Six3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Six3
Description: sine oculis-related homeobox 3
Alias: E130112M24Rik, Six3a, Six3alpha, Six3b, Six3beta, homeobox protein SIX3, sine oculis homeobox homolog 3, sine oculis-related homeobox 3 homolog
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. doi Zic2-associated holoprosencephaly is caused by a transient defect in the organizer region during gastrulation
    Nicholas Warr
    Early Development, Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 17:2986-96. 2008
  2. ncbi Proper patterning of the optic fissure requires the sequential activity of BMP7 and SHH
    Julian Morcillo
    Departamento de Neurobiologia del Desarrollo, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Dr Arce 37, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Development 133:3179-90. 2006
  3. pmc Regulation of a remote Shh forebrain enhancer by the Six3 homeoprotein
    Yongsu Jeong
    Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nat Genet 40:1348-53. 2008
  4. pmc BMP4 is essential for lens induction in the mouse embryo
    Y Furuta
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2175 USA
    Genes Dev 12:3764-75. 1998
  5. doi Mouse Shh is required for prechordal plate maintenance during brain and craniofacial morphogenesis
    Kazushi Aoto
    Molecular Neuropathology Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Dev Biol 327:106-20. 2009
  6. pmc Six3 activation of Pax6 expression is essential for mammalian lens induction and specification
    Wei Liu
    Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    EMBO J 25:5383-95. 2006
  7. ncbi Synergistic interaction between Gdf1 and Nodal during anterior axis development
    Olov Andersson
    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Dev Biol 293:370-81. 2006
  8. pmc Pax6 activity in the lens primordium is required for lens formation and for correct placement of a single retina in the eye
    R Ashery-Padan
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Goettingen D 37077, Germany
    Genes Dev 14:2701-11. 2000
  9. pmc Six3 repression of Wnt signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm is essential for vertebrate forebrain development
    Oleg V Lagutin
    Department of Genetics, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
    Genes Dev 17:368-79. 2003
  10. ncbi Roles of organizer factors and BMP antagonism in mammalian forebrain establishment
    Yu Ping Yang
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 3709, USA
    Dev Biol 296:458-75. 2006

Research Grants

  1. MTA1 IN ONCOGENESIS
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Pak1 - PIN Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Role of Metastatic Tumor Antigen-1 in Mammary Gland
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2006
  4. HER2 Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression and Treatment
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. Pak1 and Hormone Response in Breast Cancer Progression
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. SERM Regulation of PAK Pathway in Endometrial Cancer
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
  7. HER2 Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression and Treatment
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
  8. Role of PAK1-MORC2 Pathway in Breast Cancer
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. MTA1 IN ONCOGENESIS
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009
  10. Role of PAK1-MORC2 Pathway in Breast Cancer
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009

Scientific Experts

  • Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado
  • A Cvekl
  • Olga Medina-Martinez
  • Nicolas Fossat
  • Jose L Ferran
  • Martine N Manuel
  • Haotian Zhao
  • Y Furuta
  • Rakesh Kumar
  • T Theil
  • A Stoykova
  • J Graw
  • Amy L Donner
  • Guillermo Oliver
  • J P Martinez-Barbera
  • Oleg V Lagutin
  • John L R Rubenstein
  • Cynthia L Andoniadou
  • D Acampora
  • Alfonso Lavado
  • Carles Gaston-Massuet
  • Massimo Signore
  • Xin Geng
  • E Tian
  • Heiner Westphal
  • Wei Liu
  • Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida
  • Fuqu Lu
  • Mahua Mukhopadhyay
  • Jixiang Ding
  • Shinichi Aizawa
  • Isao Matsuo
  • Frédéric Causeret
  • Bei Wang
  • Cassandra VanDunk
  • Christian Carbe
  • A Simeone
  • Yangu Zhao
  • Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
  • R S Beddington
  • Nicolas Tétreault
  • Kazushi Aoto
  • J Susie Zoltewicz
  • Changqi C Zhu
  • Xin Zhang
  • Yongsu Jeong
  • Ayane Kataoka
  • Samara L Lewis
  • Takafumi Wataya
  • Oliver Puk
  • Ben Fogelgren
  • Nicholas Warr
  • Gilbert Bernier
  • Bramanandam Manavathi
  • Aida Di-Gregorio
  • P P Boyl
  • M Signore
  • Yi Pan
  • Amir M Ashique
  • Julian Morcillo
  • Olov Andersson
  • Elaine E Storm
  • Julie Lord-Grignon
  • Xun Cheng
  • Yu Ping Yang
  • Tsutomu Hirata
  • Jiu Zhen Jin
  • O Jin
  • P Gruss
  • G Oliver
  • Jana Löster
  • Jimmy de Melo
  • Giovanna Alfano
  • Jianhua Chu
  • J Rossant
  • G Corte
  • Rika Nakayama
  • Patricia Purcell
  • Salvador Martinez
  • Lise Zakin
  • Kiyotoshi Satoh
  • Cindy C Lu
  • Daisuke Kurokawa
  • Michael M Shen
  • Sandy M Price
  • Tomo o Ishikawa
  • Wei Chen
  • Giovanna L Liguori
  • Perry J Blackshear
  • Guy Goudreau

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. doi Zic2-associated holoprosencephaly is caused by a transient defect in the organizer region during gastrulation
    Nicholas Warr
    Early Development, Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 17:2986-96. 2008
    ..The analysis provides genetic evidence that Zic2 functions during organizer formation and that the PCP develops via a multi-step process...
