Gene Symbol: Sh2d1a
Description: SH2 domain containing 1A
Alias: Gm686, SAP, SH2 domain-containing protein 1A, Duncan disease homolog, SH2 domain protein 1A, SLAM-associated protein isoform SAP-2, T-cell signal transduction molecule SAP, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Sh2d1a

Top Publications

  1. Wu C, Sayos J, Wang N, Howie D, Coyle A, Terhorst C. Genomic organization and characterization of mouse SAP, the gene that is altered in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:805-15 pubmed
    ..The gene that encodes a protein termed SAP or SH2D1A is either deleted or mutated in XLP patients, resulting in uncontrolled B- and T-cell proliferation upon EBV ..
  2. Howie D, Okamoto S, Rietdijk S, Clarke K, Wang N, Gullo C, et al. The role of SAP in murine CD150 (SLAM)-mediated T-cell proliferation and interferon gamma production. Blood. 2002;100:2899-907 pubmed
    ..DNA synthesis of murine T cells induced by anti-CD150 is not dependent on SLAM-associated protein (SAP, SH2D1A), because anti-CD150 induces similar levels of DNA synthesis in SAP(-/-) T cells...
  3. Roncagalli R, Taylor J, Zhang S, Shi X, Chen R, Cruz Munoz M, et al. Negative regulation of natural killer cell function by EAT-2, a SAP-related adaptor. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1002-10 pubmed
    ..It is closely related to the adaptor SAP, which regulates signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-related receptors by recruiting the kinase FynT to ..
  4. Chen R, Latour S, Shi X, Veillette A. Association between SAP and FynT: Inducible SH3 domain-mediated interaction controlled by engagement of the SLAM receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5559-68 pubmed
    b>SAP is an intracellular adaptor molecule composed almost exclusively of an SH2 domain. It is mutated in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency...
  5. Harker J, Lewis G, Mack L, Zuniga E. Late interleukin-6 escalates T follicular helper cell responses and controls a chronic viral infection. Science. 2011;334:825-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This resulted in escalation of germinal center reactions and improved antibody responses. Our results uncover an antiviral strategy that helps to safely resolve a persistent infection in vivo...
  6. Qi H, Cannons J, Klauschen F, Schwartzberg P, Germain R. SAP-controlled T-B cell interactions underlie germinal centre formation. Nature. 2008;455:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..model, loss-of-function mutations in signalling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP, encoded by SH2D1a) cause a profound defect in germinal centre formation by an as yet unknown mechanism...
  7. Kageyama R, Cannons J, Zhao F, Yusuf I, LAO C, Locci M, et al. The receptor Ly108 functions as a SAP adaptor-dependent on-off switch for T cell help to B cells and NKT cell development. Immunity. 2012;36:986-1002 pubmed publisher
    Humans and mice deficient in the adaptor protein SAP (Sh2d1a) have a major defect in humoral immunity, resulting from a lack of T cell help for B cells. The role of SAP in this process is incompletely understood...
  8. Crotty S, McCausland M, Aubert R, Wherry E, Ahmed R. Hypogammaglobulinemia and exacerbated CD8 T-cell-mediated immunopathology in SAP-deficient mice with chronic LCMV infection mimics human XLP disease. Blood. 2006;108:3085-93 pubmed
    The human genetic disease X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is caused by mutations in SH2D1A/SAP that encode SLAM-associated protein (SAP), is characterized by an inability to control Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and ..
  9. Deenick E, Chan A, Ma C, Gatto D, Schwartzberg P, Brink R, et al. Follicular helper T cell differentiation requires continuous antigen presentation that is independent of unique B cell signaling. Immunity. 2010;33:241-53 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Latour S, Gish G, Helgason C, Humphries R, Pawson T, Veillette A. Regulation of SLAM-mediated signal transduction by SAP, the X-linked lymphoproliferative gene product. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:681-90 pubmed
    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a short intracellular molecule that is mutated in humans with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease...
  2. Zhong M, Veillette A. Control of T lymphocyte signaling by Ly108, a signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptor implicated in autoimmunity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing adaptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP)...
  3. McCausland M, Yusuf I, Tran H, Ono N, Yanagi Y, Crotty S. SAP regulation of follicular helper CD4 T cell development and humoral immunity is independent of SLAM and Fyn kinase. J Immunol. 2007;178:817-28 pubmed
    Mutations in SH2D1A resulting in lack of SLAM-associated protein (SAP) expression cause the human genetic immunodeficiency X-linked lymphoproliferative disease...
