Gene Symbol: Sgcd
Description: sarcoglycan, delta (dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)
Alias: 35kDa, delta-SG, delta-sarcoglycan, 35 kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein, 35DAG, SG-delta, sarcoglycan, delta (35kD dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)
Species: mouse
Products:     Sgcd

Top Publications

  1. Coral Vazquez R, Cohn R, Moore S, Hill J, Weiss R, Davisson R, et al. Disruption of the sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex in vascular smooth muscle: a novel mechanism for cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. Cell. 1999;98:465-74 pubmed
    ..we analyzed genetically engineered mice deficient for either alpha-sarcoglycan (Sgca) or delta-sarcoglycan (Sgcd)...
  2. Goonasekera S, Lam C, Millay D, Sargent M, Hajjar R, Kranias E, et al. Mitigation of muscular dystrophy in mice by SERCA overexpression in skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1044-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have shown that the dystrophic phenotype observed in ?-sarcoglycan–null (Sgcd(–/–)) mice and dystrophin mutant mdx mice is dramatically improved by skeletal muscle–specific overexpression ..
  3. Hack A, Lam M, Cordier L, Shoturma D, Ly C, Hadhazy M, et al. Differential requirement for individual sarcoglycans and dystrophin in the assembly and function of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 14):2535-44 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these molecular differences were associated with different mechanical consequences for the muscle plasma membrane. Through this in vivo analysis, a model for sarcoglycan assembly is proposed. ..
  4. Bauer R, MacGowan G, Blain A, Bushby K, Straub V. Steroid treatment causes deterioration of myocardial function in the {delta}-sarcoglycan-deficient mouse model for dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;79:652-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient mouse (Sgcd-null) is a model for both limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F (LGMD2F) and dilated cardiomyopathy...
  5. Millay D, Sargent M, Osinska H, Baines C, Barton E, Vuagniaux G, et al. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent necrosis attenuates muscular dystrophy. Nat Med. 2008;14:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mitochondrial-dependent necrosis represents a prominent disease mechanism in muscular dystrophy, suggesting that inhibition of cyclophilin D could provide a new pharmacologic treatment strategy for these diseases...
  6. Millay D, Goonasekera S, Sargent M, Maillet M, Aronow B, Molkentin J. Calcium influx is sufficient to induce muscular dystrophy through a TRPC-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that calcium itself is sufficient to induce muscular dystrophy in vivo, and that TRPC channels are key disease initiators downstream of the unstable membrane that characterizes many types of muscular dystrophy. ..
  7. Durbeej M, Cohn R, Hrstka R, Moore S, Allamand V, Davidson B, et al. Disruption of the beta-sarcoglycan gene reveals pathogenetic complexity of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E. Mol Cell. 2000;5:141-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, perturbation of vascular function together with disruption of the epsilon-sarcoglycan-containing complex represents a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of LGMD 2E. ..
  8. Li D, Yue Y, Lai Y, Hakim C, Duan D. Nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice. J Pathol. 2011;223:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization is an important mechanism underlying force loss in DMD. ..
  9. Matsumura K, Ervasti J, Ohlendieck K, Kahl S, Campbell K. Association of dystrophin-related protein with dystrophin-associated proteins in mdx mouse muscle. Nature. 1992;360:588-91 pubmed
    ..of dystrophin leads to a dramatic reduction of the dystrophin-associated proteins (156DAG, 59DAP, 50DAG, 43DAG and 35DAG) in the sarcolemma of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and mdx mice...

More Information


  1. Parsons S, Millay D, Sargent M, McNally E, Molkentin J. Age-dependent effect of myostatin blockade on disease severity in a murine model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1975-85 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that MSTN inhibition may benefit muscular dystrophy when instituted early or if disease is relatively mild but that MSTN inhibition in severely affected or late-stage disease may be ineffective. ..
  2. Chan Y, Bonnemann C, Lidov H, Kunkel L. Molecular organization of sarcoglycan complex in mouse myotubes in culture. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:2033-44 pubmed
  3. Heydemann A, Huber J, Demonbreun A, Hadhazy M, McNally E. Genetic background influences muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscul Disord. 2005;15:601-9 pubmed
    ..Identification of these modifier genes and the associated pathways may lead to novel therapeutic strategies. ..