  2. ncbi Proper patterning of the optic fissure requires the sequential activity of BMP7 and SHH
    Julian Morcillo
    Departamento de Neurobiologia del Desarrollo, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Dr Arce 37, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Development 133:3179-90. 2006
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that BMP7 is required for retinal fissure formation and that its activity is needed, before SHH signalling, for the generation of PAX2-positive cells at the optic disc...
  3. pmc Regulation of a remote Shh forebrain enhancer by the Six3 homeoprotein
    Yongsu Jeong
    Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nat Genet 40:1348-53. 2008
    ..a DNA affinity-capture assay, we screened the SBE2 sequence for DNA-binding proteins and identified members of the Six3 and Six6 homeodomain family as candidate regulators of Shh transcription...
  4. pmc BMP4 is essential for lens induction in the mouse embryo
    Y Furuta
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2175 USA
    Genes Dev 12:3764-75. 1998
    ..Based on these results we propose that BMP4 is required for the optic vesicle to manifest its lens-inducing activity, by regulating downstream genes and/or serving as one component of multiple inductive signals...
  5. doi Mouse Shh is required for prechordal plate maintenance during brain and craniofacial morphogenesis
    Kazushi Aoto
    Molecular Neuropathology Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Dev Biol 327:106-20. 2009
    ..These findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying HPE pathoetiology during dynamic brain and craniofacial morphogenesis...
  6. pmc Six3 activation of Pax6 expression is essential for mammalian lens induction and specification
    Wei Liu
    Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    EMBO J 25:5383-95. 2006
    The homeobox gene Six3 regulates forebrain development. Here we show that Six3 is also crucial for lens formation. Conditional deletion of mouse Six3 in the presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) disrupted lens formation...
  7. ncbi Synergistic interaction between Gdf1 and Nodal during anterior axis development
    Olov Andersson
    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Dev Biol 293:370-81. 2006
    ..These results indicate that GDF-1 and Nodal converge on ALK4 in the anterior primitive streak to control the formation of organizing centers that are necessary for normal forebrain and branchial arch development...
  8. pmc Pax6 activity in the lens primordium is required for lens formation and for correct placement of a single retina in the eye
    R Ashery-Padan
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Goettingen D 37077, Germany
    Genes Dev 14:2701-11. 2000
    ....
  9. pmc Six3 repression of Wnt signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm is essential for vertebrate forebrain development
    Oleg V Lagutin
    Department of Genetics, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
    Genes Dev 17:368-79. 2003
    ..In Six3(-/-) mice, the prosencephalon was severely truncated, and the expression of Wnt1 was rostrally expanded, a finding ..
  10. ncbi Roles of organizer factors and BMP antagonism in mammalian forebrain establishment
    Yu Ping Yang
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 3709, USA
    Dev Biol 296:458-75. 2006
    ..These results lead to a model in which BMP antagonism supplied by exogenous tissues promotes forebrain establishment and maintenance in the murine ectoderm...
  11. ncbi The homeobox gene Hex is required in definitive endodermal tissues for normal forebrain, liver and thyroid formation
    J P Martinez Barbera
    Division of Mammalian Development, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, London, NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 127:2433-45. 2000
    ..All together, these results demonstrate that Hex function is essential in definitive endoderm for normal development of the forebrain, liver and thyroid gland...
  12. ncbi Retina- and ventral forebrain-specific Cre recombinase activity in transgenic mice
    Y Furuta
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Genesis 26:130-2. 2000
  13. ncbi Zinc-finger genes Fez and Fez-like function in the establishment of diencephalon subdivisions
    Tsutomu Hirata
    Laboratory for Vertebrate Axis Formation, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    Development 133:3993-4004. 2006
    ..These data indicate that Fez and Fezl repress the caudal diencephalon fate in the rostral diencephalon, and ZLI formation probably depends on Fez/Fezl-mediated formation of diencephalon subdivisions...
  14. ncbi Dose-dependent functions of Fgf8 in regulating telencephalic patterning centers
    Elaine E Storm
    Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 2711, USA
    Development 133:1831-44. 2006
    ..These data suggest that Fgf8 functions to coordinate multiple patterning centers, and that modifications in the relative strength of FGF signaling can have profound effects on the relative size and nature of telencephalic subdivisions...
