S, Cellier M, Lepage P, Malo D, Gros P. Genomic structure, promoter sequence, and induction of expression of the mouse Nramp1 gene in macrophages. Genomics. 1995;27:9-19 pubmed
    ..Nramp is part of a small family of at least two genes, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Primer extension and cDNA cloning were used to isolate the complete 5' end of the Nramp1 mRNA...
  38. Lissner C, Swanson R, O Brien A. Genetic control of the innate resistance of mice to Salmonella typhimurium: expression of the Ity gene in peritoneal and splenic macrophages isolated in vitro. J Immunol. 1983;131:3006-13 pubmed
    The mouse Chromosome 1 locus Ity regulates the extent to which Salmonella typhimurium replicates within the reticuloendothelial cell system (RES) during the first days of infection...
  39. Gros P, Skamene E, Forget A. Cellular mechanisms of genetically controlled host resistance to Mycobacterium bovis (BCG). J Immunol. 1983;131:1966-72 pubmed
    Multiplication of Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) in the reticuloendothelial tissues of the mouse is controlled by the Chromosome 1 locus (Bcg), which exists in two allelic forms, resistant (Bcgr) and susceptible (Bcgs)...
  40. Valdez Y, Grassl G, Guttman J, Coburn B, Gros P, Vallance B, et al. Nramp1 drives an accelerated inflammatory response during Salmonella-induced colitis in mice. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:351-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhimurium). The contribution of Nramp1/Slc11a1 protein, a critical host defence mechanism against S...
  41. Skamene E, Gros P, Forget A, Patel P, Nesbitt M. Regulation of resistance to leprosy by chromosome 1 locus in the mouse. Immunogenetics. 1984;19:117-24 pubmed
    ..pattern of resistance/susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis (BCG), the trait which is controlled by the Bcg (Ity, Lsh) locus on chromosome 1...
  42. Monack D, Hersh D, Ghori N, Bouley D, Zychlinsky A, Falkow S. Salmonella exploits caspase-1 to colonize Peyer's patches in a murine typhoid model. J Exp Med. 2000;192:249-58 pubmed
    ..These results show that Casp-1, which is both proapoptotic and proinflammatory, is essential for S. typhimurium to efficiently colonize the cecum and PP and subsequently cause systemic typhoid-like disease in mice. ..
  43. Barton C, White J, Roach T, Blackwell J. NH2-terminal sequence of macrophage-expressed natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) encodes a proline/serine-rich putative Src homology 3-binding domain. J Exp Med. 1994;179:1683-7 pubmed
    ..A candidate Bcg gene, designated natural resistance-associated m phi protein (Nramp), recently isolated from a pre-B cell cDNA library encodes a polytopic integral membrane protein with structural ..
  44. Van Dissel J, Leijh P, Van Furth R. Differences in initial rate of intracellular killing of Salmonella typhimurium by resident peritoneal macrophages from various mouse strains. J Immunol. 1985;134:3404-10 pubmed
    ..typhimurium is relevant for the innate resistance of mice against S. typhimurium. ..
  45. Tao Y, Xi S, Shan J, Maunakea A, Che A, Briones V, et al. Lsh, chromatin remodeling family member, modulates genome-wide cytosine methylation patterns at nonrepeat sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a high-resolution cytosine methylation map of the murine genome modulated by Lsh, a chromatin remodeling family member that has previously been shown to regulate CpG methylation at repetitive ..
  46. Xi S, Zhu H, Xu H, Schmidtmann A, Geiman T, Muegge K. Lsh controls Hox gene silencing during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14366-71 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that Lsh, a regulator of DNA methylation, is also involved in normal control of PRC-mediated silencing during embryogenesis...
  47. Vidal S, Pinner E, Lepage P, Gauthier S, Gros P. Natural resistance to intracellular infections: Nramp1 encodes a membrane phosphoglycoprotein absent in macrophages from susceptible (Nramp1 D169) mouse strains. J Immunol. 1996;157:3559-68 pubmed
    The mouse Nramp1 gene (Bcg/Ity/Lsh) controls innate defense to infection with intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium, Salmonella, and Leishmania...
  48. Burrage J, Termanis A, Geissner A, Myant K, Gordon K, Stancheva I. The SNF2 family ATPase LSH promotes phosphorylation of H2AX and efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5524-34 pubmed publisher
    b>LSH, a protein related to the SNF2 family of chromatin-remodelling ATPases, is essential for the correct establishment of DNA methylation levels and patterns in plants and mammalian cells...
  49. Plant J, Glynn A. Genetics of resistance to infection with Salmonella typhimurium in mice. J Infect Dis. 1976;133:72-8 pubmed
    ..However, as previously demonstrated in the parent strains, resistance in the hybrids was related to the ability to produce a good delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to an extract of S. typhimurium. ..
  50. Valdez Y, Diehl G, Vallance B, Grassl G, Guttman J, Brown N, et al. Nramp1 expression by dendritic cells modulates inflammatory responses during Salmonella Typhimurium infection. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1646-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhimurium) is mediated by natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1/Slc11a1)...
  51. Fritsche G, Dlaska M, Barton H, Theurl I, Garimorth K, Weiss G. Nramp1 functionality increases inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription via stimulation of IFN regulatory factor 1 expression. J Immunol. 2003;171:1994-8 pubmed
    Natural-resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) encodes a transmembrane phagolysosomal protein exerting resistance toward infections with intracellular pathogens by a mechanism not fully elucidated so far...
  52. Shenoy A, Wellington D, Kumar P, Kassa H, Booth C, Cresswell P, et al. GBP5 promotes NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and immunity in mammals. Science. 2012;336:481-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GBP5 serves as a unique rheostat for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and extends our understanding of the inflammasome complex beyond its core machinery. ..
  53. Roberts M, Alexander J, Blackwell J. Genetic analysis of Leishmania mexicana infection in mice: single gene (Scl-2) controlled predisposition to cutaneous lesion development. J Immunogenet. 1990;17:89-100 pubmed
    ..The identification and mapping of this murine resistance gene could provide an important tool for genetic analysis of susceptibility and resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis in man. ..
  54. Sun H, Kamanova J, Lara Tejero M, Galán J. A Family of Salmonella Type III Secretion Effector Proteins Selectively Targets the NF-κB Signaling Pathway to Preserve Host Homeostasis. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005484 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that bacterial pathogens can evolve determinants to preserve host homeostasis and that those determinants can reduce the pathogen's virulence. ..
  55. Fairbairn I, Stober C, Kumararatne D, Lammas D. ATP-mediated killing of intracellular mycobacteria by macrophages is a P2X(7)-dependent process inducing bacterial death by phagosome-lysosome fusion. J Immunol. 2001;167:3300-7 pubmed
    ..RAW murine macrophages transfected with either the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene 1 (Nramp1)-resistant or Nramp1-susceptible gene were also used...
  56. Feng J, Li Y, Hashad M, Schurr E, Gros P, Adams L, et al. Bovine natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) gene. Genome Res. 1996;6:956-64 pubmed
    ..b>Natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) has been shown to be the Bcg gene in mice...