  4. Crotty S, Kersh E, Cannons J, Schwartzberg P, Ahmed R. SAP is required for generating long-term humoral immunity. Nature. 2003;421:282-7 pubmed
    ..The SAP gene has been identified as the genetic locus responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a fatal ..
  5. Al alem U, Li C, Forey N, Relouzat F, Fondaneche M, Tavtigian S, et al. Impaired Ig class switch in mice deficient for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene Sap. Blood. 2005;106:2069-75 pubmed characterized by abnormal immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus attributed to inactivating mutations of the SAP gene...
  6. Yusuf I, Kageyama R, Monticelli L, Johnston R, DiToro D, Hansen K, et al. Germinal center T follicular helper cell IL-4 production is dependent on signaling lymphocytic activation molecule receptor (CD150). J Immunol. 2010;185:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP [SH2D1A]) expression in CD4 T cells is essential for GC development...
  7. Wang N, Calpe S, Westcott J, Castro W, Ma C, Engel P, et al. Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse. J Immunol. 2010;185:5683-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice. ..
  8. Cannons J, Yu L, Jankovic D, Crotty S, Horai R, Kirby M, et al. SAP regulates T cell-mediated help for humoral immunity by a mechanism distinct from cytokine regulation. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1551-65 pubmed
    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is caused by mutations affecting SH2D1A/SAP, an adaptor that recruits Fyn to signal lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-related receptors...
  9. Wu C, Nguyen K, Pien G, Wang N, Gullo C, Howie D, et al. SAP controls T cell responses to virus and terminal differentiation of TH2 cells. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:410-4 pubmed
    b>SH2D1A, which encodes signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP), is altered in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a primary immunodeficiency...
  10. Mooney J, Klem J, Wulfing C, Mijares L, Schwartzberg P, Bennett M, et al. The murine NK receptor 2B4 (CD244) exhibits inhibitory function independent of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein expression. J Immunol. 2004;173:3953-61 pubmed
    ..This predominant inhibitory function of murine 2B4 correlates with increased 2B4 long isoform level expression over 2B4 short. ..
  11. Chan B, Lanyi A, Song H, Griesbach J, Simarro Grande M, Poy F, et al. SAP couples Fyn to SLAM immune receptors. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:155-60 pubmed
    b>SAP (SLAM-associated protein) is a small lymphocyte-specific signalling molecule that is defective or absent in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP)...
  12. Yin L, Al alem U, Liang J, Tong W, Li C, Badiali M, et al. Mice deficient in the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene sap exhibit increased susceptibility to murine gammaherpesvirus-68 and hypo-gammaglobulinemia. J Med Virol. 2003;71:446-55 pubmed
    ..This disease has been attributed to mutations in the SAP gene (also denominated as SH2D1A or DSHP)...
  13. Dong Z, Davidson D, Pérez Quintero L, Kurosaki T, Swat W, Veillette A. The adaptor SAP controls NK cell activation by regulating the enzymes Vav-1 and SHIP-1 and by enhancing conjugates with target cells. Immunity. 2012;36:974-85 pubmed publisher
    The adaptor SAP, mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, has critical roles in multiple immune cell types. Among these, SAP is essential for the ability of natural killer (NK) cells to eliminate abnormal hematopoietic cells...
  14. Davidson D, Shi X, Zhang S, Wang H, Nemer M, Ono N, et al. Genetic evidence linking SAP, the X-linked lymphoproliferative gene product, to Src-related kinase FynT in T(H)2 cytokine regulation. Immunity. 2004;21:707-17 pubmed
    b>SAP is an adaptor mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. It plays a critical role in T helper 2 (T(H)2) cytokine production...
  15. Coffey A, Brooksbank R, Brandau O, Oohashi T, Howell G, Bye J, et al. Host response to EBV infection in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease results from mutations in an SH2-domain encoding gene. Nat Genet. 1998;20:129-35 pubmed
    ..We have identified a gene, SH2D1A, that is mutated in XLP patients and encodes a novel protein composed of a single SH2 domain...
  16. Choi Y, Kageyama R, Eto D, Escobar T, Johnston R, Monticelli L, et al. ICOS receptor instructs T follicular helper cell versus effector cell differentiation via induction of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6. Immunity. 2011;34:932-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Tfh cells were subsequently lost in the absence of B cells, demonstrating a B cell requirement for maintenance of Bcl6 and Tfh cell commitment via sequential ICOS signals. ..