  15. ncbi Visceral endoderm-restricted translation of Otx1 mediates recovery of Otx2 requirements for specification of anterior neural plate and normal gastrulation
    D Acampora
    International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, CNR, Via G Marconi 12, Italy
    Development 125:5091-104. 1998
    ..Moreover, our data lead us to hypothesize that the differential post-transcriptional control existing between VE and epiblast cells may potentially contribute to fundamental regulatory mechanisms required for head specification...
  16. pmc Mutually regulated expression of Pax6 and Six3 and its implications for the Pax6 haploinsufficient lens phenotype
    Guy Goudreau
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:8719-24. 2002
    ..We found that Six3 expression was specifically reduced in lenses of Pax6 heterozygous mouse embryos...
  17. doi The LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 is required to specify the retina field and synergistically cooperates with Pax6 for Six6 trans-activation
    Nicolas Tétreault
    Developmental Biology Laboratory, Maisonneuve Rosemont Hospital, 5415 Boulevard l Assomption, Montreal, Canada, H1T 2M4
    Dev Biol 327:541-50. 2009
    ..demarcates the presumptive retina field at the neural plate stage and Lhx2 inactivation delays initiation of Rx, Six3 and Pax6 expression in this domain...
  18. ncbi Dickkopf1 is required for embryonic head induction and limb morphogenesis in the mouse
    M Mukhopadhyay
    Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Dev Cell 1:423-34. 2001
    ....
  19. ncbi Expression and functional analysis of Tgif during mouse midline development
    Jiu Zhen Jin
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology and Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:547-53. 2006
    ..One interpretation of these results is that the loss of TGIF function is compensated by other TGF-beta antagonists such as c-Ski and SnoN during vertebrate anterior neural development...
  20. pmc FoxH1 (Fast) functions to specify the anterior primitive streak in the mouse
    P A Hoodless
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X5
    Genes Dev 15:1257-71. 2001
    ..These results show that FoxH1 functions in an activin/nodal-Smad signaling pathway that acts upstream of Foxa2 and is required specifically for patterning the APS and node in the mouse...
  21. ncbi Six3 promotes the formation of ectopic optic vesicle-like structures in mouse embryos
    O Lagutin
    Department of Genetics, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Dev Dyn 221:342-9. 2001
    ..Because of its early expression in the developing eye field, Six3 was initially thought to be the functional ortholog of the Drosophila so gene...
  22. ncbi Aphakia (ak), a mouse mutation affecting early eye development: fine mapping, consideration of candidate genes and altered Pax6 and Six3 gene expression pattern
    C Grimm
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Mammalian Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany
    Dev Genet 23:299-316. 1998
    ..In the lens remnants, Pax6 and Six3 are expressed, whereas in the persisting lens stalk only Pax6 was detected...
  23. pmc Overexpression of Pax6 results in microphthalmia, retinal dysplasia and defective retinal ganglion cell axon guidance
    Martine Manuel
    Genes and Development Group, Centres for Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience Research, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    BMC Dev Biol 8:59. 2008
    ..Here, we examined the consequences of over-expression for the eye and its axonal connections...
  24. ncbi Mutations in the homeobox gene HESX1/Hesx1 associated with septo-optic dysplasia in human and mouse
    M T Dattani
    London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Child Health, UK
    Nat Genet 19:125-33. 1998
    ..These data suggest an important role for Hesx1/HESX1 in forebrain, midline and pituitary development in mouse and human...
  25. ncbi Visceral endoderm mediates forebrain development by suppressing posteriorizing signals
    C Kimura
    Department of Morphogenesis, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2 2 1, Kumamoto, 860 0811, Japan
    Dev Biol 225:304-21. 2000
    ..These results suggest that distal visceral endoderm cells move to the future anterior side to generate a prospective forebrain territory indirectly, by preventing posteriorizing signals...
  26. pmc Expression of Six3 Opposite Strand (Six3OS) during mouse embryonic development
    Xin Geng
    Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA
    Gene Expr Patterns 7:252-7. 2007
    ..High levels of noncoding transcripts of the Six3 Opposite Strand (Six3OS) were recently identified in the embryonic and postnatal retina of the mouse...
  27. ncbi Six3-mediated auto repression and eye development requires its interaction with members of the Groucho-related family of co-repressors
    Changqi C Zhu
    Department of Genetics, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Development 129:2835-49. 2002
    Recent findings suggest that Six3, a member of the evolutionarily conserved So/Six homeodomain family, plays an important role in vertebrate visual system development...
  28. pmc Anteriorization of neural fate by inhibitor of beta-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT), a negative regulator of Wnt signaling
    Kiyotoshi Satoh
    Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8017-21. 2004
    ..These results suggest that ICAT plays an important role in the anteriorization of neural cells by inhibiting the posteriorizing activity of Wnt signaling...