  4. Wheeler M, Zarnegar S, McNally E. Zeta-sarcoglycan, a novel component of the sarcoglycan complex, is reduced in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:2147-54 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that zeta-sarcoglycan is an integral component of the sarcoglycan complex and, as such, is important in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. ..
  5. Juo L, Liao W, Shih Y, Yang B, Liu A, Yan Y. HSPB7 interacts with dimerized FLNC and its absence results in progressive myopathy in skeletal muscles. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:1661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that HSPB7 is essential for maintaining muscle integrity, which is achieved through its interaction with FLNC, in order to prevent the occurrence and progression of myopathy. ..
  6. Tjondrokoesoemo A, Schips T, Kanisicak O, Sargent M, Molkentin J. Genetic overexpression of Serpina3n attenuates muscular dystrophy in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:1192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..muscle and protected muscle from both acute injury with cardiotoxin and from chronic muscle disease in the mdx or Sgcd(-/-) MD genetic backgrounds...
  7. Dye W, Gleason R, Wilson E, Humphrey J. Altered biomechanical properties of carotid arteries in two mouse models of muscular dystrophy. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:664-72 pubmed
    ..In this paper, mice lacking genes encoding dystrophin (mdx) or sarcoglycan-delta (sgcd-/-) were studied to detect possible alterations to vascular wall mechanics...
  8. Nomura T, Ashihara E, Tateishi K, Asada S, Ueyama T, Takahashi T, et al. Skeletal myosphere-derived progenitor cell transplantation promotes neovascularization in delta-sarcoglycan knockdown cardiomyopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:668-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that MDPCs may be the promising progenitor cells in skeletal muscle to treat delta-sarcoglycan complex mutant cardiomyopathy. ..
  9. Wheeler M, Korcarz C, Collins K, Lapidos K, Hack A, Lyons M, et al. Secondary coronary artery vasospasm promotes cardiomyopathy progression. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1063-71 pubmed
    ..30 ml/minute/g versus 0.67 +/- 0.16 ml/minute/g, P < 0.05). These data indicate that secondary vasospasm contributes to the development of cardiomyopathy and is an important therapeutic target to limit cardiomyopathy progression. ..
  10. Nguyen A, Xiao B, Neppl R, Kallin E, Li J, Chen T, et al. DOT1L regulates dystrophin expression and is critical for cardiac function. Genes Dev. 2011;25:263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our study may open new avenues for the diagnosis and treatment of human heart disease. ..
  11. Rutschow D, Bauer R, Göhringer C, Bekeredjian R, Schinkel S, Straub V, et al. S151A ?-sarcoglycan mutation causes a mild phenotype of cardiomyopathy in mice. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014;22:119-25 pubmed publisher
    So far, the role of mutations in the ?-sarcogylcan (Sgcd) gene in causing autosomal dominant dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remains inconclusive. A p...
  12. Milner D, Kaufman S. Alpha7beta1 integrin does not alleviate disease in a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:609-19 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that distinct mechanisms underlie the development of the diseases that arise from deficiencies in dystrophin and sarcoglycan. ..
  13. Honda M, Hosoda M, Kanzawa N, Tsuchiya T, Toyo oka T. Specific knockdown of delta-sarcoglycan gene in C2C12 in vitro causes post-translational loss of other sarcoglycans without mechanical stress. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;323:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we have observed translocation of calpain-2 to cell membrane in delta-SG knockdown cells, suggesting that Ca(2+)-sensitive proteases, calpains closely take part in post-translational proteolysis. ..
  14. Hack A, Groh M, McNally E. Sarcoglycans in muscular dystrophy. Microsc Res Tech. 2000;48:167-80 pubmed
    ..Sarcoglycan may be an independent signaling or regulatory module whose position in the membrane is determined by dystrophin but whose function is carried out independent of the dystrophin-dystroglycan-laminin axis. ..
  15. Estrada F, Mornet D, Rosas Vargas H, Angulo A, Hernandez M, Becker V, et al. A novel isoform of delta-sarcoglycan is localized at the sarcoplasmic reticulum of mouse skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:865-71 pubmed
    ..We propose the subcellular distribution of this novel delta-SG3 isoform at the SR and its involvement in intracellular calcium concentration regulation. ..