  17. Hron J, Caplan L, Gerth A, Schwartzberg P, Peng S. SH2D1A regulates T-dependent humoral autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2004;200:261-6 pubmed
    ..chromosome 1-encoded cell surface molecules with costimulatory functions mediated in part by the adaptor protein SH2D1A (SLAM-associated protein, SAP)...
  18. Czar M, Kersh E, Mijares L, Lanier G, Lewis J, Yap G, et al. Altered lymphocyte responses and cytokine production in mice deficient in the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene SH2D1A/DSHP/SAP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7449-54 pubmed
    We have introduced a targeted mutation in SH2D1A/DSHP/SAP, the gene responsible for the human genetic disorder X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP)...
  19. Lu K, Kanno Y, Cannons J, Handon R, Bible P, Elkahloun A, et al. Functional and epigenetic studies reveal multistep differentiation and plasticity of in vitro-generated and in vivo-derived follicular T helper cells. Immunity. 2011;35:622-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations affecting SLAM-associated protein (SAP) prevent GC formation because of defective T cell-B cell interactions, yet effects on Tfh cell differentiation ..
  20. Zhao F, Cannons J, Dutta M, Griffiths G, Schwartzberg P. Positive and negative signaling through SLAM receptors regulate synapse organization and thresholds of cytolysis. Immunity. 2012;36:1003-16 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized by fatal responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection, is caused by mutations affecting the adaptor SAP, which links SLAM family receptors to downstream signaling...
  21. Veillette A, Zhang S, Shi X, Dong Z, Davidson D, Zhong M. SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells, is required for humoral immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1273-8 pubmed publisher
    SAP (also named SH2D1A) is an intracellular adaptor molecule expressed in T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and some B cells...
  22. Cruz Munoz M, Dong Z, Shi X, Zhang S, Veillette A. Influence of CRACC, a SLAM family receptor coupled to the adaptor EAT-2, on natural killer cell function. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..regulated natural killer cell functions by a mechanism dependent on the adaptor EAT-2 but not the related adaptor SAP. However, in the absence of EAT-2, CRACC potently inhibited natural killer cell function...
  23. Dong Z, Cruz Munoz M, Zhong M, Chen R, Latour S, Veillette A. Essential function for SAP family adaptors in the surveillance of hematopoietic cells by natural killer cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:973-80 pubmed publisher
    The adaptors SAP, EAT-2 and ERT are specific to cells of the immune system and belong to the SAP family. All three are expressed in natural killer (NK) cells...
  24. Sayos J, Wu C, Morra M, Wang N, Zhang X, Allen D, et al. The X-linked lymphoproliferative-disease gene product SAP regulates signals induced through the co-receptor SLAM. Nature. 1998;395:462-9 pubmed
    ..We now show that a T-cell-specific, SLAM-associated protein (SAP), which contains an SH2 domain and a short tall, acts as an inhibitor by blocking recruitment of the SH2-domain-..
  25. Latour S, Roncagalli R, Chen R, Bakinowski M, Shi X, Schwartzberg P, et al. Binding of SAP SH2 domain to FynT SH3 domain reveals a novel mechanism of receptor signalling in immune regulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:149-54 pubmed
    SAP (or SH2D1A), an adaptor-like molecule expressed in immune cells, is composed almost exclusively of a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain...
  26. Clarkson N, Simmonds S, Puklavec M, Brown M. Direct and indirect interactions of the cytoplasmic region of CD244 (2B4) in mice and humans with FYN kinase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25385-94 pubmed
    ..analyses of the direct molecular interactions of the SH2 domains of the adaptors SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and EAT-2 and of FYN kinase with CD244 together with the indirect interactions of the FYN SH2 domain with EAT-2...
  27. Simarro M, Lanyi A, Howie D, Poy F, Bruggeman J, Choi M, et al. SAP increases FynT kinase activity and is required for phosphorylation of SLAM and Ly9. Int Immunol. 2004;16:727-36 pubmed
    The free Src homology 2 (SH2) domain protein SAP, encoded by the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene SH2D1A, controls signal transduction initiated by engagement of the SLAM-related receptors in T and NK cells...