  29. ncbi Homeobox genes and connective tissue patterning
    G Oliver
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    Development 121:693-705. 1995
    ..Six 1 and Six 2 also are expressed in skeletal and smooth muscle, respectively. These genes may participate in the patterning of the distal tendons of the limb phalanges by setting positional values along the limb axes...
  30. ncbi Natural antisense transcripts associated with genes involved in eye development
    Giovanna Alfano
    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Hum Mol Genet 14:913-23. 2005
    ..We describe the identification of eight novel mouse NATs associated with transcription factors (Pax6, Pax2, Six3, Six6, Otx2, Crx, Rax and Vax2) that play an important role in eye development and function...
  31. ncbi Otx2 is required to respond to signals from anterior neural ridge for forebrain specification
    E Tian
    Department of Morphogenesis, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2 2 1, Kumamoto, 860 0811, Japan
    Dev Biol 242:204-23. 2002
    ..These results further suggest that Otx2 dosage may be crucial in the neural plate with respect to response to inductive signals primarily from the ANR for forebrain specification...
  32. ncbi Pax6-dependence of Six3, Eya1 and Dach1 expression during lens and nasal placode induction
    Patricia Purcell
    Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard, Medical School, New Research Building, Rm 458H, 77, Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:110-8. 2005
    ..sine oculis (so) belongs to the so/Six gene family, and Six3 is prominently expressed in the developing mammalian eye...
  33. ncbi OTD/OTX2 functional equivalence depends on 5' and 3' UTR-mediated control of Otx2 mRNA for nucleo-cytoplasmic export and epiblast-restricted translation
    D Acampora
    MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King s College London, Guy s Campus, New Hunts House, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Development 128:4801-13. 2001
    ..These data provide novel in vivo evidence supporting the concept that during evolution pre-existing gene functions have been recruited into new developmental pathways by modifying their regulatory control...
  34. ncbi The homeobox gene Hesx1 is required in the anterior neural ectoderm for normal forebrain formation
    J P Martinez-Barbera
    Division of Mammalian Development, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, London, NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol 223:422-30. 2000
    ..5- and 7.5-dpc Hesx1(-/-) mutants. Expression of the ANE markers Six3 and Rax/Rx was also unperturbed in the Hesx1(-/-) mutants from late gastrula to late headfold stages...
  35. ncbi Forebrain and midbrain development requires epiblast-restricted Otx2 translational control mediated by its 3' UTR
    P P Boyl
    MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King s College London, Guy s Campus, New Hunt s House, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Development 128:2989-3000. 2001
    ..This leads us to hypothesise that this control might have important evolutionary implications...
  36. ncbi Sequential roles for Otx2 in visceral endoderm and neuroectoderm for forebrain and midbrain induction and specification
    M Rhinn
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
    Development 125:845-56. 1998
    ..However, in the absence of Otx2, expression of important regulatory genes, such as Hesx1/Rpx, Six3, Pax2, Wnt1 and En, fail to be initiated or maintained in the neural plate...
  37. ncbi Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (Fgfr1) is not essential for lens fiber differentiation in mice
    Haotian Zhao
    Center for Human and Molecular Genetics, Columbus Children s Research Institute, Columbus, OH, USA
    Mol Vis 12:15-25. 2006
    ..These experiments were conducted to determine if Fgfr1 plays an independent, essential role in lens development...
  38. ncbi Pituitary lineage determination by the Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor defective in Ames dwarfism
    M W Sornson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Nature 384:327-33. 1996
    ..These results imply that a cascade of tissue-specific regulators is responsible for the determination and differentiation of specific cell lineages in pituitary organogenesis...
  39. pmc Rax is a selector gene for mediobasal hypothalamic cell types
    Fuqu Lu
    Department of Medical Genetics, Alberta Children s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    J Neurosci 33:259-72. 2013
    ..Finally, the broader elimination of Rax throughout ARC/VMH progenitors using Six3::Cre leads to a severe loss of both VMH and ARC cellular phenotypes, demonstrating a role for Rax in both VMH and ..
  40. pmc Six3 is required for ependymal cell maturation
    Alfonso Lavado
    Department of Genetics, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Development 138:5291-300. 2011
    ..The homeobox gene Six3 is expressed in ependymal cells during the formation of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles in the brain...
  41. pmc HESX1- and TCF3-mediated repression of Wnt/β-catenin targets is required for normal development of the anterior forebrain
    Cynthia L Andoniadou
    Neural Development Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Development 138:4931-42. 2011
    ....
  42. doi Dlx6 regulates molecular properties of the striatum and central nucleus of the amygdala
    Bei Wang
    Department of Psychiatry and the Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158 2324, USA
    J Comp Neurol 519:2320-34. 2011
    ..RNA expression array analysis of the E18.5 striatum was useful in identifying the transcription factors that are expressed in this tissue, but did not identify major changes in gene expression in the Dlx6(LacZ/LacZ) mutant...