  16. Straub V, Ettinger A, Durbeej M, Venzke D, Cutshall S, Sanes J, et al. epsilon-sarcoglycan replaces alpha-sarcoglycan in smooth muscle to form a unique dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:27989-96 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest a molecular basis for possible differential smooth muscle dysfunction in sarcoglycan-deficient patients. ..
  17. Heydemann A, Huber J, Kakkar R, Wheeler M, McNally E. Functional nitric oxide synthase mislocalization in cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004;36:213-23 pubmed
    ..These data provide a mechanism where regional, focal cardiac damage creates pathologic gradients of NO. Moreover, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase corrects defects that arise from pathologic NO gradients. ..
  18. Wissing E, Boyer J, Kwong J, Sargent M, Karch J, McNally E, et al. P38? MAPK underlies muscular dystrophy and myofiber death through a Bax-dependent mechanism. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:5452-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Mapk14 (p38?-encoding gene) in the skeletal muscle of mdx- (lacking dystrophin) or sgcd- (?-sarcoglycan-encoding gene) null mice resulted in a significant reduction in pathology up to 6 months of age...
  19. Chen J, Shi W, Zhang Y, Sokol R, Cai H, Lun M, et al. Identification of functional domains in sarcoglycans essential for their interaction and plasma membrane targeting. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:1610-25 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore generate important information on the structure of the sarcoglycan complex and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of various sarcoglycan mutations in muscular dystrophies. ..
  20. Turk R, Sterrenburg E, van der Wees C, de Meijer E, de Menezes R, Groh S, et al. Common pathological mechanisms in mouse models for muscular dystrophies. FASEB J. 2006;20:127-9 pubmed
    ..mouse models: dystrophin-deficient (mdx, mdx(3cv)), sarcoglycan-deficient (Sgca null, Sgcb null, Sgcg null, Sgcd null), dysferlin-deficient (Dysf null, SJL(Dysf)), sarcospan-deficient (Sspn null), and wild-type (C57Bl/6, C57Bl/..
  21. Burr A, Millay D, Goonasekera S, Park K, Sargent M, Collins J, et al. Na+ dysregulation coupled with Ca2+ entry through NCX1 promotes muscular dystrophy in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1991-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in ?-sarcoglycan (Sgcd(-/-)), Dysf(-/-), and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy...
  22. Ivandic B, Mastitsky S, Schönsiegel F, Bekeredjian R, Eils R, Frey N, et al. Whole-genome analysis of gene expression associates the ubiquitin-proteasome system with the cardiomyopathy phenotype in disease-sensitized congenic mouse strains. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant alleles of the genes calsarcin-1 (Myoz2), sarcoglycan-delta (Sgcd), and muscle LIM protein (Csrp2) were each transferred onto inbred strain backgrounds C57BL/6, C3H/He, 129S1/Sv, ..
  23. Lorts A, Schwanekamp J, Baudino T, McNally E, Molkentin J. Deletion of periostin reduces muscular dystrophy and fibrosis in mice by modulating the transforming growth factor-? pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10978-83 pubmed publisher that up-regulation and secretion of periostin is pathological and enhances disease in the ?-sarcoglycan null (Sgcd(-/-)) mouse model of muscular dystrophy (MD)...
  24. Schoensiegel F, Bekeredjian R, Schrewe A, Weichenhan D, Frey N, Katus H, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide and osteopontin are useful markers of cardiac disorders in mice. Comp Med. 2007;57:546-53 pubmed
    ..DBA/2, FVB/N, 129S1/Sv; (2) a surgical model of nonischemic myocardial infarction; and (3) delta-sarcoglycan (Sgcd) and calsarcin 1 [also known as myozenin 2 (Myoz2)] knockout models of cardiomyopathy...
  25. Townsend D, Yasuda S, McNally E, Metzger J. Distinct pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiomyopathy in hearts lacking dystrophin or the sarcoglycan complex. FASEB J. 2011;25:3106-14 pubmed publisher
  26. Pasteuning Vuhman S, Putker K, Tanganyika de Winter C, Boertje van der Meulen J, Van Vliet L, Overzier M, et al. Natural disease history of mouse models for limb girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182704 pubmed publisher
    ..types 2D and 2F (LGMD 2D and 2F) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the alpha- and delta sarcoglycan genes, respectively, leading to severe muscle weakness and degeneration...