  28. Wang N, Satoskar A, Faubion W, Howie D, Okamoto S, Feske S, et al. The cell surface receptor SLAM controls T cell and macrophage functions. J Exp Med. 2004;199:1255-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the coreceptor SLAM plays a central role at the interface of acquired and innate immune responses. ..
  29. Morra M, Barrington R, Abadia Molina A, Okamoto S, Julien A, Gullo C, et al. Defective B cell responses in the absence of SH2D1A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4819-23 pubmed
    ..with X-linked lympho-proliferative disease, which is caused by a defect in the intracellular adapter protein SH2D1A, suffer from an extreme susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus...
  30. Nichols K, Hom J, Gong S, Ganguly A, Ma C, Cannons J, et al. Regulation of NKT cell development by SAP, the protein defective in XLP. Nat Med. 2005;11:340-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that SAP, encoded by the SH2D1A gene locus, also has a crucial role during the development of NKT cells, a lymphocyte subset with immunoregulatory ..
  31. Cannons J, Yu L, Hill B, Mijares L, Dombroski D, Nichols K, et al. SAP regulates T(H)2 differentiation and PKC-theta-mediated activation of NF-kappaB1. Immunity. 2004;21:693-706 pubmed
    XLP is caused by mutations affecting SAP, an adaptor that recruits Fyn to SLAM family receptors. SAP-deficient mice recapitulate features of XLP, including increased T cell activation and decreased humoral responses post-infection...
  32. Nunez Cruz S, Yeo W, Rothman J, Ojha P, Bassiri H, Juntilla M, et al. Differential requirement for the SAP-Fyn interaction during NK T cell development and function. J Immunol. 2008;181:2311-20 pubmed
    The adaptor molecule SAP (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein) plays a critical role during NK T (NKT) cell development in humans and mice...
  33. Zhao J, Weng X, Bagchi S, Wang C. Polyclonal type II natural killer T cells require PLZF and SAP for their development and contribute to CpG-mediated antitumor response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and the adaptor molecule signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) for their development...
  34. Huang Y, Tsai K, Ma C, Vallance B, Priatel J, Tan R. SLAM-SAP signaling promotes differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2014;193:5841-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling adaptor SAP is essential for normal immune homeostasis and mutations within SH2D1A, the locus encoding this protein, result in serious and sometimes fatal syndromes, including X-linked ..
  35. Schwartzberg P, Mueller K, Qi H, Cannons J. SLAM receptors and SAP influence lymphocyte interactions, development and function. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9:39-46 pubmed publisher
    Mutations that affect the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP) underlie the primary immunodeficiency disease X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome...
  36. Pasquier B, Yin L, Fondaneche M, Relouzat F, Bloch Queyrat C, Lambert N, et al. Defective NKT cell development in mice and humans lacking the adapter SAP, the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product. J Exp Med. 2005;201:695-701 pubmed
    b>SAP is an adaptor protein expressed in T cells and natural killer cells...
  37. Horai R, Mueller K, Handon R, Cannons J, Anderson S, Kirby M, et al. Requirements for selection of conventional and innate T lymphocyte lineages. Immunity. 2007;27:775-85 pubmed that, similar to NKT cells, selection of innate-type CD8(+) T cells in Itk(-/-) mice required the adaptor SAP. Acquisition of their innate characteristics, however, required CD28...
  38. Cannons J, Wu J, Gomez Rodriguez J, Zhang J, Dong B, Liu Y, et al. Biochemical and genetic evidence for a SAP-PKC-theta interaction contributing to IL-4 regulation. J Immunol. 2010;185:2819-27 pubmed publisher
    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP), an adaptor molecule that recruits Fyn to the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of immunomodulatory receptors, is mutated in X-linked ..
  39. Walsh E, Pisitkun P, Voynova E, Deane J, Scott B, Caspi R, et al. Dual signaling by innate and adaptive immune receptors is required for TLR7-induced B-cell-mediated autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..and that these B-cell subsets are dependent on T-cell-derived signals through CD40L and SLAM-associated protein (SAP), but not IL-17...
  40. Chevalier N, Macia L, Tan J, Mason L, Robert R, Thorburn A, et al. The Role of Follicular Helper T Cell Molecules and Environmental Influences in Autoantibody Production and Progression to Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:1026-38 pubmed publisher
    ..A deficiency of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) in CD4+ cells from KRN-Tg mice completely protected against arthritis, indicating that stable T cell-B cell ..