  43. ncbi Tissue and developmental distribution of Six family gene products
    H Ohto
    Department of Biology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi, Japan
    Int J Dev Biol 42:141-8. 1998
    ..Our results suggest that Six4 plays a specific role in the differentiation or maturation of neuronal cells, while Six5 is an adult type Six gene isoform product and is distributed in the kidney, liver and lung...
  44. ncbi Heparan sulfate biosynthetic gene Ndst1 is required for FGF signaling in early lens development
    Yi Pan
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Development 133:4933-44. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results establish an important role of Ndst1 function in FGF signaling during lens development...
  45. ncbi The transcription factor HNF3beta is required in visceral endoderm for normal primitive streak morphogenesis
    D Dufort
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5
    Development 125:3015-25. 1998
    ..We show that such mutant embryos lack foregut and midgut endoderm. In addition, left-right asymmetry is affected in the mutant embryos...
  46. ncbi MesP1 and MesP2 are essential for the development of cardiac mesoderm
    S Kitajima
    Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Division, National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Development 127:3215-26. 2000
    ..These results strongly indicate that the defect in the cranial-cardiac mesoderm is cell-autonomous, whereas the defect in the paraxial mesoderm is a non-cell-autonomous secondary consequence...
  47. pmc Dbx1-expressing cells are necessary for the survival of the mammalian anterior neural and craniofacial structures
    Frédéric Causeret
    CNRS UMR 7592, Institut Jacques Monod, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e19367. 2011
    ..Our results demonstrate that dbx1-expressing cells have a unique function during head development, notably by controlling cell survival in a non cell-autonomous manner...
  48. ncbi Transferrin receptor is necessary for development of erythrocytes and the nervous system
    J E Levy
    Children s Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 21:396-9. 1999
    ..Mice lacking Trfr have a more severe phenotype than hpx mice, affecting both erythropoiesis and neurologic development. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency for Trfr results in impaired erythroid development and abnormal iron homeostasis...
  49. ncbi BMP signalling inhibits premature neural differentiation in the mouse embryo
    Aida Di-Gregorio
    Molecular Embryology Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK
    Development 134:3359-69. 2007
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signalling has a central role during neural induction in mammals and suggest that FGFs do not act as neural inducers in the post-implantation mouse embryo...
  50. doi Mutation in a novel connexin-like gene (Gjf1) in the mouse affects early lens development and causes a variable small-eye phenotype
    Oliver Puk
    Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:1525-32. 2008
    ..The purpose of the study was the characterization of the novel small-eye mutant Aey12 in the mouse...
  51. pmc rax, a novel paired-type homeobox gene, shows expression in the anterior neural fold and developing retina
    T Furukawa
    Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:3088-93. 1997
    ..These findings suggest that rax is one of the molecules that define the eye field during early development and that it has a role in the proliferation and/or differentiation of retinal cells...
  52. pmc Misexpression of Six2 is associated with heritable frontonasal dysplasia and renal hypoplasia in 3H1 Br mice
    Ben Fogelgren
    Department of Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Physiology, University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA
    Dev Dyn 237:1767-79. 2008
    ..These data suggest a mutation in a novel cis-acting regulatory region inhibits Six2 expression and is associated with frontonasal dysplasia and renal hypoplasia...
  53. pmc Development, maturation, and necessity of transcription factors in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Cassandra VanDunk
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 31:6457-67. 2011
    ..the SCN is derived from a distinct region of the neuroepithelium expressing a combination of developmental genes: Six3, Six6, Fzd5, and transient Rx, allowing us to pinpoint the origin of this region within the broader developing ..
  54. pmc Minimization of exogenous signals in ES cell culture induces rostral hypothalamic differentiation
    Takafumi Wataya
    Organogenesis and Neurogenesis Group and Division of Human Stem Cell Technology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11796-801. 2008
    ..during early differentiation steps induces efficient generation of rostral hypothalamic-like progenitors (Rax(+)/Six3(+)/Vax1(+)) in mouse ES cell-derived neuroectodermal cells...
  55. ncbi Identification and expression of six family genes in mouse retina
    K Kawakami
    Department of Biology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi ken, Japan
    FEBS Lett 393:259-63. 1996
    We identified five cDNA clones of the Six gene family which are expressed in retina. They are Six2, Six3 alpha and Six3 beta (which are derived from alternative splicing forms), Six5, and AREC3/Six4...
  56. ncbi Six3, a murine homologue of the sine oculis gene, demarcates the most anterior border of the developing neural plate and is expressed during eye development
    G Oliver
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    Development 121:4045-55. 1995
    ..In this paper, we report the isolation of a sequence-related gene referred to as Six3. Based on its amino acid sequence, this gene can be included in the new Six/sine oculis subclass of homeobox genes...