  27. Solares Pérez A, Alvarez R, Crosbie R, Vega Moreno J, Medina Monares J, Estrada F, et al. Altered calcium pump and secondary deficiency of gamma-sarcoglycan and microspan in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from delta-sarcoglycan knockout mice. Cell Calcium. 2010;48:28-36 pubmed publisher
  28. Millay D, Maillet M, Roche J, Sargent M, McNally E, Bloch R, et al. Genetic manipulation of dysferlin expression in skeletal muscle: novel insights into muscular dystrophy. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1817-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the restoration of dysferlin in skeletal muscle fibers is sufficient to rescue the MD in Dysf-deficient mice, although its mild overexpression does not appear to functionally enhance membrane repair in other models of MD. ..
  29. Groh S, Zong H, Goddeeris M, Lebakken C, Venzke D, Pessin J, et al. Sarcoglycan complex: implications for metabolic defects in muscular dystrophies. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19178-82 pubmed publisher
  30. Li D, Long C, Yue Y, Duan D. Sub-physiological sarcoglycan expression contributes to compensatory muscle protection in mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that sub-physiological sarcoglycan expression plays a critical role in ameliorating muscle disease in mdx mice. We speculate that low-level sarcoglycan expression may represent a useful strategy to palliate DMD. ..
  31. Gastaldello S, D Angelo S, Franzoso S, Fanin M, Angelini C, Betto R, et al. Inhibition of proteasome activity promotes the correct localization of disease-causing alpha-sarcoglycan mutants in HEK-293 cells constitutively expressing beta-, gamma-, and delta-sarcoglycan. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide important insights for the potential development of pharmacological therapies for sarcoglycanopathies. ..
  32. Wheeler M, Allikian M, Heydemann A, Hadhazy M, Zarnegar S, McNally E. Smooth muscle cell-extrinsic vascular spasm arises from cardiomyocyte degeneration in sarcoglycan-deficient cardiomyopathy. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:668-75 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that cytokine release from damaged cardiomyocytes can feed back to produce vascular spasm. Moreover, vascular spasm feeds forward to produce additional cardiac damage...
  33. Johnson E, Zhang L, Adams M, Phillips A, Freitas M, Froehner S, et al. Proteomic analysis reveals new cardiac-specific dystrophin-associated proteins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43515 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our findings support the existence of cardiac-specific functions of dystrophin and may guide studies into early triggers of cardiac disease in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. ..
  34. Wansapura J, Millay D, Dunn R, Molkentin J, Benson D. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of cardiac dysfunction in ?-sarcoglycan null mice. Neuromuscul Disord. 2011;21:68-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate severe cardiac dysfunction in Scgd(-/-) mice at 8 months. The study identifies a set of non-invasive markers that could be used to study efficacy of novel therapeutic agents in dystrophic mice. ..
  35. Noguchi S, Wakabayashi E, Imamura M, Yoshida M, Ozawa E. Developmental expression of sarcoglycan gene products in cultured myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;262:88-93 pubmed
    ..The discrepancy between the expression of the mRNAs and proteins of the sarcoglycan subunits in proliferating cells may be ascribed to rapid degradation of the protein. ..
  36. Porter J, Merriam A, Hack A, Andrade F, McNally E. Extraocular muscle is spared despite the absence of an intact sarcoglycan complex in gamma- or delta-sarcoglycan-deficient mice. Neuromuscul Disord. 2001;11:197-207 pubmed
  37. Spinazzola J, Smith T, Liu M, Luna E, Barton E. Gamma-sarcoglycan is required for the response of archvillin to mechanical stimulation in skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:2470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results position archvillin as a mechanically sensitive component of the dystrophin complex and demonstrate that signaling defects caused by loss of γ-SG occur both at the sarcolemma and in the nucleus. ..
  38. Davis J, Kwong J, Kitsis R, Molkentin J. Apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain (ARC) restrains Bax-mediated pathogenesis in dystrophic skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82053 pubmed publisher
    ..Nol3 (Arc protein) genetic deletion in the dystrophic Sgcd or Lama2 null backgrounds showed exacerbated skeletal muscle pathology with decreased muscle performance compared ..
  39. Parsons S, Millay D, Sargent M, Naya F, McNally E, Sweeney H, et al. Genetic disruption of calcineurin improves skeletal muscle pathology and cardiac disease in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10068-78 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that inhibition of Cn may benefit select types of muscular dystrophy...