  41. Higdon L, Deets K, Friesen T, Sze K, Fink P. Receptor revision in CD4 T cells is influenced by follicular helper T cell formation and germinal-center interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:5652-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data extend the impact of this selective microenvironment into the arena of T cells, suggesting that this fluid structure also provides a regulatory environment in which TCR revision can safely take place. ..
  42. Hua Z, Gross A, Lamagna C, Ramos Hernández N, Scapini P, Ji M, et al. Requirement for MyD88 signaling in B cells and dendritic cells for germinal center anti-nuclear antibody production in Lyn-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2014;192:875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..mice) or if T cells were unable to contribute to GC responses as the result of mutation of the adaptor molecule SAP. Thus, the autoimmunity of Lyn(-/-) mice was dependent on T cells and on TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells and in DCs, ..
  43. Detre C, Yigit B, Keszei M, Castro W, Magelky E, Terhorst C. SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner. Immunol Lett. 2013;153:15-21 pubmed publisher
    Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell ..
  44. Das R, Bassiri H, Guan P, Wiener S, Banerjee P, Zhong M, et al. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation. Blood. 2013;121:3386-95 pubmed publisher
    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells...
  45. Kamperschroer C, Roberts D, Zhang Y, Weng N, Swain S. SAP enables T cells to help B cells by a mechanism distinct from Th cell programming or CD40 ligand regulation. J Immunol. 2008;181:3994-4003 pubmed
    Genetic mutations disrupting the function of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) lead to T cell intrinsic defects in T cell-dependent Ab responses...
  46. Hastey C, Elsner R, Barthold S, Baumgarth N. Delays and diversions mark the development of B cell responses to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:5612-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the study indicates that B. burgdorferi might evade B cell immunity by interfering with its response kinetics and quality...
  47. Cen O, Ueda A, Guzman L, Jain J, Bassiri H, Nichols K, et al. The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) regulates IFN-gamma and IL-4 production in V alpha 14 transgenic NKT cells via effects on GATA-3 and T-bet expression. J Immunol. 2009;182:1370-8 pubmed
    ..dependence on the signaling adapter molecule, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP), for their ontogeny, an aspect not seen in conventional alphabeta T cells...
  48. Rumble J, Oetjen K, Stein P, Schwartzberg P, Moore B, Duckett C. Phenotypic differences between mice deficient in XIAP and SAP, two factors targeted in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). Cell Immunol. 2009;259:82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..syndrome (XLP), which was previously thought to be solely attributable to mutations in a distinct gene, SAP. To further understand the roles of these two factors in the pathogenesis of XLP, we have compared mice deficient ..
  49. Cannons J, Qi H, Lu K, Dutta M, Gomez Rodriguez J, Cheng J, et al. Optimal germinal center responses require a multistage T cell:B cell adhesion process involving integrins, SLAM-associated protein, and CD84. Immunity. 2010;32:253-65 pubmed publisher
    CD4(+) T cells deficient in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) exhibit a selective impairment in adhesion to antigen-presenting B cells but not dendritic cells (DCs), resulting in defective germinal ..
  50. Peled M, Tocheva A, Sandigursky S, Nayak S, Philips E, Nichols K, et al. Affinity purification mass spectrometry analysis of PD-1 uncovers SAP as a new checkpoint inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E468-E477 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these proteins, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) was functionally and mechanistically analyzed for its contribution to PD-1 inhibitory responses...
  51. Xu L, Huang Q, Wang H, Hao Y, Bai Q, Hu J, et al. The Kinase mTORC1 Promotes the Generation and Suppressive Function of Follicular Regulatory T Cells. Immunity. 2017;47:538-551.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mTORC1 initiates Tfr cell differentiation by activating the TCF-1-Bcl-6 axis during immunization or infection. ..
  52. Dervovic D, Liang H, Cannons J, Elford A, Mohtashami M, Ohashi P, et al. Cellular and molecular requirements for the selection of in vitro-generated CD8 T cells reveal a role for Notch. J Immunol. 2013;191:1704-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings further establish the requirement for Notch receptor-ligand interactions throughout T cell differentiation, including the final step of CD8 SP selection. ..
  53. Savage A, Constantinides M, Han J, Picard D, Martin E, Li B, et al. The transcription factor PLZF directs the effector program of the NKT cell lineage. Immunity. 2008;29:391-403 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that PLZF is a transcriptional signature of NKT cells that directs their innate-like effector differentiation during thymic development. ..