  57. pmc Pitx3 controls multiple aspects of lens development
    Olga Medina-Martinez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Dev Dyn 238:2193-201. 2009
    ..In general, our study shows that the abnormal phenotype of the ak lenses is not due to just one molecular pathway, rather in the absence of Pitx3 expression multiple aspects of lens development are disrupted...
  58. pmc Lens induction requires attenuation of ERK signaling by Nf1
    Christian Carbe
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 20:1315-23. 2011
    ..As a member of NCFC family genes, Nf1 represents the first example that attenuation of Ras-MAPK kinase signaling pathway is essential for normal lens development...
  59. ncbi Dlx1 and Dlx2 function is necessary for terminal differentiation and survival of late-born retinal ganglion cells in the developing mouse retina
    Jimmy de Melo
    Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 3J7, Canada
    Development 132:311-22. 2005
    ..Herein, we propose a model whereby early-born RGCs are Dlx1 and Dlx2 independent, but Dlx function is necessary for terminal differentiation of late-born RGC progenitors...
  60. doi Early pretectal gene expression pattern shows a conserved anteroposterior tripartition in mouse and chicken
    Jose L Ferran
    Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, University of Murcia, and Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases CIBERER736, School of Medicine, Murcia E30071, Spain
    Brain Res Bull 75:295-8. 2008
    ..We explore here Pax3, Pax6 and Six3 mRNA expression (and PAX3 immunoreactivity) in both chicken and mice, with the aim to compare their respective ..
  61. ncbi Requirement for tumor suppressor Apc in the morphogenesis of anterior and ventral mouse embryo
    Tomo o Ishikawa
    Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606 8501, Japan
    Dev Biol 253:230-46. 2003
    ..Our results provide genetic evidence that expression of Apc at the normal level is essential for both anterior and ventral development, in the epiblast derivatives and visceral endoderm...
  62. ncbi Graded phenotypic response to partial and complete deficiency of a brain-specific transcript variant of the winged helix transcription factor RFX4
    Perry J Blackshear
    Office of Clinical Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Development 130:4539-52. 2003
    ..These findings may be relevant to human congenital hydrocephalus, a birth defect that affects approximately 0.6 per 1000 newborns...
  63. ncbi Anterior neural plate regionalization in cripto null mutant mouse embryos in the absence of node and primitive streak
    Giovanna L Liguori
    Institute of Genetics and Biophysics A Buzzati Traverso, CNR, Via Guglielmo Marconi 12, 80125 Naples, Italy
    Dev Biol 264:537-49. 2003
    ..These results suggest that, in mouse embryos, the specification of the anterior neural identities can be maintained without an absolute requirement for the embryonic mesoderm and the node...
  64. ncbi Functional ablation of the mouse Ldb1 gene results in severe patterning defects during gastrulation
    Mahua Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Development 130:495-505. 2003
    ..The expression of several Wnt inhibitors is curtailed in the mutant, suggesting that Wnt pathways may be involved in axial patterning regulated by Ldb1...
  65. ncbi Regulation of Otx2 expression and its functions in mouse epiblast and anterior neuroectoderm
    Daisuke Kurokawa
    Laboratory for Vertebrate Body Plan, Center for Developmental Biology CDB RIKEN Kobe, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe 650 0046, Japan
    Development 131:3307-17. 2004
    ..The AN enhancer region is conserved among mouse, human and Xenopus; moreover, the counterpart region in Xenopus exhibited an enhancer activity in mouse anterior neuroectoderm...
  66. ncbi Non-cell-autonomous role for Cripto in axial midline formation during vertebrate embryogenesis
    Jianhua Chu
    Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine and Departments of Pediatrics, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Development 132:5539-51. 2005
    ..Taken together, our findings support a model in which Cripto can function in trans as an intercellular mediator of Nodal signaling activity...
  67. ncbi Temporal and spatial expression patterns of the CRX transcription factor and its downstream targets. Critical differences during human and mouse eye development
    L C Bibb
    Section of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 10:1571-9. 2001
    ..These data support concerns about the extent to which we can extrapolate from rodent models regarding embryonic development and disease pathophysiology...
  68. ncbi Multiple roles for Nodal in the epiblast of the mouse embryo in the establishment of anterior-posterior patterning
    Cindy C Lu
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Dev Biol 273:149-59. 2004
    ....
  69. ncbi Goosecoid and cerberus-like do not interact during mouse embryogenesis
    Ana C Borges
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
    Int J Dev Biol 46:259-62. 2002
    ..In conclusion, the analysis carried out indicated that gsc does not compensate for cer-l loss-of-function and that these genes do not interact genetically...
  70. pmc Genetic interaction between the homeobox transcription factors HESX1 and SIX3 is required for normal pituitary development
    Carles Gaston-Massuet
    Neural Development Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Dev Biol 324:322-33. 2008
    Hesx1 has been shown to be essential for normal pituitary development. The homeobox gene Six3 is expressed in the developing pituitary gland during mouse development but its function in this tissue has been precluded by the fact that in ..