  40. Ramirez Sanchez I, De Los Santos S, Gonzalez Basurto S, Canto P, Mendoza Lorenzo P, Palma Flores C, et al. (-)-Epicatechin improves mitochondrial-related protein levels and ameliorates oxidative stress in dystrophic δ-sarcoglycan null mouse striated muscle. FEBS J. 2014;281:5567-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results warrant further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD-associated muscle degeneration. ..
  41. Crosbie R, Dovico S, Flanagan J, Chamberlain J, Ownby C, Campbell K. Characterization of aquaporin-4 in muscle and muscular dystrophy. FASEB J. 2002;16:943-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that AQP4 loss in skeletal muscle correlates with muscular dystrophy and is a common feature of pathogenesis. ..
  42. Sharma P, Jha A, Stelmack G, Detillieux K, Basu S, Klonisch T, et al. Characterization of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in airway smooth muscle: role of δ-sarcoglycan in airway responsiveness. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;93:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results confirm and extend understanding of a functional role for the DGC in the contractile properties of ASM and demonstrate that this results in altered lung function in vivo. ..
  43. Heydemann A, Demonbreun A, Hadhazy M, Earley J, McNally E. Nuclear sequestration of delta-sarcoglycan disrupts the nuclear localization of lamin A/C and emerin in cardiomyocytes. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:355-63 pubmed
  44. Goonasekera S, Davis J, Kwong J, Accornero F, Wei LaPierre L, Sargent M, et al. Enhanced Ca²? influx from STIM1-Orai1 induces muscle pathology in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:3706-15 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced the severity of muscular dystrophy in both mdx (dystrophin mutant mice) and ?-sarcoglycan-deficient (Sgcd(-/-)) mouse models of disease...
  45. Vitale J, Schneider J, Beck A, Zhao Q, Chang C, Gordan R, et al. Dystrophin-compromised sarcoglycan-?-knockout diaphragm requires full wild-type embryonic stem cell reconstitution for correction. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1807-13 pubmed publisher an incurable degenerative muscle disorder caused by a mutation in the sarcoglycan-? (SG?)-encoding gene (SGCD in humans)...
  46. Goldstein J, Kelly S, LoPresti P, Heydemann A, Earley J, Ferguson E, et al. SMAD signaling drives heart and muscle dysfunction in a Drosophila model of muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:894-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila deleted for the ?/?-sarcoglycan gene (Sgcd) develop progressive muscle and heart dysfunction and serve as a model for the human disorder...
  47. Cohn R, Durbeej M, Moore S, Coral Vazquez R, Prouty S, Campbell K. Prevention of cardiomyopathy in mouse models lacking the smooth muscle sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:R1-7 pubmed
  48. Vanhoutte D, Schips T, Kwong J, Davis J, Tjondrokoesoemo A, Brody M, et al. Thrombospondin expression in myofibers stabilizes muscle membranes. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..This functional conservation emphasizes the fundamental importance of Thbs' as regulators of cellular attachment and membrane stability and identifies Thbs4 as a potential therapeutic target for muscular dystrophy. ..
  49. Solares Pérez A, Sanchez J, Zentella Dehesa A, Garcia M, Coral Vazquez R. Intracellular Ca2+ transients in delta-sarcoglycan knockout mouse skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a possible role of delta-SG on calcium homeostasis. The alterations caused by the absence of delta-SG may be related to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. ..
  50. Blain A, Greally E, Laval S, Blamire A, Straub V, MacGowan G. Beta-blockers, left and right ventricular function, and in-vivo calcium influx in muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57260 pubmed publisher
    ..dystrophic mouse models which have an associated cardiomyopathy (mdx: model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, and Sgcd-/-: model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F) and wild type controls (C57 Bl10) with the beta blocker ..
  51. Accornero F, Kanisicak O, Tjondrokoesoemo A, Attia A, McNally E, Molkentin J. Myofiber-specific inhibition of TGF? signaling protects skeletal muscle from injury and dystrophic disease in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:6903-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of dnTGF?RII in myofibers mitigated the dystrophic phenotype observed in ?-sarcoglycan-null (Sgcd(-/-)) mice through a mechanism involving reduced myofiber membrane fragility...