  71. ncbi Identification of genes expressed in retinal progenitor/stem cell colonies isolated from the ocular ciliary body of adult mice
    Julie Lord-Grignon
    Developmental Biology Laboratory, Maisonneuve Rosemont Hospital, 5415 Boul l Assomption, Montreal, Canada H1T 2M4
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:992-9. 2006
    ..We found that transcription factors Pax6, Six3, and Rx, all involved in early eye morphogenesis, were expressed in the CB of adult mice...
  72. pmc Wnt signaling is regulated by endoplasmic reticulum retention
    J Susie Zoltewicz
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Emeryville, CA, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e6191. 2009
    ..Our work highlights a critical role for ER retention in regulating Wnt signaling in the mouse embryo, and gives insight into the notoriously inefficient secretion of Wnts...
  73. ncbi The zinc-finger protein CNBP is required for forebrain formation in the mouse
    Wei Chen
    Department of Cytokine Biology, The Forsyth Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 130:1367-79. 2003
    ..In these regions, Myc expression was absent, indicating CNBP targets Myc in rostral head formation. Our findings demonstrate that Cnbp is essential for the forebrain induction and specification...
  74. ncbi Transdifferentiation of the ventral retinal pigmented epithelium to neural retina in the growth arrest specific gene 1 mutant
    C S Lee
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Dev Biol 236:17-29. 2001
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that the dorsal and ventral RPEs are maintained by distinct genetic components...
  75. ncbi Inhibition of excess nodal signaling during mouse gastrulation by the transcriptional corepressor DRAP1
    Rabah Iratni
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Division of Nucleic Acids Enzymology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Science 298:1996-9. 2002
    ..We propose that DRAP1 limits the spread of a morphogenetic signal by down-modulating the response to the Nodal autoregulatory loop...
  76. ncbi Otx genes are required for tissue specification in the developing eye
    J R Martinez-Morales
    Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Dr Arce 37, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Development 128:2019-30. 2001
    ..an expansion of the prospective neural retina and optic stalk territories, as determined by the expression of Pax6, Six3 and Pax2...
  77. ncbi Inactivation of mouse Twisted gastrulation reveals its role in promoting Bmp4 activity during forebrain development
    Lise Zakin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1662, USA
    Development 131:413-24. 2004
    ..Tsg-/-;Bmp4+/- compound mutants die at birth and display holoprosencephaly, first branchial arch and eye defects. The results show that Tsg functions to promote Bmp4 signaling during mouse head development...
  78. doi Fgf8 controls regional identity in the developing thalamus
    Ayane Kataoka
    RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Development 135:2873-81. 2008
    ..These findings suggest conserved roles of FGF signaling in patterning along the A/P axis in CNS, and reveal mechanisms of nucleogenesis in the developing thalamus...
  79. ncbi Central roles of the roof plate in telencephalic development and holoprosencephaly
    Xun Cheng
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, 92697 4800, USA
    J Neurosci 26:7640-9. 2006
    ..These findings establish selective roles for roof plate-dependent Bmp signaling in dorsal telencephalic patterning and HPE and define novel candidate genes for the human disorder...
  80. ncbi The flat-top gene is required for the expansion and regionalization of the telencephalic primordium
    K Hentges
    Department of Genetics, Box 3568, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Development 126:1601-9. 1999
    ..Thus the phenotype of the flat-top mouse reveals that outgrowth of the telencephalic vesicles and their regionalization are coupled processes...
  81. ncbi Three novel Pax6 alleles in the mouse leading to the same small-eye phenotype caused by different consequences at target promoters
    Jochen Graw
    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4671-83. 2005
    ..To characterize three new mouse small-eye mutants detected during ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis programs...
  82. ncbi Signaling and transcriptional regulation in early mammalian eye development: a link between FGF and MITF
    M Nguyen
    Laboratory of Developmental Neurogenetics, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Development 127:3581-91. 2000
    ....
  83. ncbi Getting your head around Hex and Hesx1: forebrain formation in mouse
    J P Martinez-Barbera
    Division of Mammalian Development, National Institute for Medical Research, London, England
    Int J Dev Biol 45:327-36. 2001
    ..We suggest that disturbance in the specification of an Fgf8 signalling centre in the anterior neural ridge may account for the anterior defects observed in these mutants...
  84. pmc Crucial roles of Foxa2 in mouse anterior-posterior axis polarization via regulation of anterior visceral endoderm-specific genes
    Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida
    Department of Molecular Embryology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization, Murodo cho, Izumi, Osaka 594 1101, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5919-24. 2007
    ..These findings provide profound insights into conserved roles of Foxa2 transcription factors in anterior specification throughout the evolution of the chordate body plan...
  85. pmc Repression of Six3 by a corepressor regulates rhodopsin expression
    Bramanandam Manavathi
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13128-33. 2007
    ..function, and molecular evidence supporting genetic interactions between metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1) and Six3 and between Six3 and rhodopsin...
  86. ncbi Otx2 and HNF3beta genetically interact in anterior patterning
    O Jin
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Int J Dev Biol 45:357-65. 2001
    ..In addition, the forebrain truncations suggest an involvement of both genes in anterior patterning, through their overlapping expression domains in either the AVE and/or the prechordal mesoderm...
  87. pmc Expression of myogenin during embryogenesis is controlled by Six/sine oculis homeoproteins through a conserved MEF3 binding site
    F Spitz
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U129, Institut Cochin de Genetique Moleculaire, Universite Rene Descartes Paris V, 24 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:14220-5. 1998
    ..Altogether these results establish Six homeoproteins as a family of transcription factors controlling muscle formation through activation of one of its key regulators, myogenin...
  88. doi Dkk1 and Wnt3 interact to control head morphogenesis in the mouse
    Samara L Lewis
    Children s Medical Research Institute, University of Sydney, Wentworthville, New South Wales, NSW 2145, Australia
    Development 135:1791-801. 2008
    ..These findings highlight that head development is sensitive to the level of WNT3 signalling and that DKK1 is the key antagonist that modulates WNT3 activity during anterior morphogenesis...
  89. pmc Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation
    Haotian Zhao
    Graduate Program in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Dev Biol 318:276-88. 2008
    ..Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly...
  90. ncbi Isolation and characterization of a downstream target of Pax6 in the mammalian retinal primordium
    G Bernier
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Development 128:3987-94. 2001
    ..By contrast, the optic vesicle-expressed homeobox genes Rx, Six3, Otx2 and Lhx2 do not exhibit an altered expression pattern...
  91. pmc The transcription factor FoxH1 (FAST) mediates Nodal signaling during anterior-posterior patterning and node formation in the mouse
    M Yamamoto
    Division of Molecular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Japan
    Genes Dev 15:1242-56. 2001
    ..These results indicate that a Nodal-FoxH1 signaling pathway plays a central role in A-P patterning and node formation in the mouse...
  92. pmc A role of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in the regulation of pituitary development
    Yangu Zhao
    Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, Program on Genomics of Development, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Dev Biol 337:313-23. 2010
    ....

Research Grants55

  1. MTA1 IN ONCOGENESIS
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cells plays a significant role in stimulating Wnt1 via targeting of specific gene chromatin, namely repressing Six3 (a direct corepressor of Wnt1), and STAT3 chromatin...
  2. Pak1 - PIN Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our proposed research is significant as this research might form the basis for new advances in identifying novel molecular targets, detecting, preventing and treating breast cancer, by identifying PIN as a key regulatory nodule. ..
  3. Role of Metastatic Tumor Antigen-1 in Mammary Gland
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. HER2 Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression and Treatment
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Pak1 and Hormone Response in Breast Cancer Progression
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This research is significant in that the knowledge gained from this research will enhance our understanding of the critical regulatory pathways with established roles in breast cancer progression. ..
  6. SERM Regulation of PAK Pathway in Endometrial Cancer
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. HER2 Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression and Treatment
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Role of PAK1-MORC2 Pathway in Breast Cancer
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is our hope that the knowledge gained from this project will form the basis for new mechanistic advances in DNAdamage response in breast cancer cells. ..
  9. MTA1 IN ONCOGENESIS
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..As molecule studied here and radiotherapy are not cancer specific, lessons learned from the current study will have a significant impact on other cancers with increased MTA1. ..
  10. Role of PAK1-MORC2 Pathway in Breast Cancer
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is our hope that the knowledge gained from this project will form the basis for new mechanistic advances in DNAdamage response in breast cancer cells. ..
  11. TGFbeta/Bmp Signaling during Mammalian Lens Development
    Yasuhide Furuta; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The outcome from these studies will, thus, contribute to our better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling normal lens development and causes of various eye defects in humans. ..
  12. RECEPTOR BLOCKADE FOR BREAST CANCER
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Our research may provide a novel rationale for therapy using anti-receptor mAbs 225 or 4D5 in metastatic breast tumors. ..
  13. Pak1 in Mammary Gland Development and Carcinogenesis
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  14. CONTROL OF EARLY EYE DEVELOPMENT BY BMP'S
    Yasuhide Furuta; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Moreover, the results will shed light on the possibility that abnormal regulation of intercellular signaling contributes to congenital eye defects and associated postnatal eye dysfunctions in humans. ..
  15. Targeting Urokinase Pathway for Breast Cancer Therapy
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These results will have a direct impact in developing novel therapeutic intervention strategies. ..
  16. HEREGULIN AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    Rakesh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It may also provide new intracellular targets for the development of therapeutic agents to inhibit breast cancer progression. ..